Publications of Philippe Andre
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See detailIEA Annex 48: Reversible Air-Conditioning
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege

Report (2011)

Rapport de synthèse du projet IEA Annex 48: Reversible Air-conditioning

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See detailProcédure simple pour estimer les capacités de stockage de chaleur des systèmes solide/gaz : Application au stockage d’énergie solaire dans les bâtiments
Courbon, Emilie; Skrylnyk, Alexandre; Hennaut, Samuel ULiege et al

in Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés (2011), 101

The development of an autonomous solar heating system for individual houses using inter seasonal thermo-chemical storage assuring all the needs of heat and hot water relies on the appropriate choice of ... [more ▼]

The development of an autonomous solar heating system for individual houses using inter seasonal thermo-chemical storage assuring all the needs of heat and hot water relies on the appropriate choice of the sorbent/vapour pair. The selection of the working pair is of primary importance and the selection procedure rarely takes into account all the parameters of the global system (like solar collectors, heat distribution system, thermal needs of the building). We propose a selection procedure in three successive steps, the first one is only based on thermodynamic data (pressure and temperature conditions), the second one includes heat and mass balances on the storage for a one-year period and the third one simulates the global system including the thermal needs of the building. This procedure highlights several promising working pairs which offer thermal energy densities higher than 300 kWh/m³ of reactor, but also allows the optimization of the storage system parameters: for example a 12 m³ reactor filled with CaCl2 coupled to a 14m² surface area solar collector offers an energy density of nearly 200 kWh/m³ of reactor whereas the activated carbon/methanol pair reaches only 60 kWh/m³ of reactor with a 40m³ volume reactor and 13m² surface area solar collector. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical simulation and performance assessment of an absorption solar air-conditioning system coupled with an office building
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2010, December)

To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. Solar energy, via thermal collectors can provide ... [more ▼]

To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. Solar energy, via thermal collectors can provide a part of the heating needs. Moreover, it can drive absorption chiller in order to satisfy the cooling needs of buildings. The objective of the work is to evaluate accurately the energy consumption of an air conditioning system including a solar driven absorption chiller. The complete simulation environment includes the absorption chiller itself, the cooling tower, the solar collectors field, heater, storage devices, pumps, heating-cooling distribution, emission system and building. The modelling of each subsystem is detailed. TRNSYS software modular approach provides the possibility to model and simulate this complete system. [less ▲]

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See detailDetailed simulation of the control system of the secondary system of an HVAC plant
Dolisy, Vincent; Fabry, Bertrand; Rogiest, Corinne et al

Conference (2010, December)

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See detailCombined simulation of the building, primary and secondary plant of a typical office building
Fabry, Bertrand; Dolisy, Vincent; Franck, Pierre-Yves et al

Conference (2010, December)

Office buildings are very often equipped with complex HVAC systems made of primary, secondary and control sub-systems. The interaction between those elements is complex and requires specific analysis ... [more ▼]

Office buildings are very often equipped with complex HVAC systems made of primary, secondary and control sub-systems. The interaction between those elements is complex and requires specific analysis tools. In the context of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 48 and IEE-HarmonAC projects, a typical office building of the Walloon region was deeply analyzed through both monitoring and simulation work. The main objective of the work was, starting from the existing status of the building, to assess the performance of a number of changes in the building envelope, HVAC system and control system. In particular, the performance of different reversible (air coupled, ground coupled) heat pumps was calculated and compared to a reference situation (separate production for heating and cooling). To achieve this objective, different simulation tools were used. This paper will relate the development, calibration and use of a detailed TRNSYS application integrating a multi-zone (10 per floor) modeling of the building envelope, a detailed representation of the secondary plant (including the simulation of a customized VAV system), a modeling of the different configurations of the primary plant (with and without heat pump) as well as a realistic consideration of the main elements of the control system. The paper will present successively the architecture of the simulation application, the selection of the Types required to perform the task, the calibration of some of them using measurements carried out in the building and the results obtained by running a number of configurations of the system. The paper will specifically focus on the problems generated by the interaction between the primary and secondary plant as well as with the specific issues related to the simulation of the control system. [less ▲]

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See detailCombination of experimental and simulated small scale solar air-conditioning system
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Hennaut, Samuel ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in EUROSUN 2010, International conference on solar heating, cooling and buildings, 28 September - 1 October 2010, Graz, Austria (2010, October 01)

It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to decrease CO2 production of building operation. One way to evaluate the energy savings potential is the simulation of ... [more ▼]

