Publications of Philippe Andre
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See detailRe-commissioning of an air handling unit
Cuevas, C.; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Lacôte, P. et al

in Proceedings ABT'2002 Congress (2002, November)

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See detailApplying the electronic nose in the environment : requirements for the sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Szuber, Jacek (Ed.) Papers from the 3rd international seminar on semiconductor gas sensors-SGS 2002, Ustron, Poland, 19-22 september 2002 (2002, September)

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the ... [more ▼]

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the environment and directly in the field. <br />For such emissions, the gas mixtures are very complex and only their odour should be of interest, and not their chemical composition. <br />Moreover, working in the field implies various constraints. <br />The obstacles of the monitoring of real life environmental odours with an electronic nose can be classified into three main areas : the final goal of the study (measuring an odorous annoyance), the analysed sample itself (influenced by the evolution of the process and of ambient parameters) and the operating conditions (necessity to transport the reference gas and the batteries in the field, influence of air humidity). <br />The paper describes the approach of FUL to the problem with various tests conducted in the field with home-made electronic noses based on tin oxide sensors and with very simple configurations. The conclusions, which can be extrapolated to any other sensor types, are promising, but the sensor performances (sensibility, reproducibility, electrical consumption, drift, etc.) should still be improved before reaching the final goal. [less ▲]

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See detailThree years experiment with the same tin oxide sensor arrays for the identification of malodorous sources in the environment
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2002), (84), 271-277

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either in the lab or in the field are used. The effect of the long term drift of the sensors is highlighted on the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and of discriminant function analysis (DFA). The paper examines also the applicability of some drift counteraction methods proposed in the literature. Handled with some care, a correction based on the drift direction in the principal components subspace should be applicable to the classification of real odorous sources in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building.
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Solar Energy (2001), 69(6), 103-116

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem: its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Proceedings EuroSun'2000 Congress (2000, June)

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem : its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement requirements for environmental monitoring : application of the electronic nose principle.
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2000)

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great ... [more ▼]

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great number of data or parameters. For example, the person in charge of the security of a municipality must have at his disposal an information of the type "all or nothing" to be able to decide if the population must be evacuated in the event of a severe pollution. However, that very simple information should be the result of a calculation based on several time series of pollutant concentration values and of meteorological data. Even the farmer who wants to know if it is the right time to spread manure without affecting too much the environment must have a single information which should be the aggregation of some complex variables. The lecture presents the concept of some "integrated index", already used to assess the quality of the environment. For example, Organic Pollution Index combines 4 laboratory measurement values of pollutants in water to make a single index characterising the global pollution in a river. Some apparatus are able to compute the integrated index "on line" and to supply directly to the user the value of the medium quality. For example, the PMV index estimates globally the thermal comfort in a building from the on line measurement of 5 parameters. FUL has designed some "smart sensors" or "smart instrument" aiming at supplying such index. Two applications are presented. The first one concerns the measurement of soil quality by means of a porous sensor combining in a single index the measurement of temperature, salinity and water contents. But the lecture develops particularly a second application which exploits the principle of the "electronic nose" to assess, in a single "signature", the quality or the intensity of an environmental odour. Such instrument, equipped with an array of "non specific" gas sensors, should be able, after a suitable learning phase, to recognise the odour source and to monitor it continuously in the field. The instrument response is thus a "pattern", similar to an integrated index, directly related to the annoyance, as felt by neighbouring people. It gives thus an information which can be handled by a manager, and which is more rich than individual pollutant concentration values. FUL has tested such instrument in the environment. The results are promising : a first design of electronic nose was able to recognise 5 odorous sources in the environment, and a portable instrument has been used to monitor the odour around a landfill site. The same concept is now tested to appraise as a whole the indoor air quality in different buildings. [less ▲]

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See detailChoice of a suitable E-nose output variable for the continuous monitoring of an odour in the environment
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Monticelli, D. et al

in Gardner, J.; Persaud, K. (Eds.) Electronic noses and olfaction 2000. Proceedings of abstracts ISOEN 2000. (2000)

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of ... [more ▼]

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of the instrument as well as testing what kind of signal may be used to monitor the odour "intensity". Main results are the following. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms pointed out that the use of pure reference air could be avoided, as long as the sensors are allowed to periodically regenerate in the presence of ambient air. Sensor array in static contact with ambient air could be sufficient for the on-line monitoring, but the use of a controlled gas flow system to transfer the odour from the source is better to avoid the influence of air movement on the heated sensors. The control of the temperature and the humidity of the gas and the thermo-regulation of the sensor chamber don't seem essential, even for outdoor operation. When trying to build a regression model linking the odour intensity to the sensor signals, Partial Least Square (PLS) model gives better results with respect to Multi Linear Regression or Principal Component regression models. For an application around a landfill area, where sensor signals are compared to the personal feeling of the operator in the field, PLS gives a percentage of 71% correct intensity prediction. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the classification model of an electronic nose to assign unknown malodours to environmental sources and to monitor them continuously
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 69(3), 366-371

