Publications of Philippe Andre
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailDeveloppement et utilisation de modèles de simulation pour l'audit et la rénovation des bâtiments conditionnés
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

(2009, May)

Une suite d’outils de simulation de bâtiment et de système de climatisation destinés à assister l’audit et la rénovation des bâtiments commerciaux est actuellement en développement. Les outils en question ... [more ▼]

Une suite d’outils de simulation de bâtiment et de système de climatisation destinés à assister l’audit et la rénovation des bâtiments commerciaux est actuellement en développement. Les outils en question sont développés de façon à limiter le nombre de paramètres demandés à l’utilisateur et à garder une transparence totale pour ce dernier. Dans un premier temps, le développement des modèles et leur implémentation dans un solveur d’équations sont discutés. L’identification des paramètres des modèles développés est ensuite discutée et illustrée par un exemple d’application. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 159 (28 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailSimulation based energy consumption calculation of an office building using solar-assisted air conditioning
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Poster (2008, October)

To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning system operation, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. The targets of the study are to ... [more ▼]

To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning system operation, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. The targets of the study are to evaluate cooling energy consumption to maintain thermal comfort in an office building and to point out solar energy to satisfy these cooling needs. Simulations were carried out with three different cooling systems in the same operating conditions to determine as accurately as possible the potential use of solar energy. For comparison purpose, the base case is a classical air-conditioning system (heat pump for cooling, gas boiler for heating). Two other configurations were simulated: a classical vapour compression system fed by photovoltaic panels and electricity grid as back-up and, absorption chiller fed by solar thermal panel field and by gas boiler. In the three chosen locations (Paris, Lisbon and Stockholm), results shown that installing photovoltaic panels on the roof is really interesting from the primary energy consumption point of view. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 210 (38 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailHeat recovery and reversible heat pumping potentials in non-residential buildings
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Lebrun, Jean; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2008, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailBuilding and HVAC system simulation with the help of an engineering equation solver
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Masy, Gabrielle; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3rd National conference of the IBPSA-USA, Berkeley, CA (2008, July)

A simplified Building-HVAC system model is presented here. It includes simplified models of building zone and of HVAC equipment. The simplified building zone model is based on a R and C network, whose ... [more ▼]

A simplified Building-HVAC system model is presented here. It includes simplified models of building zone and of HVAC equipment. The simplified building zone model is based on a R and C network, whose parameters are adjusted trough a frequency characteristic analysis. The implementation of the classical phenomena taking place in building dynamics is discussed. The simplified building model is compared with more detailed models, using the BESTEST procedure. The application of the presented model to the audit of commercial buildings is also discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 531 (23 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailHeat Pumping and Reversible Air Conditioning: How to make the best use of HVAC equipment ?
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zurich, Switzerland (2008, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (15 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFrom model validation to production of reference simulations: how to increase reliability and applicability of building and HVAC simulation models
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Georges, Bernard ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege et al

in Building Services Engineering Research and Technology (2008), 29(1), 61-72

Validation of simulation models appears from a long time as a key issue in order to promote a more intensive and more efficient use of simulation models in the field of building and HVAC simulation. IEA ... [more ▼]

Validation of simulation models appears from a long time as a key issue in order to promote a more intensive and more efficient use of simulation models in the field of building and HVAC simulation. IEA Annex 34/43 originally targeted a number of specific applications where a more advanced validation was required: ground coupling problems, multizone building, shading, day lighting and cooling load interaction, HVAC components and ventilated facades. These validation exercises were built on the large methodological experience obtained in previous projects and address sometimes very fundamental problems of heat transfer in buildings. Consulting engineers and practitioners might see these exercises as a bit too far from their objectives and it is the reason why an additional activity was proposed with the specific aim of producing, based upon the results of the validation of models, a set of reference simulations. These applications cover a range of building types (residential, commercial) and systems (production, distribution emission) and run in a variety of climates. The paper will describe how models dedicated to these applications were developed, starting from validation results, going through the selection and consolidation of simulation hypothesises and ending with a number that might be considered as reference for the concerned applications. The paper will concentrate on models required by a residential building application (multizone building equipped with a heat pump or a condensing boiler, heat emitted by radiators or floor heating systems). Simulations make use of both EES and TRNSYS software and both software are applied in parallel as far as possible in the different applications in order to get a better judgment of their potential advantages and drawbacks. The use of reference simulations in view of qualifying normative methods currently in development in the frame of the European Energy Performance in Buildings Directive is also addressed and demonstrated in the paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 298 (26 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailHeat pumping and reversible air conditioning : how to make the best use of HVAC equipment ?
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2008)