It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to decrease CO2 production of building operation. One way to evaluate the energy savings potential is the simulation of airconditioning systems. On the other hand, it is also crucial to assess system performance by experimentations. The operation of a solar cooling system in its real environment is considered here. The objective is to evaluate if sun radiation in our region (Western Europe – Belgium) in summer 2009 is enough for feeding an adsorption chiller, in other words to find experimentally the solar fraction of a solar air-conditioning system in our region. Residential application suits with equipment available in our laboratory. A combination of experimentation and simulation is used because of the lack of sorption chiller in our laboratory facilities. Hot loops are measured while cold and rejection loops are simulated. Thirty-one days were measured; energy flows analysis on the whole period reveals a theoretical solar fraction of nearly 100% but a real solar fraction of 31%. Issues related to the test implementation are emphasized and explained in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a building and its HVAC system with an equation solver: Application to audit
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Lemort, Vincent ULiege

in Building Simulation (2010), 3(2), 139-152

A series of building energy simulation tools are being developed to help the building energy auditor in establishing his diagnosis (including benchmarking and detailed analysis of actual energy ... [more ▼]

A series of building energy simulation tools are being developed to help the building energy auditor in establishing his diagnosis (including benchmarking and detailed analysis of actual energy consumption) and in evaluating the selected Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs). A first simulation tool, dedicated to benchmarking, has been presented in a previous paper. The present paper focuses on the second simulation tool, dedicated to inspection and evaluation of ECMs. This Building-HVAC System global model includes simplified models of building zones and of HVAC equipment. Only a limited number of easily identifiable parameters are required. The simplicity of the models and the use of an equation solver to run the simulation ensure good robustness and full transparency. The development, the implementation and the application of these models are discussed. Focus is also given to the calibration of the tools to monthly utility bills. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental study and modelling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis.
Fonseca, N.; Lebrun, J.; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in International Journal of Refrigeration (2010), 33

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See detailDevelopment of an Evidence-Based Calibration Methodology Dedicated to Energy Audit of Office Buildings. Part 1: Methodology and Modeling.
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress - Clima 2010 (2010, May)

1 Introduction To promote improvements in the HVAC installations of existing buildings, the article 9 of the EPBD directive establishes mandatory audits and inspections of air-conditioning systems. The ... [more ▼]

1 Introduction To promote improvements in the HVAC installations of existing buildings, the article 9 of the EPBD directive establishes mandatory audits and inspections of air-conditioning systems. The development of auditing tools and procedures and the training of future auditors are the main objectives of the HARMONAC project launched in 2007. Four audit stages are generally distinguished: benchmarking, inspection, detailed audit and investment grade audit. Answering the questions encountered along the audit process requires some diagnosis, which has to be established on the basis of the very scarce information currently available: technical data contained in as-built files actually available and, generally, very global recordings of energy consumptions. A dynamic hourly building energy simulation (BES) model is being developed in the frame of the HARMONAC project to help the auditor in establishing his diagnosis despite of the lack of data. Two simulation tools dedicated to assist the auditor are developed on the basis of this equation-based BES model: - The first tool is dedicated to a preliminary benchmarking of the installation. - The second tool is used from inspection stage to evaluation of selected energy conservation measures (ECMs). 2 Simulation-based audit methodology The first step of the audit methodology consists in gathering the as-built and utility data, applying a first treatment and analysis method to this data and using the BES model to perform benchmarking. For this benchmarking targeted work, the actual building is coupled to a typical HVAC system whose performances are defined according to EPBD standards. If the benchmarking indicates that potential energy savings should be studied in the building, the calibration-based audit procedure is launched. In the second step, the BES model is integrated in an iterative evidence-based calibration method adapted to audit purposes. The calibration starts directly at the beginning of the inspection, before realizing any additional measurement. This calibration process includes sensitivity and measurement issues, in order to help the auditor identifying critical points and understanding the building operation. Graphical and statistical methods are used in order to quantify and evaluate if the calibrated baseline model satisfies the predefined tolerances. Finally, the calibrated baseline model can be used to evaluate ECMs and savings uncertainty. The development and the implementation of the BES model are presented in this paper. The mains issues of the proposed calibration-based audit methodology are discussed. An example of application of the whole methodology (from benchmarking to evaluation of ECMs) is presented in a companion paper. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an Evidence-Based Calibration Methodology Dedicated to Energy Audit of Office Buildings. Part 2: Application to a typical office building in Belgium
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Fabry, Bertrand ULiege; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress - Clima 2010 (2010, May)

The development of specific tools for the audit of air-conditioning systems is described in a companion paper. These developments are carried out in the frame of the HarmonAC project launched in 2007 in ... [more ▼]