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water ... [more ▼]

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water treatment plants, rendering plants, settling ponds of sugar factories. The study aims at supplying the concrete information requested by the final user in the field: either a warning signal when the malodour level exceeds some given threshold value, the identification of the source of an odour detected on site, or on-line identification and monitoring of an odour in the field. Very simple instruments are used, either in the laboratory or directly in the field, with a home-made portable e-nose, based on tin oxide sensors. Even with such simple operating conditions, the classification results with DA and PCA are fairly good. The classification functions calibrated with the statistical procedure, on the basis of the learning phase, are used to recognise and to monitor a given malodour. This odour is sometimes mixed with other odorous interferences in the field. The observations reveal some features useful in the frame of the development of a field detector. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a simple tin oxide sensor array to identify five malodours collected in the field
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 62(1), 73-79

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in ... [more ▼]

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in a coachbuilding, wastewater treatment plant, urban waste composting facilities and rendering plant. In this work, all the samples are collected in the field from real malodours in uncontrollable conditions. The ability of the system to predict the origin of unknowns odoriferous samples is investigated. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms shows that the best classification results are obtained with a parameter free of the sensor base-line. The differences in sensor responses among the five odours are shown by icon plots and confirmed by principal component analysis, which highlights four representative clusters. Classification models calibrated by discriminant analysis and artificial neural network are validated on unknowns samples. Chemical relationships between the sensors and the classification results proves that the recognition is not fortuitous. In spite of the influence of environmental parameters, results demonstrate the ability of a simple system to detect and identify typical olfactive annoyances. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing simulation to application. Some guidelines and practical recommandations issued from IEA-BCS Annex 30
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Lebrun, Jean ULiege; Ternoveanu, A.

in Proceedings "Building simulation 99" (1999, September)

Simulation tools are not yet used as much and as well as they should all along building life cycle ( BLC ). Most important decisions are still taken almost without using these tools. The work done in the ... [more ▼]

Simulation tools are not yet used as much and as well as they should all along building life cycle ( BLC ). Most important decisions are still taken almost without using these tools. The work done in the frame of IEABCS Annex 30 consisted in identifying and eliminating as much as possible the main bottle necks encountered in the use of simulation tools. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation élémentaire d'un réseau de capteurs "SnO2" pour la reconnaissance d'odeurs environnementales
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Wiertz, Véronique et al

(1999, June)

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le ... [more ▼]

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le principe, un tel objectif semble correspondre parfaitement aux possibilités et à la souplesse d'un nez électronique. Cependant, si l'environnement est fréquemment cité parmi les applications possibles des nez électroniques, il faut reconnaître que les études visant la mesure des mauvaises odeurs sur le terrain restent très rares. La généralisation du concept du nez électronique au monitoring d'odeurs environnementales doit passer par la résolution d'un certain nombre de problèmes. La communication propose de mettre en évidence ces différentes limitations et problèmes. L'étude présentée pour illustrer ce propos est relative aux odeurs provenant de 5 sources typiques de l'environnement. Elle montre qu'un appareillage simple, utilisé sans grande précaution et sans trop se soucier de la reproductibilité des conditions d'échantillonnage parvient à identifier correctement l'origine des odeurs qu'on lui propose. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and test of modern control techniques applied to solar buildings”
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Report (1999)

Contribution au rapport final du projet européen "Development and test of modern control techniques applied to solar buildings”. Chapitre 5 sur le contrôle prédictif

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See detailBuilding and HVAC optimal control simulation. Application to an office building.
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Proceedings of the Third International symposium on HVAC (1999)

This paper describes the methodology to apply discrete-time optimal control to a building and its HVAC installation. Simulation-based results concerning a passive solar commercial building are presented ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the methodology to apply discrete-time optimal control to a building and its HVAC installation. Simulation-based results concerning a passive solar commercial building are presented and discussed. The simulation environment includes the TRNSYS TYPE 56 as reference building model and HVAC detailed models to test the controller with realistic control signals. The optimal controller's sensitivity to meteorological forecasting quality and to other factors is analysed. Its performance is compared to results obtained with a conventional control system to assess the relevancy of optimal control for this application. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the propagation pathway of street-traffic noise : practical comparison of German guidelines and real-world measurements
Wetzel, Edgar; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

in Applied Acoustics (1999), 57(2), 97-107

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line ... [more ▼]

