Publications of Frank Laroi
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See detailSleep deprivation and hallucinations: A qualitative study of military personnel
Pallesen, S; Olsen, O.K:; Eide, E.M. et al

in Military Psychology (in press)

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See detailMotivation in schizophrenia: a theory-driven approach using time-series network analysis
Thonon, Bénédicte ULiege; Contreras, Alba; Laroi, Frank ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Motivational negative symptoms are an important obstacle to the daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia. A better understanding of associated processes would help to identify targets for ... [more ▼]

Motivational negative symptoms are an important obstacle to the daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia. A better understanding of associated processes would help to identify targets for interventions. We redefined a theoretical model of motivation in schizophrenia combining cognitive, behavioural and emotional/hedonic processes. Further, we used Experience Sampling Method (ESM) and network analyses to provide a clearer understanding of potential causal factors that may influence the daily course of motivation. Using a 14-day paradigm ESM in 7 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we examined the interplay between the processes derived from the proposed model. We estimated both contemporaneous and temporal networks using multilevel vector autoregressive analyses for time-series. The contemporaneous network showed that motivation was central and strongly related to levels of energy and (self-)confidence. The temporal network showed that savouring processes (i.e. reminiscence and projection into the future) were the most influential and had an impact on later motivation, mood, effort, energy, (self-)confidence, and dysfunctional beliefs. These findings provide evidence in favour of the motivational model presented in this study, shedding new light on the understanding of motivation in schizophrenia and specifically identifying energy levels, confidence, and savouring skills as likely beneficial targets for interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailIdiographic analyses of motivation and related processes in participants with schizophrenia following a therapeutic intervention for negative symptoms
Thonon, Bénédicte ULiege; Van Aubel, Evelyne; Lafit, Ginette et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: Motivational negative symptoms hinder quality of life and daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A recently developed intervention, Switch, has shown promising ... [more ▼]

Background: Motivational negative symptoms hinder quality of life and daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A recently developed intervention, Switch, has shown promising effects on negative symptoms and functional outcomes. Switch targets multiple cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes associated with motivation and goal directed behaviours. We aimed to investigate its effects on motivation and associated processes and explore the dynamics between the processes. Methods: We used a single case approach (n = 3), with a pre-post and follow-up assessment design, which also included ambulatory assessments (experience sampling method, ESM; and step count). We computed autoregressive lag 1 models to evaluate the effects of the intervention on daily motivation levels and related processes, descriptive pie-charts, and vector autoregressive modelling to reveal the dynamics of the processes over time. Results: The intervention was beneficial for each participant according to traditional evaluations of motivational negative symptoms, apathy, daily functioning and quality of life. The effects on the ESM variables revealed distinct outcomes for each individual. The dynamics between the various processes differed between participants, and fluctuated within participants (when comparing baseline, intervention phase, and follow-up). Conclusions: This study used an innovative approach to look at the efficacy of an intervention. The intervention seems to lead to significant improvements. The mechanisms of change need to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailVidéos 360° : Validation d'un nouvel outil de mesure de la paranoïa dans la population générale.
Della Libera, Clara ULiege; Quertemont, Etienne ULiege; Laloyaux, Julien ULiege et al

Poster (2019, June 06)