The development of specific tools for the audit of air-conditioning systems is described in a companion paper. These developments are carried out in the frame of the HarmonAC project launched in 2007 in order to assist the implementation of the EPBD, article 9. The development of these tools was continously supported by the application to case studies. This paper reports on the application of the tools within an audit procedure applied to a typical office building in Belgium, which is in operation for more than 20 years. The first step of the work consisted in analyzing the current performance of the building which proved to point out a number of problems in the operation of the building. As it is not rarely the case for running office buildings, these problems were due to a lack of commissioning and a progressive decrease of the performances due to a poor management. Application of the first stage “Benchmark” tool to this building led to a very high discrepancy between the measured consumptions and the calculated ones. This appeared mainly for the electricity consumption but also for the gas consumption. Calibration of the simulation tool, mainly by representing more exactly the management of the building and the real internal gains improved the accuracy of the calculations to a large extent. After calibration of the building and HVAC model, the application of a second tool (SimAudit) allowed to evaluate the savings obtained by the implementation of a number of Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs). In this case, the dominant ECOs were in relation with the operation of the building: change of schedules, modification of setpoints; implementation of free-cooling strategies; provision of heat recovery and move to reversibility of the chillers. Reasonable estimates of the savings can be obtained following the calibration/simulation process. The paper will highlight some of the most relevant ECOs and provide an order of magnitude for the savings in this kind of building and in a mild climate. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation Based Assessment of Heat Pumping Potential in Non-Residential Buildings – Part 2: Parametric Study
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Stabat, Pascal; Gendebien, Samuel ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress - Clima 2010 (2010, May)

This paper is the second one in a series of three papers presenting the assessment methodology of heat pump systems developed in the frame of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 48 project. A package of simulation tools ... [more ▼]

This paper is the second one in a series of three papers presenting the assessment methodology of heat pump systems developed in the frame of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 48 project. A package of simulation tools is developed in order to assess the energy and environmental performances and costs of various reversibility and heat recovery solutions dedicated to space heating and cooling. This paper presents the results of an extended parametric study aiming in assessing the potential of the considered heat pump systems in the European building stock. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation Based Assessment of Heat Pumping Potential in Non-Residential Buildings – Part 3: Application to a typical office building in Belgium
Fabry, Bertrand ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress - Clima 2010 (2010, May)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the tools presented in a companion paper [1] to a typical office building located in the Walloon Region of Belgium. This building is a mid-size ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the tools presented in a companion paper [1] to a typical office building located in the Walloon Region of Belgium. This building is a mid-size (7000 m² on seven floors) office building constructed in the eighties and equipped with a classical HVAC solution: boiler and air-cooled chiller; all-air VAV system. An energy audit was conducted in this building and featured a number of management problems. Among the Energy Conservation Opportunities considered to improve the energy performance of the building, the move to a heat pump solution was considered. The identification of energy savings potential offered by the implementation of heat pumping strategies confirmed what was already shown by the parametric analysis: in temperate climates, reversibility offers a by far higher potential than condenser heat recovery given the dominant non simultaneity of the yearly heating and cooling demands profiles. Calculations show that theoretically half of the heating demand could be satisfied by the reversibility of the chiller to run in heat pumping mode. In a second step, a number of practical implementations of heat pumping solutions were evaluated by means of another software tool: reversible air/water HP, exhaust air HP, double condenser and water loop heat pump systems. These solutions are compared to the reference existing situation (boiler + chiller working independently) in terms of energy, CO2 emissions and cost on a 20 years life-cycle basis. Calculations show that the air/water reversible chiller solution offers the most important energy savings and CO2 reduction while staying at a reasonable level concerning the additional cost. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation Based Assessment of Heat Pumping Potential in Non-Residential Buildings – Part 1: Modeling
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Stabat, Pascal; Soccal, Benjamin et al

in Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress - Clima 2010 (2010, May)

1 Introduction A solution to reduce the energy consumption in office and health care buildings consist in better exploiting the potential of the heat pump technology. This can be done by recovering heat ... [more ▼]

