Publications of Marie-Claude Huynen
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See detailResponses of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) to variations in anthropic factors in a rural environment, Bali (Indonesia)
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, I Nengah

Conference (2011, March)

The human-macaque interface in Asia is increasingly the focus of numerous studies raising the issue of conflict over space and resources and searching for efficient management strategies. Documenting ... [more ▼]

The human-macaque interface in Asia is increasingly the focus of numerous studies raising the issue of conflict over space and resources and searching for efficient management strategies. Documenting impacts of interactions with humans and the variations in macaques’ responses to anthropogenic habitats is essential for undertanding adaptation strategies and possibilities of a sustainable coexistence. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is a very successful commensal species that adapts remarkably well to rural and urban landscapes. In some locations of Bali (Indonesia), this species, which has coexisted with humans for centuries, is used today to promote wildlife-based tourism, often characterized by an intense food provisioning. Here, we present data of a commensal M. fascicularis population in Bali (Uluwatu Temple), particularly well-habituated to human presence and provisioned daily. We analyze the impacts of the daily variations of three anthropogenic factors (microhabitat – human presence degree – food provisioning quantity) on the daily activity, ranging and dietary patterns. We used a focal and scan sampling methodology during a four-month study period between June and October 2010. Four groups constituted this population and their home ranges were particularly small, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6 ha. The eco-behavioural patterns were strongly and consistently influenced by variations in the anthropic factors. Typically, with a high anthropic level (defined as increasing degrees of each anthropogenic factor), macaques spent less time foraging and moving and more time feeding, resting and socializing. Contrary to previous studies on other primate species, we did not find any impact of provisioning on agonistic interactions. 55% of this population’s diet consisted of human foods, while the remainder (45%) of natural foods. Natural food items were preferentially consumed when anthropic level was low, emphasizing the opportunistic style of the diet. In summary, the eco-behavioural modifications induced by variations in anthropic levels did not increase the daily costs of living, confirming the flexibility and the efficiency of the macaques’ responses. However, we also illustrate in another study site (Ubud – Bali) the risk of overpopulation caused by the provisioning, which may potentially increase the human-macaque conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailSleeping Site Selection and Presleep Behavior in Wild Pigtailed Macaques
Albert, Aurélie ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege

in American Journal of Primatology (2011), 73

Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors ... [more ▼]

Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors on the sleeping behavior of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina). While following a troop living in the surroundings of the Visitor Center of Khao Yai National Park (Thailand), we recorded the physical characteristics and location of each sleeping site, tree, the individuals’ place in the tree, posture, and behavior. We collected data for 154 nights between April 2009 and November 2010. The monkeys preferred tall sleeping trees (20.97SD 4.9 m) and high sleeping places (15.87SD 4.3 m), which may be an antipredator strategy. The choice of sleeping trees close to the last (146.77SD 167.9 m) or to the first (150.47SD 113.0 m) feeding tree of the day may save energy and decrease predation risk when monkeys are searching for food. Similarly, the choice of sleeping sites close to human settlements eases the access to human food during periods of fruit scarcity. Finally, the temporal pattern of use of sleeping sites, with a preference for four of the sleeping sites but few reuses during consecutive nights, may be a tradeoff between the need to have several sleeping sites (decreasing detection by predators and travel costs to feeding sites), and the need to sleep in well-known sites (guaranteeing a faster escape in case of predator attack). [less ▲]

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See detailFood provisioning and agonistic behaviours in commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) at Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah

in American Journal of Primatology (2011), 73(S1),

Most previous research on nonhuman primates reported increased levels of agonistic behaviors associated with food provisioning by humans. To further investigate the permanence of this effect of increased ... [more ▼]