Introduction : Depuis une quinzaine d’années, la réalité virtuelle est utilisée comme nouvel outil pour étudier la paranoïa. Un tel dispositif est cependant coûteu et requiert la modélisation d’avatar peu ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Depuis une quinzaine d’années, la réalité virtuelle est utilisée comme nouvel outil pour étudier la paranoïa. Un tel dispositif est cependant coûteu et requiert la modélisation d’avatar peu réalistes en termes d’expressions faciales et corporelles. Une alternative intéressante est l’utilisation de vidéos 360° permettant la création d’environnements immersifs plus accessibles et écologiques. L’objectif de cette étude est de valider l’utilisation de vidéos 360° comme nouvelle mesure de la paranoïa dans la population générale. Méthode : Un bar, un ascenseur et une bibliothèque ont été filmés avec 4 à 15 acteurs afin de représenter une situation de vie quotidienne. Cent septante participants ont été évalués sur leur tendance générale à la paranoïa (trait) avant d’être insérés dans l’une des vidéos à l’aide d’un casque Oculus Go. Les participants ont ensuite complété une mesure de paranoïa état, une mesure du sentiment de présence et répondu à un entretien semi-structuré interrogeant leurs interprétations des interactions perçues au sein des vidéos. Résultats : Dans l’ascenseur et la bibliothèque uniquement, les résultats montrent que les participants développent un sentiment de présence au sein des vidéos. De plus, de bonnes corrélations entre la paranoïa trait et la paranoïa état indiquent une bonne validité convergente de la mesure. Enfin, les participants avec un haut score de paranoïa trait rapportent des intentions malveillantes à leur égard de la part des acteurs durant l’entretien semi-structuré. Conclusion : La présente étude valide l’utilisation de vidéos 360° pour l’étude de la paranoïa. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing immersive 360° videos to asses sub-clinical forms of paranoia in the general population
Della Libera, Clara ULiege; Quertemont, Etienne ULiege; Laroi, Frank ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

For around fifteen years, virtual reality has been used as a new tool for studying paranoia. However, the use of virtual reality is expensive and requires the modelling of avatars that remain far from ... [more ▼]

For around fifteen years, virtual reality has been used as a new tool for studying paranoia. However, the use of virtual reality is expensive and requires the modelling of avatars that remain far from realistic in terms of facial and bodily expressions. As an alternative, 360-degree videos allow the creation of immersive environments to be more accessible and much more human-like. The aim of the present study was to validate a set of 360-degree videos as tools to identify sub-clinical forms of paranoia in the general population. Three videos representing daily scenarios (with four to fifteen actors) were created in a bar, a lift and a library. One hundred and seventy participants were assessed in terms of their general tendency towards paranoia (trait paranoia) before they viewed one video (using an Oculus Go headset). Finally, participants completed the State Paranoia Scale and the Sense of Presence Inventory. For both the lift and the library videos: an adequate sense of presence was found, and significant correlations between trait paranoia and state paranoia indicated good convergent and divergent validity. The present study suggests that the use of 360° videos is a promising tool to study forms of paranoia in the general population. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling false perceptions elicited by white noise in people with auditory hallucinations: The role of sound frequencies and expectations.
Laloyaux, Julien ULiege; Specht, Karsten; Hugdahl, Kenneth et al

Conference (2019, April 13)

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See detailMécanismes cognitifs sous-tendant les symptômes positifs des Troubles du Spectre Schizophrénique.
Laloyaux, Julien ULiege; Laroi, Frank ULiege

in Amieva, Hélène; Prouteau, Antoinette; Martinaud, Olivier (Eds.) Neuropsychologie en psychiatrie (2019)

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See detailEffects of sexualized video games on online sexual harassment
Burnay, Jonathan ULiege; Bushman, Brad; Laroi, Frank ULiege

in Aggressive Behavior (2019), 45(2), 214-223

Negative consequences of video games have been a concern since their inception. However, one under‐researched area is the potential negative effects of sexualized video game content on players. This study ... [more ▼]

Negative consequences of video games have been a concern since their inception. However, one under‐researched area is the potential negative effects of sexualized video game content on players. This study analyzed the consequences of sexualized video game content on online sexual harassment against male and female targets. We controlled for a number of variables that might be related to online sexual harassment (i.e., trait aggressiveness, ambivalent sexism, online disinhibition). Participants (N = 211) played a video game with either sexualized or non‐sexualized female characters. After gameplay, they had the opportunity to sexually harass a male or a female partner by sending them sexist jokes. Based on the General Aggression Model integrated with the Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression (Anderson & Anderson, 2008), we predicted that playing the game with sexualized female characters would increase sexual harassment against female targets. Results were consistent with these predictions. Sexual harassment levels toward a female partner were higher for participants who played the game with sexualized female characters than for participants who played the same game with non‐sexualized female characters. These findings indicate that sexualization of female characters in a video game can be a sufficient condition to provoke online sexual harassment toward women. [less ▲]