1 Introduction A solution to reduce the energy consumption in office and health care buildings consist in better exploiting the potential of the heat pump technology. This can be done by recovering heat at the condenser when the chiller is used to produce cold (simultaneous heating and cooling demands) or by using the chiller in heat pump mode (non-simultaneous heating and cooling demands). Both strategies appear particularly feasible when cooling and heating needs and the heat pump technology are, at least partly, present in the building, which is often the case in the tertiary sector. The analysis of these reversibility and recovery potentials is one of the subjects of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 48 project. 2 Simulation tools A package of simulation tools is developed in order to assess the energy and environmental performances and costs of such solutions. A first tool allows a quick estimation of the potential of recovery and reversibility options, starting with limited information and using a limited amount of parameters. It consists in simulating the considered building and its secondary HVAC system in order to generate hourly values of heating and cooling system loads and to compute theoretical reversibility and recovery potentials. This first simulation run can be performed by mean of a calibrated building energy simulation tool (Trnsys, Energyplus…). Hourly values of heating and cooling loads of a given building can also be obtained through in-situ measurements. A second tool allows to simulate the behavior of the heat pump plant and to compute its performances using the previously computed heating and cooling load profiles as inputs. The considered heat pump configuration is then compared to a classical HVAC primary system (composed of a boiler and a chiller) in terms of primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and costs. In this first paper, the development of such models and their implementation in an equation-based solver are described. The considered heat pump configurations are presented and the models of the main components (heat pump, boiler, thermal storage system, cooling tower and ground heat exchanger) are described. Five general configurations are considered: (1) reversible air-to-water heat pump, (2) exhaust air heat pump, (3) dual condenser heat pump, (4) water loop systems and (5) ground coupled heat pump. The modeling hypotheses, the control algorithms and the connection of these models into global heat pump systems simulation models are discussed. Finally, it is shown how simple equation-based simulation models can be connected to allow quick and robust assessment of the potential of complex heat pump systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la filière industrielle des énergirs renouvelables
Scheuren, Claude; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Germani, David et al

Report (2010)

Rapport final du projet Firewal2, réalisé en collaboration avec l'asbl Energy Factor 4

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See detailOptimization of dynamic embedded, Water based surface heat (and cold) emitting system for buildings.
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Franck, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2009, October)

This paper presents the heat flow model and the experimental test bench developed to optimize a new kind of heating floor. In the first part of the text is described the new kind of high reactivity ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the heat flow model and the experimental test bench developed to optimize a new kind of heating floor. In the first part of the text is described the new kind of high reactivity emitting device for building heating and cooling. A second part illustrates the numerical model developed to evaluate the device efficiency. Finally experimental test bench implementation and results are presented. Both computational and experimental results support the use of colder water in comparison to other heating devices. This implies energy savings for building heating. [less ▲]

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See detailControl strategies study of a complete solar assisted air conditioning system in an office building using TRNSYS
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

(2009, September)

It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in ... [more ▼]

It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in progress. In former literature, equipment control has been point out as a critical feature of energy consumption. Control becomes more and more important as system is complex. The complete simulation environment was developed in previous work, it includes the absorption chiller itself, the rejection circuit (cooling tower), solar panels field, heater, storage device, pumps, heating-cooling networks, emission system and building. TRNSYS software modular approach provides the possibility to model and simulate this complete system. In this article, different strategies are proposed to minimize consumption for air-conditioning. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal modelling of the cooling ceiling system as a commissioning tool.
Fonseca, N.; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Cuevas, Ch.

(2009, August)

This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. This one has to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning process in order to ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. This one has to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning process in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. A series of tests and experimental results on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. [less ▲]

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See detailCommissioning case study of a cooling ceiling system
Fonseca, N.; Hannay, J.; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Proceedings Building Simulation 2009: BS'09, Glasgow, August 2009 (2009, August)

As a part of commissioning case study, the cooling ceiling system of a commercial building in Brussels is experimentally evaluated by means a functional test procedure and a detailed thermal model of this ... [more ▼]

As a part of commissioning case study, the cooling ceiling system of a commercial building in Brussels is experimentally evaluated by means a functional test procedure and a detailed thermal model of this system. This one has to be used on situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning process in order to determine the main parameters of the cooling ceiling systems. Due to the extended gazing surface of the building, the problem is the overheated zones submitted to the expected solar heat gain. The subsystems considered for commissioning process includes the fenestration, ventilation and cooling ceiling system. The interaction and individual operation conditions of each system are evaluated. A Functional Performance Testing guide (FPT) for cooling ceiling commissioning process is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and use of equation based simulation tools to support audit of commercial buildings
Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Proceedings of the eleventh International IBPSA Conference, Glasgow, UK (2009, July)

A series of new simulation tools are being developed to help the building energy auditor in establishing his diagnosis (including benchmarking and detailed analysis of actual energy consumption) and in ... [more ▼]

A series of new simulation tools are being developed to help the building energy auditor in establishing his diagnosis (including benchmarking and detailed analysis of actual energy consumption) and in evaluating the selected Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs). The Building-HVAC System global models presented here include simplified models of building zones and of HVAC equipment. Only a limited number of easily identifiable parameters is required. The simplicity of the models and the use of an equation solver to run the simulation ensure good robustness and full transparency. The development, the implementation and the use of these models are discussed in the present paper. Focus is also given to the calibration of the tools to the monthly utility bills. [less ▲]

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