Publications of Sigrid Grulke
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See detailComplications associated with closure of the linea alba using a combination of interrupted vertical mattress and simple interrupted sutures in equine laparotomies.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Gougnard, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2020)

Objectives (1) Evaluate the occurrence and variables associated with incisional morbidities (IMs) after ventral median laparotomy when using interrupted vertical mattress sutures (IVMS) and (2) determine ... [more ▼]

Objectives (1) Evaluate the occurrence and variables associated with incisional morbidities (IMs) after ventral median laparotomy when using interrupted vertical mattress sutures (IVMS) and (2) determine the occurrence of abdominal bandage-associated complications in horses. Methods Occurrence of IM and bandage-associated complications were determined after single laparotomies (SL group; n=546 horses) and repeat laparotomies (RL group: multiple laparotomies within four weeks; n=30 horses) in horses that survived ≥7 days postoperatively. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate variables associated with IM. Results The IM rate was 9.52 per cent in the SL group and 33.33 per cent in the RL group. The actual infection rate was 5.31 per cent in the SL group and 26.67 per cent in the RL group. Overall, long-term clinically relevant wound complications was 1.68 per cent. After multivariate analysis, increased anaesthesia duration was associated with IM and performing an enterotomy and postoperative intravenous lidocaine administration were associated with incisional infection in the SL group; no parameter remained significant in the RL group. Bandage-related complications were recorded in 2.95 per cent of the cases. Conclusions These results suggest that the use of IVMS for closure of the linea alba is another viable option for closure and that an abdominal bandage does not appear to cause significant complications. [less ▲]

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See detailMesh closure of epiploic foramen by ventral laparotomy in 17 horses with entrapment
Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2020)

Background: Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) of small intestine is a severe cause of strangulating small intestinal obstruction (SSI) with long-term survival seeming lower than for other causes of SSI in ... [more ▼]

Background: Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) of small intestine is a severe cause of strangulating small intestinal obstruction (SSI) with long-term survival seeming lower than for other causes of SSI in horses. Different techniques via laparoscopy or laparotomy for epiploic foramen (EF) closure have been developed. Methods: This study describes a technique of peroperative mesh closure of the EF in clinical cases and their long-term follow up. Results: In the study period of 5.5 years 36 horses were admitted to the clinic with EFE. Of these, 17 horses had peroperative mesh closure, with resection anastomosis in 4 cases and enterotomy in 4 other cases. Fifteen of these survived to discharge. Long-term follow-up (1-6y, median 3y) was favourable in all 15 horses not showing recurrence of EFE nor other related signs of colic. Laparoscopic evaluation of the EF was performed in 2 cases and showed integration of the mesh. One horse was euthanized 3.5 years after mesh placement for an unrelated cause and the mesh was well adherent obliterating the EF. Conclusion: Mesh closure of EF during emergency coeliotomy did not cause short-term complications even in horses with resection or enterotomy and may reduce the risk of recurrence of EFE in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral Morgagni hernia in a donkey.
Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Caudron, Isabelle ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Education (2020)

This case report describes the clinical presentation andmanagement of a donkey admitted with acute signs ofabdominal pain that was diagnosed with a bilateral Morgagnihernia, a rare type of congenital ... [more ▼]

This case report describes the clinical presentation andmanagement of a donkey admitted with acute signs ofabdominal pain that was diagnosed with a bilateral Morgagnihernia, a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Formore than 8 months before presentation, the donkey had beenshowing signs of recurrent mild abdominal pain that respondedfavourably to medical treatment. On admission, the donkeyhad mild tachycardia and tachypnoea. Radiography andultrasound of the thorax and abdomen showed thoracicherniation of the large colon. Exploratory laparotomy wasperformed, and the sternal and diaphragmatic flexures of thelarge colon, as well as the left hepatic lobe, were foundincarcerated in a bilateral Morgagni hernia. Intestine and liverwere removed from the hernia, and the large colon wasexteriorised. The defect in the diaphragm was repaired bystapling a polyester mesh circumferentially around the herniaring and covering the mesh with an excised section of thegreater omentum. No further complications and no recurrenceof colic were observed during an 8-month follow-up period. [less ▲]

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See detailStrangulating lesions of the small intestine associated with the greater omentum in horses: 29 cases (2005-2018)
Storms, Nazaré ULiege; Barbazanges, Pauline; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery (2020)

Introduction - Strangulating lesions of the small intestine related to the greater omentum are rarely reported. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence, clinical presentation, surgical ... [more ▼]

Introduction - Strangulating lesions of the small intestine related to the greater omentum are rarely reported. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence, clinical presentation, surgical findings and post-operative outcome of these lesions. Materials and methods - A retrospective case series included 29 horses with a surgical diagnosis of strangulating lesion of the small intestine associated with the greater omentum. Signalment, clinical and surgical findings, procedures and post-operative outcome were analyzed. Results - Surgical findings included strangulating lesions associated with adhesions of the greater omentum (13/29) or with pedunculated lipoma-like structures arising from the greater omentum (7/29), direct strangulation of the small intestine by the greater omentum (6/29) or incarceration through an omental rent (3/29). Prevalence of strangulating lesions associated with the greater omentum was present in 2.3% (29/1284) of all horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy for colic, represented 4.5% (29/638) of all horses with primary small intestinal lesions and 5.3% (29/547) of strangulating lesions. Short-term survival rate was 52% (15/29). No breed, sex or age predilection was detected. Discussion – Although infrequent, strangulating lesions of the small intestine associated with the greater omentum should be included in the differential diagnosis of small intestine strangulation. Definitive diagnosis was only permitted during surgery. Omentectomy could be considered as a prevetive measure to limit occurrence or recurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailNephrosplenic space closure significantly decreases recurrent colic in horses: A retrospective analysis
Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record (2019)

Background: Nephrosplenic space closure is commonly used to reduce relapse of nephrosplenic space entrapment in cases of left dorsal displacement of the left colon (LDDLC). Nevertheless, studies ... [more ▼]

Background: Nephrosplenic space closure is commonly used to reduce relapse of nephrosplenic space entrapment in cases of left dorsal displacement of the left colon (LDDLC). Nevertheless, studies documenting the effectiveness of this surgery are sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to analyse clinical data of horses presented for LDDLC and evaluate the effect of nephrosplenic space closure on the incidence of colic recurrence. Methods: Medical records of 156 horses diagnosed with LDDLC at the Equine Clinic of the University of Liège between 2004 and 2016 were retrieved for analysis. Extracted data included horse breed, sex, age and weight, initial treatment, and if a subsequent preventive surgical closure of the nephrosplenic space was carried out or not. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone interview. Statistical analyses were performed using a chi-squared test with significance set at P<0.05. Results: Follow-up data were available for 65 per cent of horses. The mean follow-up was 35 months. There was a significant decrease in the total incidence of colic after closure surgery compared with non-operated horses. No horse was diagnosed with LDDLC after closure of the nephrosplenic space. Conclusion: Closure of the nephrosplenic space significantly decreases recurrent colic in horses compared with non-operated horses. © 2019 British Veterinary Association. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. [less ▲]

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See detailDental bridging as a treatment for large oral fistulae in two horses
Storms, Nazaré ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Education (2019)

Chronic orocutaneous, oronasal, or orosinus fistulae can be challenging to repair. This report describes placement of a dental bridge as a treatment for oral fistulae and outcome in two horses. A 12-year ... [more ▼]

Chronic orocutaneous, oronasal, or orosinus fistulae can be challenging to repair. This report describes placement of a dental bridge as a treatment for oral fistulae and outcome in two horses. A 12-year-old, Westphalian gelding was presented for nasal discharge because of an oromaxillary fistula after dental repulsion of the Triadan 209 4 years earlier. The second case, a 5-year-old Oldenburg mare was presented for an orocutaneous fistula 7 weeks after dental repulsion of the Triadan 208. Both were treated by placing an 8-shaped cerclage wire, inserted through the rostral and caudal interdental spaces and crossing at the level of the missing tooth. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was then used to seal the fistula. No significant complications occurred during or after the surgery. In both cases clinical signs did not recur. In the first case the dental bridge is currently (5 years after the intervention) in place. In Case 2 the construction was removed after 1.5 years and the fistula had healed completely. This case report suggests that placing a dental bridge composed of cerclage wire and PMMA should be considered as an easy, noninvasive and efficient way to manage large oromaxillary or orocutaneous fistulae. © 2019 EVJ Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailGastrointestinal effects of general anaesthesia in horses undergoing non abdominal surgery: focus on the clinical parameters and ultrasonographic images
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Gougnard, Alexandra; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2019), 124

The ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses can be influenced by fasting and sedation but the proper effect of general anaesthesia (GA) on them has not been determined yet. This ... [more ▼]

The ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses can be influenced by fasting and sedation but the proper effect of general anaesthesia (GA) on them has not been determined yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GA on ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses and to compare these effects with a clinical evaluation. Twenty horses undergoing non-abdominal surgeries were evaluated by ultrasonography before and 4 times within 24 h after GA. Each ultrasonographic exam focused on the stomach, the duodenum and on 5 locations on the jejunum. The four-quadrant auscultation and the postoperative faecal output were also recorded. Pre and post anaesthetic values were compared using linear mixed effects models. None of the horses presented colic signs or reduced faecal output. During the first 2 post anaesthetic evaluations, the gut sounds were significantly decreased and, when taking all jejunal locations together, the jejunal diameter and visualisation frequency significantly increased. No intestinal loop appeared thickened and most of their diameters remained within the normal range. Our results suggest that the effects of GA on the ultrasonographic images of the small intestine are mild and of short duration and can therefore be differentiated from a pathological process. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication d'un bridge dentaire pour traiter de larges fistules orales chez 2 chevaux
Storms, Nazaré ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

Poster (2018, November 08)

Introduction : Chez les chevaux, des fistules oro-sinusales et oro-cutanées peuvent survenir après expulsion dentaire. Souvent, celles-ci se résolvent après débridement de la fistule et application d’un ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Chez les chevaux, des fistules oro-sinusales et oro-cutanées peuvent survenir après expulsion dentaire. Souvent, celles-ci se résolvent après débridement de la fistule et application d’un ‘bouchon’ temporaire au niveau de l’alvéole de la dent expulsée. Lorsque la fistule est très large, la stabilisation de ce bouchon est parfois impossible et des techniques de comblement de la fistule par transposition musculaire (levator nasolabialis ou levator labii superioris) peuvent aboutir à une étanchéité incomplète. Nous décrivons ici l’application d’un bridge dentaire pour traiter de larges fistules oro-sinusale ou oro-cutanée chroniques, ainsi que nos résultats chez 2 chevaux. Anamnèse – examen clinique – démarche diagnostique : Le premier cas est un hongre Westphalien de 12 ans, présenté pour jetage nasal purulent survenu 4 ans après l’expulsion de la dent 209. Le deuxième cas est un hongre Oldenburg de 5 ans, présenté pour une fistule purulente rostrale à la crête faciale, 7 semaines post expulsion de la dent 208. Des fistules oro-sinusale (cas n°1) et oro-cutanée (cas n°2) ont été mises en évidence par buccoscopie et radiographie. Traitement : Sous anesthésie générale, après débridement de la fistule, un fil de cerclage formant un ‘8’ en prenant appui au niveau des espaces interdentaires rostral et caudal à la fistule a été appliqué au moyen d’une approche orale et transbuccale. Les fils de cerclage se croisant au niveau de la fistule ont ensuite été englobés dans du polyméthylmétacrylate (PMMA) de manière à étanchéifier la cavité buccale tout en évitant le comblement en profondeur de la fistule. Les 2 chevaux ont très bien toléré leur bridge, et leurs symptômes ont rapidement disparu après l’intervention. Le bridge était toujours en place après 2 ans chez le cas 1. Chez le cas 2, le bridge a été retiré après 1,5 an suite au comblement total de la fistule. Discussion : Cette technique présente les avantages de ne pas nécessiter de matériel spécialisé ni coûteux, d’être peu invasive et très bien tolérée par les chevaux. Néanmoins, ce bridge nécessite un ancrage au niveau des espaces interdentaires rostral et caudal à la fistule. Dès lors, cette technique est particulièrement indiquée pour les fistules des alvéoles ‘08’ ou ‘09’ mais moins pour celles des autres dents. Conclusion : L’application d’un bridge composé de PMMA et de fil de cerclage est une technique peu invasive et efficace pour traiter certaines larges fistules oro-sinusales et oro-cutanées. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome in two adult horses treated for cleft palate with laryngeal tie-forward surgery
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2018), 6(2),