Substituting a heat pump to a boiler may save more than 50% of primary energy, if electricity is produced by a modern combined cycle power plant (and even more if a part of that electricity is produced ... [more ▼]

Substituting a heat pump to a boiler may save more than 50% of primary energy, if electricity is produced by a modern combined cycle power plant (and even more if a part of that electricity is produced using renewable sources). Two of the most attractive heat pumps applications consist in recovering the heat rejected by the condenser of an existing chiller and in using this chiller in reversible mode. This is the topic of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 48 project (“Heat pumping and reversible air conditioning”). An overview of the project is presented and the work of the different participants is briefly explained. Case studies are also briefly presented and more details are given on one of them. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailA contribution to the audit of an air-conditinioning system: modelling, simulation and benchmarking
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Hannay, Cleide; Hannay, Jules et al

in Building Services Engineering Research and Technology (2008), 29(1), 85-98

This paper intends to show how benchmarks can help in the audit of a HVAC system and how these benchmarks can be generated. The work presented is part of the European ‘AUDITAC’ project. How can an auditor ... [more ▼]

This paper intends to show how benchmarks can help in the audit of a HVAC system and how these benchmarks can be generated. The work presented is part of the European ‘AUDITAC’ project. How can an auditor declare that a given HVAC is ‘consuming too much’? He can’t make any judgment, if not having some reference, i.e. some ‘benchmarks’ available. Focus is given here to cooling regime, but even then, heating cannot be forgotten (for example, the remaining heating demand can be satisfied thanks some recovery on the condensers of the chillers). The dramatic question is: what should be the consumption(s) for such a building, in such a climate, with such occupancy, such internal loads and such actual indoor environment? Better than to look for a (very hypothetical) global weather index, similar to heating degree-days, it seems more rational to run a simulation model on a few thousands of hours, corresponding to one (or to several) cooling season(s). Current performances of simulation tools make this approach very expedient. The climate can then be considered as it is, without any simplification. The main simplification is still welcome on the system (buildingþHVAC) side, in order to get calculation robustness, easy understanding and easy parameter identification. In this perspective, the building has to be subdivided in a very limited number of zones and only a few components of the HVAC system have to be included in the simulation model, with as simple as possible control strategies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 281 (19 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFriendly simulation of residential heating systems.
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Georges, Bernard ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege et al

Conference (2007, June)

Until now, the choice of a heating system is, in most cases, rather intuitive, but not based on significant comparisons among the many options available on the market. Friendly calculation tools are badly ... [more ▼]

Until now, the choice of a heating system is, in most cases, rather intuitive, but not based on significant comparisons among the many options available on the market. Friendly calculation tools are badly needed. A prototype of simulation model is shortly presented in this paper. It is designed as a preliminary design tool, allowing the different partners of a project to evaluate the energy impact of the very first design options: building envelope heat transfer coefficients, glazing areas, orientations, solar factors, ventilation mode, heat emission, distribution, generation and control strategy. The heating demand is calculated hour by hour with consideration to the time variations of inside and outside temperatures and free gains, to the control law and to the heating power actually available. The emitter is a water-ambient heat exchanger. It may have some thermal mass. Two emitters are here proposed: the radiator and the flow heating system. A steady state water distribution model is included in this simulation; it takes heat losses in unheated spaces into account: Three typical heating sources are proposed: classical boiler, condensing boiler and heat pump. All heat generators are here simulated with the help of very simple polynomial (“daughter”) models. The polynomial expressions are fitted on the simulation results obtained with reference (“mother”) models, themselves fitted on experimental data available. Examples of simulation results are presented in the paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailEnergy audit of air conditioning systems
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Hannay, Cl.; Hannay, J. et al

Conference (2007, June)

The work presented here consists in developing an audit methodology, with appropriate simulation tools and benchmarks. Several case studies are used to support, to test and to illustrate these ... [more ▼]

The work presented here consists in developing an audit methodology, with appropriate simulation tools and benchmarks. Several case studies are used to support, to test and to illustrate these developments. Each case study is described according to a standard format, in order to make the data easy to re-use in the future. The audit of the HVAC system consists in analyzing the information available about actual energy performances and in identifying the most attractive retrofit opportunities. Focus is given here to cooling energy consumption, but it could never be completely dissociated from heating requirements. An example of case study is presented in the paper to give a first idea of what could be the (difficult) task of the energy auditor. One of the main difficulties comes from the too many information lacks. Filling these lacks would require, in most case, more detailed energy records on site. Simulation models may help a lot, for a better interpretation of on site records and also for a safe identification of the most promising retrofit opportunities. Such models and examples of simulations are presented in the paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDéveloppement de modèles pour la simulation des systèmes de chauffage, ventilation et conditionnement d'air
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Lemort, Vincent ULiege et al

(2007, May)

Les outils de calculs actuellement disponibles permettent de simuler globalement à peu près n’importe quel système de chauffage ou de climatisation sur un pas de temps de l’ordre de l’heure ou moins et ce ... [more ▼]

Les outils de calculs actuellement disponibles permettent de simuler globalement à peu près n’importe quel système de chauffage ou de climatisation sur un pas de temps de l’ordre de l’heure ou moins et ce, sur une année complète ou plus. Encore faut-il que cette simulation fasse bien apparaître les termes dominants du bilan énergétiques et que les paramètres du système aient été correctement identifiés. Quelques principes généraux sont proposés ici et illustrés par des exemples. Deux cas sont envisagés : le chauffage d’une habitation et la climatisation d’un immeuble de bureaux. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (18 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFrom model validation to production of reference simulations: how to increase reliability and applicability of building and HVAC simulation models
Adam, Christophe; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Georges, Bernard ULiege et al

(2006, December)

Validation of simulation models appears from a long time as a key issue in order to promote a more intensive and more efficient use of simulation models in the field of building and HVAC simulation. IEA ... [more ▼]

Validation of simulation models appears from a long time as a key issue in order to promote a more intensive and more efficient use of simulation models in the field of building and HVAC simulation. IEA Annex 34/43 originally targeted a number of specific applications where a more advanced validation was required: ground coupling problems, multizone building, shading, day lighting and cooling load interaction, HVAC components and ventilated facades. These validation exercises were built on the large methodological experience obtained in previous projects and address sometimes very fundamental problems of heat transfer in buildings. Consulting engineers and practitioners might see these exercises as a bit too far from their objectives and it is the reason why an additional activity was proposed with the specific aim of producing, based upon the results of the validation of models, a set of reference simulations. These applications cover a range of building types (residential, commercial) and systems (production, distribution emission) and run in a variety of climates. The paper will describe how models dedicated to these applications were developed, starting from validation results, going through the selection and consolidation of simulation hypothesises and ending with a number that might be considered as reference for the concerned applications. The paper will concentrate on models required by a residential building application (multizone building equipped with a heat pump or a condensing boiler). Simulations make use of both EES and TRNSYS software and both software are applied in parallel as far as possible in the different applications in order to get a better judgment of their potential advantages and drawbacks. The use of reference simulations in view of qualifying normative methods currently in development in the frame of the European Energy Performance in Buildings Directive is also addressed and demonstrated in the paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 413 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailA contribution to the audit of an air-conditioning system: modeling, simulation and benchmarking
Adam, Christophe; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Hannay, Cleide et al

(2006, December)

This paper intends to show how benchmarks can help in the audit of a HVAC system and how these benchmarks can be generated. The work presented is part of the European “AUDITAC” project. How can an auditor ... [more ▼]

This paper intends to show how benchmarks can help in the audit of a HVAC system and how these benchmarks can be generated. The work presented is part of the European “AUDITAC” project. How can an auditor declare that a given HVAC is “consuming too much”? He can’t make any judgment, if not having some reference, i.e. some “benchmarks” available. Focus is given here to cooling regime, but even then, heating cannot be forgotten (for example, the remaining heating demand can be satisfied thanks some recovery on the condensers of the chillers). The dramatic question is: what should be the consumption(s) for such a building, in such a climate, with such occupancy, such internal loads and such actual indoor environment? Better than to look for a (very hypothetical) global weather index, similar to heating degree-days, it seems more rational to run a simulation model on a few thousands of hours, corresponding to one (or to several) cooling season(s). Current performances of simulation tools make this approach very expedient. The climate can then be considered as it is, without any simplification. The main simplification is still welcome on the system (building + HVAC) side, in order to get calculation robustness, easy understanding and easy parameter identification. In this perspective, the building has to be subdivided in a very limited number of zones and only a few components of the HVAC system have to be included in the simulation model, with as simple as possible control strategies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailValidation exercise applied to some TRNSYS components in the context of IEA 34/43.
Adam, Ch.; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2006, November)

