Publications of Christine Bastin
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See detailThe impact of age on the temporal compression of daily life events in episodic memory
Folville, Adrien ULiege; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege et al

in Psychology and Aging (in press)

While age differences in episodic memory are well documented, the impact of age on the structure of memories for real-world events has not been investigated in detail. Recent research has shown that the ... [more ▼]

While age differences in episodic memory are well documented, the impact of age on the structure of memories for real-world events has not been investigated in detail. Recent research has shown that the continuous flow of information that constitutes daily life events is compressed in episodic memory, such that the time needed to mentally replay an event is shorter than the actual event duration. To examine whether this process of temporal compression of prior experience in episodic memory is affected by aging, we asked young and older adults to engage in a series of events that simulated daily life activities while their experience was automatically recorded using a wearable camera. Subsequently, participants were asked to mentally replay these events in as much detail as possible and then to verbally report recalled contents and to rate the subjective qualities of their memories. Results revealed that the rates of temporal compression of events during mental replay were similar in young and older adults. In both age groups, rates of temporal compression were predicted by the density of recalled moments of prior experience per unit of time of the actual event duration. Interestingly, however, the number of recalled moments predicted the subjective vividness of memories in young but not in older adults. Taken together, these results suggest that the process of temporal compression of events in episodic memory is unaffected by age but that the subjective experience of memory vividness becomes less tied to recalled moments that represent the unfolding of events. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep slow waves generation and medial prefrontal microstructure in healthy older individuals
Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege; Narbutas, Justinas ULiege et al

Conference (2020, September 22)

Introduction. Aging is associated with alterations in sleep-wake regulation that have been associated with changes in brain structural integrity. In particular, the ability to generate slow oscillations ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Aging is associated with alterations in sleep-wake regulation that have been associated with changes in brain structural integrity. In particular, the ability to generate slow oscillations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreases as early as in the 5th decade of life, predominantly over frontal regions. While previous investigations have identified macrostructural brain correlates of the age-related decrement in sleep slow waves generation, their relationships with brain tissue microstructure remain poorly understood. Methods. We recorded sleep under electroencephalography in 99 healthy older individuals (mean age = 59.6 ± 5.2 years; 66 women), and we quantified slow waves generation using the overnight cumulated power density in the delta band (0.5-4 Hz) during NREM sleep over the frontal Fz derivation. All participants also underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to investigate tissue myelin content based on quantitative magnetization transfer (MT) saturation mapping, as well as diffusion-based metrics derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. A region of interest covering bilateral medial prefrontal cortices was used to extract regional grey matter values. Results. We first observed that MT signal in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively associated with higher neurite orientation dispersion (r = .30, p = .003) and density (r = .22, p = .03), supposedly reflecting preserved microstructural integrity. Crucially, overnight NREM sleep slow waves generation was significantly related to higher prefrontal MT signal (r = .22, p = .03), but not to NODDI metrics (dispersion: r = .02, p = .85; density: r = .09, p = .36). Generalized linear mixed models adjusted for demographics and total sleep time confirmed these relationships, although as a statistical trend for MT signal (F1,93 = 3.64, p = .06). Discussion. Our findings suggest a positive association between tissue myelin content within medial prefrontal grey matter and generation of slow waves during NREM sleep in aging. Preserved prefrontal myelination may facilitate neuronal synchronization through enhanced cortico-cortical connections, resulting in higher power density in the slower frequency band. Given the existing link between sleep characteristics and age-related cognitive decline, these results may have implications for successful cognitive aging. Support: FNRS, ULiège, ARC17/21-09, FEDER, WBI, Clerdent Foundation, Leon Frédéricq Foundation [less ▲]

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See detailFamiliarity for entities as a sensitive marker of antero-lateral entorhinal atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment
Besson, Gabriel ULiege; Simon, Jessica ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior (2020), 128

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (9 ULiège)
See detailJacoby-Whitehouse illusion for taxonomic and thematic associations
Demonty, Manon ULiege; Invernizzi, Sandra; Delhaye, Emma ULiege et al

Poster (2020, May 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULiège)
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See detailNear-Death Experience Memories Include More Episodic Components Than Flashbulb Memories
Cassol, Helena ULiege; Bonin, Estelle ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020), 11(888),

Memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) are recalled as “realer” than memories of other real or imagined events. Given their rich phenomenology, emotionality and consequentiality, it was hypothesized ... [more ▼]

Memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) are recalled as “realer” than memories of other real or imagined events. Given their rich phenomenology, emotionality and consequentiality, it was hypothesized that they could meet some aspects of the definition of flashbulb memories. We aimed to identify and compare the episodic and non-episodic information provided in verbal recollections of NDE, flashbulb, and control autobiographical memories. The phenomenological characteristics and centrality of the memories were also compared. Twenty-five participants who had lived a NDE in a life-threatening situation were interviewed and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaires as well as the Centrality of Event Scale for their NDE, a flashbulb and another autobiographical memory used as control. Overall, transcribed NDE verbal recollections included a higher overall amount of details and more internal/episodic information than control autobiographical and flashbulb memories. Moreover, flashbulb memories were associated to a lower intensity of feelings while remembering and a lower personal importance, and are less reactivated and less susceptible to be remembered from a first person perspective compared to NDE and control autobiographical memories. Finally, NDE memories are the most central memories to experiencers’ identity, followed by control autobiographical and then by flashbulb memories. These findings corroborate previous studies highlighting the impact and uniqueness of NDE memories. [less ▲]

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See detailThe sources of subjective experiences of memory: The case of memory vividness in healthy aging
Bastin, Christine ULiege

Scientific conference (2020, January 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULiège)
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See detailAnosognosie: Modèles théoriques et pistes de prise en charge
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2020), 12(1), 26-34

Anosognosia refers to the lack of knowledge, awareness or recognition of a disease or a deficit. In this paper, we review methods to measure anosognosia, the theoretical models that propose explanations ... [more ▼]

Anosognosia refers to the lack of knowledge, awareness or recognition of a disease or a deficit. In this paper, we review methods to measure anosognosia, the theoretical models that propose explanations about its origin and programs to improve awareness of deficits in brain-damaged patients. The presence of anosognosia can be detected by clinical assessments based on observation, by questionnaires comparing patients’ and their relatives’ evaluation of the patients’ everyday life functioning and cognition, or by measures of accuracy of patients’ prediction about performance. There are three classes of theoretical models about anosognosia: neurocognitive models suggest that cognitive deficits (notably executive and mnemonic) associated with damage to certain brain regions (in particular, the prefrontal cortex) lead to a poor apprehension of current functioning, psychological models evoke denial as a defense mechanism against the threat that deficits represent for the person, and biopsychosocial models propose that anosognosia emerges from the interaction between neuropsychologial deficits, psychological defense mechanism and social influences. Because anosognosia can prevent the patient from seeking help and complying with revalidation programs, to improve awareness of deficits is necessary to maximize the benefit of therapeutic programs. A few revalidation programs have tried to improve awareness of deficits by combining various approaches. The most common approaches are the use of feedback during the performance of an everyday life task and metacognitive training focusing on prediction of performance, self-assessement, and self-discovery of strategies to improve performance. While most programs aiming at improving anosognosia were used in single case studies, a few controlled and randomized trials have shown the efficacy of the programs that allowed patients to better detect errors during tasks and to gain autonomy in everyday life. [less ▲]

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See detailDeciphering the Relationship between Objective and Subjective Aspects of Recollection in Healthy Aging
Folville, Adrien ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege

in Memory (2020), 28(3), 362-373

Although healthy aging has been related to a decline in recollection as indexed by objective measures, the subjective experience of recollection sometimes remains stable. To date, however, these age ... [more ▼]

Although healthy aging has been related to a decline in recollection as indexed by objective measures, the subjective experience of recollection sometimes remains stable. To date, however, these age-related differences have only been examined using aggregated data across trials. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of recollection on a trial-by-trial basis to determine whether the magnitude of this relationship was similar in young and older adults. Young and older participants were presented with pictures that were associated with descriptive labels at encoding. At retrieval, they were cued with the labels and were asked to rate the vividness of their memory for the associated picture and to recall as many details of the picture as possible. On average, older adults assigned higher vividness ratings but recalled fewer episodic details than young adults. Mixed-effects modeling revealed that the relationship between subjective (vividness) and objective (number of recalled details) recollection across trials was stronger in young than in older participants. These findings provide evidence that older adults not only retrieve fewer episodic details but also rely on these details to a lesser extent than young adults for judging the subjective quality of their memories. [less ▲]

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See detailHunting down the source: how amnesic patients avoid fluency-based memory errors
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology (2020), 34(1), 15-23

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of amnesic and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in ... [more ▼]