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See detailNo sex difference in an everyday multitasking paradigm
Hirnstein, M; Laroi, Frank ULiege; Laloyaux, Julien ULiege

in Psychological Research (2019), 83(2), 286-296

According to popular beliefs and anecdotes, females best males when handling multiple tasks at the same time. However, there is relatively little empirical evidence as to whether there truly is a sex ... [more ▼]

According to popular beliefs and anecdotes, females best males when handling multiple tasks at the same time. However, there is relatively little empirical evidence as to whether there truly is a sex difference in multitasking and the few available studies yield inconsistent findings. We present data from a paradigm that was specifically designed to test multitasking abilities in an everyday scenario, the computerized meeting preparation task (CMPT), which requires participants to prepare a room for a meeting and handling various tasks and distractors in the process. Eighty-two males and 66 females with a wide age range (18–60 years) and a wide educational background completed the CMPT. Results revealed that none of the multitasking measures (accuracy, total time, total distance covered by the avatar, a prospective memory score, and a distractor management score) showed any sex differences. All effect sizes were d ≤ 0.18 and thus not even considered “small” by conventional standards. The findings are in line with other studies that found no or only small gender differences in everyday multitasking abilities. However, there is still too little data available to conclude if, and in which multitasking paradigms, gender differences arise. [less ▲]

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See detailHallucination Research: Into the Future, and Beyond
Jardri, R; Laroi, Frank ULiege; Waters, F

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2019), 45

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See detailDisentangling false perceptions elicited by white noise in people with auditory hallucinations: The role of sound frequencies and expectations.
Laloyaux, Julien ULiege; Specht, Karsten; Hugdahl, Kenneth et al

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2019), 45(Suppl 2), 164

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See detailAge effect on the hierarchical structure of paranoia in the general population: the role of rumination and thought suppression.
Della Libera, Clara ULiege; Laroi, Frank ULiege; Raffard, Stéphane et al

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2019), 45(Suppl 2), 329

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See detailTesting a model of auditory hallucinations: the role of negative emotions and cognitive resources
Laloyaux, Julien ULiege; De Keyser, F; Pinchard, A et al

in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (2019), 24

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See detailThe ice in voices: Understanding negative content in auditory-verbal hallucinations.
Laroi, Frank ULiege; Thomas, Neil; Aleman, Andre et al

in Clinical Psychology Review (2019), 67

Negative voice-content is the best sole predictor of whether the hearer of an auditory-verbal hallucination will experience distress/impairment necessitating contact with mental health services. Yet, what ... [more ▼]

Negative voice-content is the best sole predictor of whether the hearer of an auditory-verbal hallucination will experience distress/impairment necessitating contact with mental health services. Yet, what causes negative voice-content and how interventions may reduce it remains poorly understood. This paper offers definitions of negative voice content and considers what may cause negative voice-content. We propose a framework in which adverse life-events may underpin much negative voice-content, a relation which may be mediated by mechanisms including hypervigilance, reduced social rank, shame and self-blame, dissociation, and altered emotional processing. At a neurological level, we note how the involvement of the amygdala and right Broca's area could drive negative voice-content. We observe that negative interactions between hearers and their voices may further drive negative voice-content. Finally, we consider the role of culture in shaping negative voice-content. This framework is intended to deepen and extend cognitive models of voice-hearing and spur further development of psychological interventions for those distressed by such voices. We note that much of the relevant research in this area remains to be performed or replicated. We conclude that more attention needs to be paid to methods for reducing negative voice-content, and urge further research in this important area. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential Applications of Digital Technology in Assessment, Treatment and Self-help for Hallucinations
Thomas, N; Bless, J; Alderson-Day, B et al

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2019), 45(Suppl 1), 32-42

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See detailA Cross-national investigation of Hallucination Like-Experiences in 10 countries: The E-CLECTIC study.
Siddi, S; Ocha, S; Laroi, Frank ULiege et al

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2019), 45(Suppl 1), 43-55

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