Most previous research on nonhuman primates reported increased levels of agonistic behaviors associated with food provisioning by humans. To further investigate the permanence of this effect of increased social competition in long-term commensal-living primates, we examined the immediate impact of food provisioning on agonistic behavior rates in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). We compared proportions of agonistic behaviors between various food provisioning levels defined by the absence/presence and the quantity of food provisioned. We collected data using focal and scan sampling methods during a four-month study period (June to October 2010). We performed non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon Test & Friedman Test; p < .05) on a population sample of 66 individuals. Results did not show obvious impact of provisioning on agonism rates, nor increase of potential appeasement strategies such as sexual behaviours, grooming or self-directed behaviours, often associated with the presence of provisioned food. These data suggest that the long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple are responding effectively to high provisioning level, that is, without increasing social competition. We hypothesize that the high spatiotemporal abundance of human food, associated with the species’ eco-behavioural flexibility and the long term story of human-macaque commensal relationships in Uluwatu may explain the absence of provisioning impact on agonistic rates. [less ▲]

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See detailEco-Ethology of bonobos, Pan paniscus, in West Democratic Republic of Congo: why are such data so important for long-term conservation programs?
Serckx, Adeline ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline

in American Journal of Primatology (2011), 73

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and classified as Endangered by IUCN, the Bonobo survival depends exclusively on management measures taken by a country having to deal concomitantly with ... [more ▼]

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and classified as Endangered by IUCN, the Bonobo survival depends exclusively on management measures taken by a country having to deal concomitantly with several problems affecting its development. The current government’s intention to designate new protected areas need to be complemented by effective long-term conservation programs, taking into account both bonobos populations requirements and local socio-economic realities. As part of a WWF conservation program, our study focuses on recently discovered Bonobo populations in West RDC, an eccentric location of the species range. The region is characterized by numerous anthropogenic activities including logging and cattle ranching and is composed of forest-savannah mosaics in which Bonobo has hardly ever been studied in comparison with those evolving in central DRC rainforests. Preliminary observations already indicate that these Western populations differ from other known populations in terms of habitat use, with regular savannahs patches crossing and savannah fruits consumption. To shed further lights on species adaptation’s spectrum, our study investigates local population density; nesting sites choice; and diet composition. Here we present a baseline population density derived from 5 walks along transects using marked-nest count method and we discuss factors inducing nesting sites choice. Ultimately, our results should allow for the formulation of specific management recommendations to be used in regional conservation program. [less ▲]

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See detailEco-Ethology of bonobos, Pan paniscus, in West Democratic Republic of Congo; why are critical data so important for long-term conservation programs?
Serckx, Adeline ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline

Conference (2011)

The Bonobo could be one of the species facing the biggest conservation challenge in the years to come. Endemic to the West Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), its survival depends exclusively on the ... [more ▼]

The Bonobo could be one of the species facing the biggest conservation challenge in the years to come. Endemic to the West Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), its survival depends exclusively on the management measures taken by a country having to deal concomitantly with many problems affecting its development, i.e. demographic explosion, poverty, insecurity and deforestation. But the survival of bonobos, classified as Endangered by IUCN (2010) and restricted to a relatively small range, will require newly designated and effective protected areas. This will imply long-term conservation programs, taking into account the bonobos’ populations requirements, as well as the local socio-economic needs and realities. In 2005, a large population of bonobos has been identified in Western DRC, in a rather eccentric part of the species range compare with the best known populations inhabiting the rainforest of center DRC. The Western region, known as the Lake Tumba Landscape, is characterized by a relatively poor rural human population, an active bushmeat trade, and is divided into several logging concessions and cattle ranches. In 2007, WWF initiated a vast conservation program in the area, including an eco-tourism project involving the habituation of 2 bonobos populations. Until now, only sparse information has been gathered but preliminary studies indicate that habitat use by bonobos – a forest-savannah mosaic – differs substantially from that of other known populations. The objective of the research is to define the eco-ethological profile of those 2 populations. For this purpose, we will characterize diet and food preferences, examine population density and try to identify factors inducing nesting sites’ choice. This information will help understanding habitat use by bonobos in the Western region, and should allow us to come up with specific management measures to be adopted by logging concessions, WWF and ICCN as part of the region’s conservation program. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of resting patterns of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax) on the spatial distribution of seeds and seedling recruitment
Muñoz Lazo, Fernando J. J.; Culot, Laurence ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2011), 32(1), 223-237

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See detailReproductive failure, possible maternal infanticide and cannibalism in wild moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax
Culot, Laurence ULiege; Lledo-Ferrer, Yvan; Hoelscher, Oda et al

in Primates: Journal of Primatology (2011), 52

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See detailTamarins and dung beetles: an efficient diplochorous dispersal system in the Peruvian Amazonia
Culot, Laurence ULiege; Mann, Darren J.; Muñoz Lazo, Fernando J.J. et al

in Biotropica (2011), 43(1), 84-92

Dung beetles fulfil several key ecosystem functions but their role as secondary seed dispersers is probably one of the most complexes because several factors can diversely affect the seed / beetle ... [more ▼]

Dung beetles fulfil several key ecosystem functions but their role as secondary seed dispersers is probably one of the most complexes because several factors can diversely affect the seed / beetle interaction. Little is known about the dung beetle communities and their influence on occurrence and depth of burial of seeds dispersed in small faeces. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various factors (type of faeces, defecation pattern, season, habitat, seed characteristics) on dung beetle community (composition, number and size of individuals and species) and its consequences on occurrence and depth of burial of seeds primarily dispersed by two tamarin species. We captured dung beetles in a Peruvian rainforest with 299 dung-baited pitfall traps to characterize the dung beetle community. Seed burial occurrence and depth were assessed by marking, in situ, 551 dispersed seeds in faeces placed in a cage. We observed a significant effect of the amount of dung, season, time of defecation, and habitat on the number of individuals and species of dung beetles, as well as on seed burial occurrence and depth, while the type of faeces only significantly influenced the number and the size of dung beetles. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of seed length, shape, and mass neither on seed burial occurrence, nor on burial depth. We highlighted that dung beetles compete for the first access to the resource on small faeces rather than for space for the building of their nest as observed on large faeces. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent demographic and behavioral data of Macaca fascicularis at Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah; Rompis, A.L.T. et al

in Gumert, Michael D.; Fuentes, Agustin; Jones-Engel, Lisa (Eds.) Monkeys on the Edge. Ecology and Management of Long-tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans. (2011)

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See detailThe human-macaque interface: the impact of anthropogenic factors on the behavioural ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Bangkok (Thailand) and Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Wandia, I Nengah

Conference (2010, October 11)

The human-macaque interface is increasingly the focus of many researches in East and South-east Asia. The efforts target the understanding of human impacts on macaques and the risks of pathogen ... [more ▼]

The human-macaque interface is increasingly the focus of many researches in East and South-east Asia. The efforts target the understanding of human impacts on macaques and the risks of pathogen transmission, the mitigation of conflicts as well as the establishment of suitable management programs. Commensal relationships between humans and several species of macaques exist for centuries in some Asian locations, like in Bali (Indonesia), Japan or India. However, the frequency and the intensity of these interactions are strongly increasing over the recent decades, due to the extensive urbanization and recruitment of forestlands for cropping. We conducted a comparative study on two commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations, one in Bangkok (Thailand) and the other in Bali (Indonesia), in order to assess the impact of anthropogenic factors (human presence and food provisioning frequency) on some eco-behavioural aspects of this macaque species living in urban landscapes. We found a consistent impact on the activity budget and the diet composition in both populations, suggesting an important role played by these anthropogenic factors for this species. Additionally, we did not find any impact of food provisioning on agonistic interactions in the two populations, contrary to previous studies in other macaque species. We suggest this surprising result could be explained by the high abundance and constant availability of human food in both sites, decreasing foraging pressures and the associated social competition. Further field studies are in progress in other populations of Macaca fascicularis in Bali in order to confirm this consistency of human impact on the behavioural ecology [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study on the ecology of the black howler monkey living in limestone karst hills and in a riparian forest in Belize
Trolliet, Franck ULiege; Evans, Kayley; Kowalzik, Barbara et al

Conference (2010, October 11)

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See detailBEHAVIOURAL ECOLOGY OF LONG-TAILED MACAQUES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN COMMENSALISM: A COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN BANGKOK (THAILAND) AND BALI (INDONESIA)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

Poster (2010, September 16)

The quest for coexistence with non-human primates requires an extensive analysis of the growing commen-salism phenomenon. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), a very successful commensal species ... [more ▼]

The quest for coexistence with non-human primates requires an extensive analysis of the growing commen-salism phenomenon. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), a very successful commensal species, adapts remarkably to anthropogenic habitats. Studies in several Asian locations raised the issue of hu-man-macaque conflict related to human health and safety as well as to conservation threats on macaques. Here, we aimed at assessing the anthropogenic impact (human presence and provisioning frequency) on the eco-behavioural profile of two populations living commensally with humans in Bangkok (Thailand) and Ubud (Padangtegal, Bali). We used an identical focal and scan sampling methodology during two three-month study periods in 2007 (Bangkok) and 2009 (Bali). Despite different ecological conditions, the two populations showed a strongly similar activity budget. Resting was the most common activity (40% vs. 35%), followed by feeding (28% vs. 24%), moving (15% vs. 14%) and affiliations (14% vs. 19%). Agonistic behaviours were slightly more frequent in Bali (0.6% vs. 3.0%), maybe due to higher population density (8.5/ha vs. 14.2/ha). Contrary to previous studies, we did not find any impact of provisioning on agonistic interactions. Concerning diet composition, proportions of natural vs. provisioned food and proportions of various food categories were consistent between the two sites. Since the ecological conditions were different, the anthropogenic factors are likely to explain the strong consistency in eco-behavioural profile of the two populations. Further studies are planned on three other populations to assess the specific impact of commensalism on behavioural ecology and derive the implications for long term population trends. [less ▲]

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See detailDemographic changes and behavioural ecology of a commensal long-tailed macaque population at Padangtegal, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah et al

Conference (2010, July 20)

The current anthropic pressures lead to a growth of the commensalism phenomenon with primates and humans interacting and competing for space and food. As these situations generate inter-specific conflicts ... [more ▼]

The current anthropic pressures lead to a growth of the commensalism phenomenon with primates and humans interacting and competing for space and food. As these situations generate inter-specific conflicts, an extensive analysis seems essential for primate conservation issues. Bali (Indonesia) is characterized by a high density of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in association with humans. The macaque population of the Padangtegal Monkey Forest (Ubud) has been the focus of successive studies since 1986 (Wheatley, 1986; Fuentes et al., 2007). Here, we present updated data (September-December 2009) on demography, activity budget and diet of this population while analyzing variations over time. The macaques at Padangtegal showed a substantial population growth over the last thirty years (34% average growth every 6 years). In 2009, we listed 498 individuals split in 5 groups with an average adult sex ratio of 1:4.5. The home range size also increased over time (7ha in 1986 vs. 30ha in 2009) but was finally limited by surrounded human infrastructures. Consequently, the population density doubled in the course of the last 8 years and counted 16.6 macaques per hectare in 2009. On the other hand, the activity budget pattern appeared quite stable over time with a large proportion of time spent inactive and socializing and a relatively small proportion of time spent in feeding activities. This activity pattern is characteristic of provisioned primate populations. Finally, the diet composition slightly varied over time except for the radical decrease of provisioned carbohydrate-rich food proportions, following some management decisions. Macaques at Padangtegal thus show some stability in their behavioural ecology despite considerable changes in demography. Nevertheless, these positive population trends do not protect macaques from some long term risks tied to commensalism, such as inbreeding depression and increased probability of disease transmission. [less ▲]

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See detailPigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina): the pest and the gardener
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso ULiege

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailImportance of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) in seed dispersal: impact on the ecological balance of the tropical rainforest at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
Albert, Aurélie ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege

Poster (2010)

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all agree that it is essential to save the remaining primary forest but also to enable ... [more ▼]

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all agree that it is essential to save the remaining primary forest but also to enable the regeneration of degraded areas, through natural or artificial reforestation. The conservation of tropical rainforests thus passes by the necessity to better understand the plant-animal interactions, and in particular, the seed dispersal process. While following a troop of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) accustomed to Man in Khao Yai National park (2 168 km ²), Thailand, we will bring important data relating to these seed dispersers potentially necessary but unfortunately vulnerable. Indeed, this vulnerable but little known species, seems to be essential to maintain forest diversity by dispersing many plant species, particularly those inaccessible to smaller frugivores. First results already show that they disperse many seed species, of all kind of size, in all forest types, from primary forest to secondary forest, thanks to various handling techniques. They also seem to show an adaptation in their daily travels according to resources availability. The next fieldworks will enable us to bring more precision in these results and their temporal variations and thus to conclude on the potential role of Macaca nemestrina in the tropical rainforest regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variation in seed dispersal by tamarins alters seed rain in a secondary rainforest
Culot, Laurence ULiege; Muñoz Lazo, Fernando J. J.; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2010), 31

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See detailImportance of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) in seed dispersal and impact on the ecological balance of the tropical rainforest at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
Albert, Aurélie ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege

Poster (2009, February)

The tropical rain forest is maintained thanks to a precarious balance placed under the yoke of interactions between the various animal and plant species which compose it. Among them we can find those ... [more ▼]

The tropical rain forest is maintained thanks to a precarious balance placed under the yoke of interactions between the various animal and plant species which compose it. Among them we can find those implying plants and frugivores. Although its diet is largely frugivorous, the pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) have often been categorized as seed predators. However their morphology, behaviour and ecology suggest they could actually be a key-species in the dispersion of many plant species. A preliminary study by Latinne & al (2007) supported this hypothesis. The study we are planning now in continuity of Latinne’s study will take place in the Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, for three years and will focus on a troop habituated to humans. In order to establish the importance of the pigtailed macaques in the maintenance and the regeneration of the tropical rain forest, we will try to evaluate their capacity of being good seed dispersers. To do so, we will study: 1) the spatiotemporal distribution, the productivity and the characteristics of the plant species present on the home range of the studied troop, 2) the ranging patterns of the macaques within their home range, 3) their feeding behaviour, notably the fruit selection and the various modes of processing seeds, and finally 4) their impact on the viability and the germination potential of seeds. This study will require both direct observations of the macaques and semi-experimental procedures in the field, as well as laboratory control of some seed parameters. We hope the clarification of the macaques’ seed dispersal behaviour would help to re-evaluate their conservation status by recognizing them a paramount role in the maintenance of the tropical rainforest. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance des macaques à queue de cochon (Macaca nemestrina leonina) dans la dispersion des graines : impact sur l’équilibre écologique de la forêt tropicale au parc national de Khao Yai, Thaïlande
Albert, Aurélie ULiege; Latinne, Alice ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2009)

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all know that it is essential to save the still existing primary forest but also to ... [more ▼]

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all know that it is essential to save the still existing primary forest but also to enable the regeneration of degraded areas, in particular thanks to reforestation (natural or artificial). To elucidate the role of seed dispersers and to promote their conservation are essential for the conservation of the tropical rainforests. While following a troop of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) accustomed to Man in Khao Yai National park (2 168 km ²), Thailand, we will bring important data relating to these seed dispersers potentially necessary but unfortunately vulnerable. Indeed, this species, from which very little has been studied, seems to be essential to the dispersal of many plant species, particularly those inaccessible to smaller frugivores. The results emanating from the first fieldwork already show important characteristics: the dispersal of many seed species, of all kind of size, in all forest types, from primary forest to secondary forest, thanks to various handling techniques. They also seem to show an adaptation in their daily travels according to resources availability. The next fieldworks will enable us to bring more precision in these results and their temporal variations and thus to conclude on the potential role of Macaca nemestrina in the regeneration of the tropical rainforest. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring home-range quality in the frugivorous gibbon (Hylobates lar)
Hambuckers, Alain ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Savini, Tommaso

Conference (2009)

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