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of amnesic and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in the use of fluency as a cue for memory. Method: Patients with severe memory deficits and matched controls were presented with three forced-choice recognition tests. In each test, an external source of fluency was provided by manipulating the perceptual quality of the studied items during the test phase. The detectability of the perceptual manipulation varied in each test (i.e., a 10%, 20%, or 30% contrast reduction were given). Results: The results indicated that all participants were able to rely on fluency when making recognition decisions as long as the perceptual manipulation remained unnoticed. Interestingly, our data also revealed that the level of contrast reduction at which the alternative source is detected differs between healthy controls and amnesic patients. Specifically, patients with amnesia appeared to disqualify fluency as a cue for memory even when the contrast reduction was moderate while healthy participants only disqualified fluency when the contrast reduction was clearly visible. Conclusion: Overall, our results seem to suggest that the ability to use fluency is probably not impaired in amnesia but undergo metacognitive changes resulting in the implementation of explicit or implicit strategies aiming at tracking alternative sources in order to reduce memory errors. [less ▲]

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See detailFluency-Based Memory Decisions in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Matter of Source Detection?
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology (2020), 34(2), 176-185

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can ... [more ▼]

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in the use of fluency - i.e., the ease with which information is processed - as a cue for memory. Method: Twenty-two patients with AD and 22 matched controls were presented with three forced-choice visual recognition tests. In each test, an external source of fluency was provided by manipulating the perceptual quality of the items during the test phase. The detectability of the perceptual manipulation varied in each test (i.e., 10%, 20%, or 30% contrast reduction were given). Results: Data indicated that AD patients rely on fluency in a similar extent than older adults as long as they demonstrate intact detection of differences in the perceptual quality of the items. Specifically, it appears that patients’ ability to visually discriminate stimuli differing in terms of their perceptual quality is critical for patients to be able to implement strategies to appropriately use or correctly disqualify fluency during a recognition task. Conclusion: Overall, these findings suggest that the disruption of some basic cognitive processes could prevent AD patients to experience fluency in a similar extent than healthy controls. However, when the ability to detect differences in the perceptual quality of the stimuli was taken into account, patients appeared to be as able as controls to rely on fluency to guide their memory decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailA gist orientation before retrieval impacts the objective content but not the subjective experience of episodic memory
Folville, Adrien ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege

in Consciousness and Cognition (2020)

A gist retrieval-orientation decreases one’s ability to remember objective details from past experiences. Here, we examined whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can impact both the objective ... [more ▼]

A gist retrieval-orientation decreases one’s ability to remember objective details from past experiences. Here, we examined whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can impact both the objective and subjective aspects of remembering. Young participants took part in two cued-recollection tasks in which they studied pictures associated with labels; at retrieval, from the labels, they evaluated the vividness of their memories of the corresponding pictures, and recalled picture details. Before retrieval, participants were submitted either to a gist or a control retrieval-orientation (one per task). Results revealed that the amount of recalled details was lower following the gist condition while vividness ratings did not differ between the two retrieval orientations. Critically, the amount of recalled details predicted the corresponding vividness ratings to a similar extent in the gist and control conditions, thus suggesting that recollected memory traces in the gist condition were still rich enough to be judged as subjectively vivid. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-related differences in the neural correlates of vivid remembering
Folville, Adrien ULiege; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege; Delhaye, Emma ULiege et al

in NeuroImage (2020), 206

When recollecting events, older adults typically report similar memory vividness levels as young adults, while they actually retrieve fewer episodic details. This suggests that young and older adults use ... [more ▼]

When recollecting events, older adults typically report similar memory vividness levels as young adults, while they actually retrieve fewer episodic details. This suggests that young and older adults use episodic details differently to calibrate their vividness judgements. Capitalizing on the idea that remembering reactivates brain regions that initially processed details at encoding, the current fMRI study sought to examine these age-related changes in the basis of vivid recollection. At encoding, young and older adults saw pictures associated with labels and these labels were then used as retrieval cues for recalling the associated pictures and making memory vividness judgments. Results showed that highly vivid memories were associated with greater activity in the precuneus in young than older adults. Furthermore, the direct comparison between encoding and retrieval patterns of activity using Representational Similarity Analyses revealed stronger item-specific reactivation in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex in young than older adults. Taken together, these results provide new evidence that aging is associated with reduced reinstatement of activity in brain regions that processed the encoding of complex stimuli, but older individuals judge these impoverished memory representations as subjectively vivid. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical excitability transiently increases during attentional lapses - HBP
Cardone, Paolo ULiege; Gaggioni, Giulia ULiege; Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege et al

Poster (2020)

Introduction/Motivation: Cortical excitability is modulated both by conscious states, sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythm, following a nonlinear dynamic across the day1,2. It is low during wakefulness ... [more ▼]