Two adult sport horses were referred for respiratory noise, exercise intolerance, coughing and nasal discharge containing food material. An asymmetrical, mild to moderate defect of the soft palate was ... [more ▼]

Two adult sport horses were referred for respiratory noise, exercise intolerance, coughing and nasal discharge containing food material. An asymmetrical, mild to moderate defect of the soft palate was diagnosed and surgically treated by laryngeal tie-forward procedure (LTFP). The immediate postoperative endoscopic images were satisfactory; the epiglottis was in normal alignment, dorsal to the soft palate defect in both cases. When contacted respectively four months and three years after surgery, owners of both horses declared being satisfied with the outcome of surgery as initial clinical signs had reduced or disappeared. Follow-up endoscopy showed some retraction of the larynx in both horses but the reduction of the palatal defect was adequate. This report demonstrates that horses can reach adulthood with certain soft palate defects and that severity of clinical signs varies between individuals. The authors suggest considering LTFP as an option in adult horses with small-to-moderate cleft palates causing clinical signs. [less ▲]

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See detailIMAGING FINDINGS IN HORSES WITH PHARYNGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
Schiavo, Stefano; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege; Evrard, Laurence ULiege et al

Poster (2018)

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See detailB-MODE AND POWER DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE EQUINE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT BRANCHES: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON 13 HORSES
Rabba, Silvia ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Verwilghen, Denis et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (13 ULiège)
See detailRetrospective study on the influence of nephrosplenic space closure in recurrent colic
Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

Conference (2017, July 13)

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF NEPHROSPLENIC SPACE CLOSURE IN RECURRENT COLIC Introduction—The nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon is a common cause of colic in horses. Although medical ... [more ▼]

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF NEPHROSPLENIC SPACE CLOSURE IN RECURRENT COLIC Introduction—The nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon is a common cause of colic in horses. Although medical or surgical treatments are available, this type of displacement has an important incidence of recurrence. Material and Methods—Medical records of horses diagnosed with nephrosplenic entrapment in the Equine Clinic of the University of Liège were retrieved between 2004 and 2014. Data on horse signalment, the primary (at the reception) or secondary (hospitalization) nature of the entrapment, the type of treatment (medical versus surgical) and to the eventual realization of a preventive surgical closure of the nephrosplenic space were collected. Follow-up information was obtained by a telephone interview of the owners. Data were analyzed using a Fisher’s exact test with significance set at P <0.05 Results— Fifty-five horses were included in the study (49 % of survey responses). Mean follow-up was 36 months. No horses operated for nephrosplenic space closure have shown recurrence of nephrosplenic entrapment. On those horses, there was a significant decrease in the total incidence of colic after the surgery in contrary to non-operated horses. Discussion/Conclusions—Laparoscopic obliteration of the nephrosplenic space seems to prevent recurrence of nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon, and significantly lowers the overall incidence of colic. However, other types of displacement may occur. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome after tracheal resection and anastomosis for correction of a tracheal stenosis in a sport pony
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Roose, Charlotte; Joostens, Zoé ULiege et al

Poster (2017, July)