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line source suited to model street traffic noise. Differences between those guidelines are explained, and their effect on practical calculations is shown in a real-world situation, National Road N4, in Arlon, Belgium. Calculated results are compared to measurements made on critical points along the road. The paper emphasises the understanding of the inner workings of models. In order to avoid differences in calculated results due to software design methods applied, all calculations are made using one single commercially available simulation program. Additionally, this allows for a test of guideline sensitivity to changes in input parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst trends towards a field odour detector for environmental applications
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Wiertz, V. et al

in Weimar, Udo (Ed.) Proceedings of ISOEN 99 (1999)

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See detailCoupling thermal simulation and airflow calculation for a better evaluation of natural ventilation strategies
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Kummert, M.; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Proceedings SSB'98 (1998, December)

A lot of building simulation tools are available today on the market. Most of them rely on very simplified hypotheses concerning the appraisal of airflows: very often, a constant (userdefined) airflow is ... [more ▼]

A lot of building simulation tools are available today on the market. Most of them rely on very simplified hypotheses concerning the appraisal of airflows: very often, a constant (userdefined) airflow is supposed, either to quantify the infiltration rate of a building or to estimate the coupling coefficients between zones. On the other hand, some recent tools become available to calculate air flow couplings between the different zones of a building or between a building and its environment. Those tools rely on simplified hypotheses concerning the temperatures distribution in a building. From that observation, it is obvious that a strong complementarity exists between both categories of tools. Several methods are available to perform this coupling and they are briefly described in the paper. Then, one of these methods is considered in details and successly engineered for the global simulation of two Case Studies of the IEA Annex 30 project: an office building in Germany and an appartment building in Poland. Both applications show the relevancy of the coupling process and the impressive impact on some simulation results. A parametric analysis of some key variables is also performed. As a conclusion, the paper identifies the limitations of the coupling method which is used in this case and proposes some improvements based upon an increase of the automization and integration process. [less ▲]

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See detailIEA Annex 30 : bringing simulation to application. Conclusions of subtask 1 : model qualification
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Bourdouxhe, J.-P.; Lebrun, Jean ULiege

in Proceedings of SSB'98 (1998, December)

From 1995 to 1998, IEA Annex 30 "Bringing Simulation to Application" has been adressing the problem of improving the conditions aiming at a more effective use of building and HVAC simulation among ... [more ▼]

From 1995 to 1998, IEA Annex 30 "Bringing Simulation to Application" has been adressing the problem of improving the conditions aiming at a more effective use of building and HVAC simulation among consulting engineers and building practitioners. Therefore, the project gathered both academic research teams and several consulting offices representatives in order to demonstrate, on real Case Studies, what should be done to achieve this goal. The first Subtask of the IEA Annex 30 was dealing with the most fundamental step appearing in the process of simulation use: qualification of the models implemented in the available simulation tools. The objective of the Subtask was to establish a framework allowing any simulation models developper to provide the necessary information making any simulation model user more confident when using such tools. To achieve this objective, Subtask 1 was divided in two parts: - a first part dealing with a survey of the available models and data resources useful for building and HVAC simulation; - a second part dealing with the development and the application on several examples of "model qualification procedures", which provides the required framework. The survey action was mainly focussing on the following items: models, meteorological data, internal gains, HVAC and material databases. The model qualification procedure was first defined as a sequence of operations involving several steps: model documentation, parameters identification, examples of use and sample results, validation (or verification of the models), integration in a data exchange process. This procedure was applied to several building and HVAC models: building thermal zones, cooling coil, chiller and cooling tower. [less ▲]

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See detailHeating optimal control applied to a passive solar commercial building
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Proceedings of EuroSun'98 (1998, September)

Passive solar features can lead to significant energy savings for building heating. However the intrinsic delay between solar gains and heating demand requires an intelligent control of auxiliary HVAC ... [more ▼]

Passive solar features can lead to significant energy savings for building heating. However the intrinsic delay between solar gains and heating demand requires an intelligent control of auxiliary HVAC system to minimise the energy consumption while preventing overheating periods. This paper describes the application of discrete-time optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based results using complex reference models are presented and discussed. The optimal controller is compared to classical "heatingcurve + Thermostatic valve" control. It is shown that optimal control can lead to substantial improvement of thermal comfort and energy consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term weather forecasting for solar buildings optimal control : an application of neural networks
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULiege; Guiot, J. et al

in Proceedings Eufit'98 (1998, September)

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See detailBiogas production potential and leachate release from municipal solid waste extracted at different depths on a landfill site
Wagner, G.; Wiertz, V.; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (1998, June)

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