An important part of IEA 34/43 is concerning validation of building simulation models. Analytical and comparative validation of multizone building simulation models are the object of Subtask B while ... [more ▼]

An important part of IEA 34/43 is concerning validation of building simulation models. Analytical and comparative validation of multizone building simulation models are the object of Subtask B while empirical validation of models dealing with the shading, day lighting and cooling load interaction is targeted by Subtask C. For the first approach, the Multizone Building Component of TRNSYS (“Type 56”) was tested in a series of exercises ranging from analytical and simplified cases up to more complex situations where special features like presence of site obstructions, internal windows are taken into account. The good capabilities of TRNSYS Type 56 as well as its limitations were pointed out by the exercise and the results are discussed in the paper. In the second approach, a well-instrumented testing infrastructure (a test-cell) located at EMPA in Zürich, Switzerland was used to check the performance of TRNSYS regarding the solar processing features (calculation of diffuse radiation; repartition of solar radiation on vertical facades) as well as the dynamic behavior of the Multizone Building model in different shading situations: no shading, internal shading, external shading. High quality measurements corresponding to periods of 600h were generated for each of these situations and the simulation model was tailored to represent as much as possible the experimental conditions. In general, the behavior of TRNSYS was demonstrated very good. The influence of some specific features of Type 56, for instance concerning the calculation of the infrared exchanges, is illustrated in the paper. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 225 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailSimulation of HVAC systems: development and validation of simulation models and examples of practical applications
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Aparecida, Silva; Hannay, Jules et al

(2006, October)

A survey of some “reference” and “simplified” HVAC component models is presented in this paper. The concepts of model “tuning”, “validation” and “evaluation” are briefly discussed. The parameters of the ... [more ▼]

A survey of some “reference” and “simplified” HVAC component models is presented in this paper. The concepts of model “tuning”, “validation” and “evaluation” are briefly discussed. The parameters of the models are tuned on the basis of manufacturer catalogues and/or experimental data. Mostly “simplified” or “daughter” models are used in global simulation. They are generated from “reference” or “mother” models. The “mother” models are validated in different ways: - Analytically - By comparison with other models - By comparison with experimental data. Both procedures (validation and tuning) are presented in this paper; some typical “traps” are also identified. Examples of validation and of simulation results are also presented. Commissioning and energy audit are the two application domains considered here. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailExample of audit of an air conditioning system.
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Rogiest, Corinne ULiege; Hannay, Cleide ULiege et al

Conference (2006, September)

The example presented here concerns the audit of a typical, medium-size, office building erected in Brussels at the end of the sixties. This building is equipped with a classical “old fashion” air ... [more ▼]

The example presented here concerns the audit of a typical, medium-size, office building erected in Brussels at the end of the sixties. This building is equipped with a classical “old fashion” air conditioning system with induction units. An audit procedure is developed and tested “in way”. It consists in a systematic analysis of all information available, with help of very simple calculation. Not all the orders of magnitudes of the fuel and mostly of the electricity consumption can be interpreted, but very significant energy saving opportunities are already discovered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (15 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailComparing control strategies using experimental and simulation results: Methodology and application to heating control of passive solar buildings
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Argiriou, A.

in HVAC&R Research (2006), 12(3A Sp. Iss. SI), 553-575

Different heating system controllers for passive solar buildings are compared on two different buildings. The performance criterion combines energy performance and thermal comfort using the "cost function ... [more ▼]

Different heating system controllers for passive solar buildings are compared on two different buildings. The performance criterion combines energy performance and thermal comfort using the "cost function" paradigm. The experimental facilities did not allow a direct experimental comparison by using two identical buildings. The controllers were implemented alternately in one building and a performance comparison was obtained in two ways: first by identifying short periods that have similar driving variables (weather conditions and building occupancy) and comparing the experimental results obtained in both cases. The second method mixes experiments and simulation using a well-tuned model of the building and its occupants. This paper discusses the results obtained using the above methods and shows that both methods give consistent estimates of the difference between controllers and the second method allows extrapolation of useful information from the limited data available. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (5 ULiège)