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report our experience using tracheal resection and anastomosis to treat a severe trauma-induced tracheal stenosis (< 1 cm diameter of lumen) involving 2 tracheal rings causing a loud respiratory noise at rest in a 14 y.o. event pony. Methods: The pony was trained to wear a martingale preoperatively. Before the surgery, a distal tracheotomy was performed for placement of the tracheal tube for maintenance of gaseous anaesthesia. Through a 35 cm ventral midline cervical incision, the trachea was exposed and separated from adjacent tissues. Stay sutures were placed in tracheal cartilage adjacent to the segment to be removed. The 2 tracheal rings involved in the stricture were subsequently removed. On both remaining segments of the trachea, the mucosa was turned back over the open end and sutured to the adventitia. The head was then flexed and tracheal ends were apposed using 5 stainless steel wires placed equidistantly around the trachea without mucosal penetration. The anastomosis was completed by a simple continuous suture of resorbable material on the adventitia. A closed suction drain was applied in the soft tissue before routine closure of the subcutaneous and cutaneous layers. The martingale was applied before the recovery from anaesthesia, which was uneventful. The tracheotomy tube and the suction drain were left in place for 48h. The martingale was removed after 3 weeks. The pony was discharged 1 month after surgery. Control endoscopies were performed during hospitalisation and at 7, 10, 17, 21 and 30 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Results: A moderate cicatrix recurred. The excessive tissue was injected with triamcinolone and then with 4% formaldehyde during the first endoscopies and remained stable thereafter. Some stainless steel cerclages broke and displaced slightly. This caused the formation of a self-resolving seroma caudally to the trachea. A moderate respiratory noise was still audible at low-intensity work, which was resumed 4 months postoperatively. However, work was stopped before achieving the preoperative level because the pony developed a lameness. Conclusions: Although a moderate tracheal cicatrix recurred after surgery, tracheal resection and anastomosis clearly improved the quality of life of this pony. [less ▲]

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See detailLes affections dentaires du jeune cheval
Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Equine (2017), 11(42), 269-374

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See detailModified Thomas splint-cast combination for the management of limb fractures in small equids
Ladefogen, Soren; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery (2017)

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See detailClinical outcome after surgical correction of cleft palate by laryngeal tie-forward in 2 horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and dysphagia, with a guarded to poor prognosis if not treated. Surgical intervention consists mainly in palatoplasty that is considered a salvage procedure and complications are frequent. Only few cases of cleft palate in adult horses are described in literature. Laryngeal tie-forward, a surgical technique generally used to treat dorsal displacement of the soft palate, has been described only in one 4-year-old pony with cleft palate but clinical improvement after surgery was partial and temporary. Objectives: To describe laryngeal tie-forward as a valid option for the treatment of cleft palate in two adult horses not suitable for palatoplasty. Methods: Clinical records of two 8 y.o. jumping horses performing respectively at a low and intermediate intensity of exercise and competition. Both horses were referred for respiratory noise, exercise intolerance, cough and alimentary nasal discharge; they were diagnosed with a moderate soft palate defect and surgically treated by laryngeal tie-forward. A clinical examination and control endoscopy were realized at 4 months for one horse and at 3 years after surgery for the other. Results: In both horses postoperative endoscopy showed a visible reduction of the gap between soft palate and the larynx so that the epiglottis was covering the soft palate defect. One horse was examined 4 months after surgery, a residual respiratory noise during exercise was still present but lighter than prior to intervention, its performances had remarkably improved. The second horse was controlled 3 years after surgery, some cough was still observed but limited to the onset of exercise, performances were satisfying and the horse was working at the same intensity level. Globally, in both horses, initial symptoms had disappeared or were significantly reduced after surgery and owners were satisfied. Reduction of the soft palate defect was still effective, even several months after surgery. Conclusions: The description of these two clinical cases shows that some horses can grow up to adult age with moderate defects of the soft palate; they are likely to show clinical signs of variable severity. In such cases laryngeal tie-forward should be considered as an option if the defect is too large or asymmetrical to be corrected with palatoplasty. [less ▲]

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