Introduction/Motivation: Cortical excitability is modulated both by conscious states, sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythm, following a nonlinear dynamic across the day1,2. It is low during wakefulness and REM sleep, where subjects experience phenomenological states, and high in conditions such as NREM sleep and Disorders of Consciousness (DoC), where there is inappropriate or absent processing of external stimuli3,4. Cortical excitability increases across the day, peaking at night after habitual sleep time where behavioral impairments such as attentional lapses are more common. Previous researches demonstrated that, at night, lack of vigilance is connected with lower frontoparietal effective connectivity5. However, no study has investigated whether there is a transient increase of cortical excitability during attentional lapses per se. This would be in line with the idea that the brain is less efficient to engage in the ongoing task, acting similarly to an “unconscious state”. To test this hypothesis, we compared cortical excitability during normal awakening and attentional lapses. Methods: Data included in this analysis were retrospectively selected among 3 different studies including repeated assessment of cortical excitability using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) of the superior frontal gyrus coupled to high-density Electroencephalography (hdEEG). This region was selected because it is sensitive to sleep pressure1 and has been implicated both for motor and cognitive tasks6. To increase the likelihood of attention lapses, data was selected among nighttime sessions. Attention lapses were detected based on the performance to a continuous Compensatory Tracking Task (CTT) completed simultaneously to TMS-EEG recording. Volunteers with at least 25 lapses were included to reach a total sample of 26 healthy individuals in 2 age groups (young, N= 13, 18-30 y; old, N = 13, 50-69 y). As previously published1, cortical excitability was inferred from amplitude and slope of the first component of the TMS-evoked EEG potential (TEP; 0–30 ms post-TMS, Figure 1). Latencies of the negative and positive peaks of this evoked potential were also extracted. Statistics were run on SAS 9.4 with a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) (for more details, description of Table 1). Results and Discussion: Cortical excitability showed a strong change from no-lapse to attention lapse. In particular, there was a significant increase of amplitude, with a smaller latency of the negative component and a bigger latency of the positive one, leading to an increase in slope (for more details, Table 1). These results suggest that there is a transient increase of cortical excitability during vigilance lapses pointing to an alteration of the brain function that could be similar to what is observed when sleep need is high compared to well-rested condition, or during states of altered consciousness (e.g. sleep). These results could constitute an epiphenomenon of the likelihood of transitions of conscious states or rather a sheer marker of errors. Alternatively, they could reflect a local sleep phenomenon over the target area. Future researches should validate the extent of this description and fathom its molecular mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo imaging of synaptic loss in Alzheimer’s disease with [18F]UCB-H Positron Emission Tomography
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege; Meyer, François ULiege et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2020), 47(2), 390-402

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (16 ULiège)
See detailEffort as a sensitive variable of wakefulness extension and its impact on cognitive performance
Mouraux, Charlotte; Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege et al

Conference (2019, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (10 ULiège)
See detailA gist orientation before retrieval impacts the objective content but not the subjective experience of recollection
Folville, Adrien ULiege; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege

Poster (2019, October 03)

Gist retrieval-orientation manipulations can experimentally decrease one’s ability to recollect objective details of past experience (Rudoy et al., 2009). Recent evidence further suggest that the quantity ... [more ▼]

Gist retrieval-orientation manipulations can experimentally decrease one’s ability to recollect objective details of past experience (Rudoy et al., 2009). Recent evidence further suggest that the quantity of recollected details strongly predicts the associated subjective memory experience (i.e., vividness) (Folville et al., 2019). Whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can hinder both the objective and subjective aspects of episodic recollection remains unknown, however. To examine this question, young participants were tested in two experimental sessions. During each session, they took part to a cued-recollection task in which they studied pictures associated with descriptive labels. Before retrieval, participants were submitted either to a gist or a control retrieval-orientation (one per session). At retrieval, they were presented with the labels alone and they were asked to evaluate the subjective vividness of their memories of the pictures and to recall as many pictures details as they could. Results revealed that the amount of recalled details was lower following the gist than the control condition while the rates of vividness did not differ between the two manipulations. Critically, the amount of recalled details predicted the corresponding vividness ratings on a trial-by-trial basis and the magnitude of this relationship was similar in the gist and control conditions. These findings show that gist-retrieval-orientation manipulations can experimentally decrease the amount of retrieved episodic details but that recollected memory traces are still rich enough to be judged as subjectively vivid. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrative Memory model to understand recollection and familiarity
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Delhaye, Emma ULiege; Besson, Gabriel ULiege et al

Conference (2019, October 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (18 ULiège)
See detailMémoire, neuroimagerie fonctionnelle et maladie d'Alzheimer
Bastin, Christine ULiege

Conference (2019, June 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULiège)