Publications of Gregor Rauw
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See detailThe mysterious high-latitude O-star HD 93521: new results from XMM-Newton observations
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Morel, Thierry ULiege

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

The O9.5 Vp star HD 93521 is a well known non-radial pulsator located at a high Galactic latitude. The nature (Population I vs. II) of this star has been the subject of controversy for many years. We ... [more ▼]

The O9.5 Vp star HD 93521 is a well known non-radial pulsator located at a high Galactic latitude. The nature (Population I vs. II) of this star has been the subject of controversy for many years. We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the star that sheds new light on its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe surprising X-ray emission of Oe stars
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; ud-Doula, Asif

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

Oe stars are thought to represent an extension of the Be phenomenon to higher temperatures. Dedicated XMM observations of HD 155806 revealed a surprising X-ray spectrum: soft character, absence of ... [more ▼]

Oe stars are thought to represent an extension of the Be phenomenon to higher temperatures. Dedicated XMM observations of HD 155806 revealed a surprising X-ray spectrum: soft character, absence of overluminosity, broad X-ray lines. These properties are fully compatible with the wind-shock model, which usually explains the X-rays from ``normal', single O-type stars. In contrast, some other Oe/Be stars display a completely different behaviour at high energies. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-thermal radio emission from colliding-wind binaries: modelling Cyg OB2 No. 8A and No. 9
Volpi, Delia; Blomme, Ronny; De Becker, Michaël ULiege et al

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

Some OB stars show variable non-thermal radio emission. The non-thermal emission is due to synchrotron radiation that is emitted by electrons accelerated to high energies. The electron acceleration occurs ... [more ▼]

Some OB stars show variable non-thermal radio emission. The non-thermal emission is due to synchrotron radiation that is emitted by electrons accelerated to high energies. The electron acceleration occurs at strong shocks created by the collision of radiatively-driven stellar winds in binary systems. Here we present results of our modelling of two colliding wind systems: Cyg OB2 No. 8A and Cyg OB2 No. 9. [less ▲]

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See detailHD 150136: towards one of the most massive systems?
Mahy, Laurent ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege; Sana, Hugues et al

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

We present the preliminary results of an intensive monitoring devoted to HD 150136. Already quoted as an O3+O6 binary, we detected a third O-type component physically linked to the system, making it one ... [more ▼]

We present the preliminary results of an intensive monitoring devoted to HD 150136. Already quoted as an O3+O6 binary, we detected a third O-type component physically linked to the system, making it one of the nearest (1.3 kpc) most massive systems known until now (~134M[SUB]solar[/SUB]). To determine the physical parameters of this system, we applied a disentangling program to study individually the three components. It allows us to constrain their spectral types and to derive a new orbital solution for the short-period system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe latest developments on Of?p stars
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; ud-Doula, Asif; Spano, Maxime et al

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

In recent years several in-depth investigations of the three prototypical Of?p stars were undertaken, revealing their peculiar properties. To clarify some of the remaining questions, we have continued our ... [more ▼]

In recent years several in-depth investigations of the three prototypical Of?p stars were undertaken, revealing their peculiar properties. To clarify some of the remaining questions, we have continued our monitoring of the prototypical Of?p trio. HD 108 has now reached its quiescent, minimum-emission state, for the first time in 50-60yrs, while new echelle spectra of HD 148937 confirm the presence in several H and He lines of the 7d variations detected previously only in the Hα line. A new XMM observation of HD 191612 clearly shows that its X-ray emission is not modulated by the orbital period of 1542d, but the high-energy variations are rather compatible with the 538d period of the optical changes - it is thus not of colliding-wind origin but linked to the phenomena responsible for the spectral/photometric variations, though our current MHD simulations remain at odds with the observational properties. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability monitoring of OB stars during the Mons campaign
Morel, Thierry ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Eversberg, Thomas et al

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a ... [more ▼]

We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic follow-up of the colliding-wind binary WR 140 during the 2009 January periastron passage
Fahed, Rémi; Moffat, Anthony F J; Zorec, Juan et al

in Neiner, Coralie; Wade, G.; Meynet, G. (Eds.) et al Active OB stars: structure, evolution, mass loss and critical limits (2011, July 01)

We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a ... [more ▼]

We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a relatively large period (~=8 years) and eccentricity (~=0.89). We provide updated values for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray Emission from the Double-binary OB-star System QZ Car (HD 93206)
Parkin, E. R.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2011), 194

X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9 ... [more ▼]

X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P [SUB]A[/SUB] = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P [SUB]B[/SUB] = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT ~= 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of sime0.2 × 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]. Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of sime7 × 10[SUP]-13[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP], do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal X-ray Properties of the O and B Stars in Carina
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Broos, P. S.; Oskinova, L. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2011), 194

The key empirical property of the X-ray emission from O stars is a strong correlation between the bolometric and X-ray luminosities. In the framework of the Chandra Carina Complex Project, 129 O and B ... [more ▼]

The key empirical property of the X-ray emission from O stars is a strong correlation between the bolometric and X-ray luminosities. In the framework of the Chandra Carina Complex Project, 129 O and B stars have been detected as X-ray sources; 78 of those, all with spectral type earlier than B3, have enough counts for at least a rough X-ray spectral characterization. This leads to an estimate of the L [SUB]X[/SUB]-L [SUB]BOL[/SUB] ratio for an exceptional number of 60 O stars belonging to the same region and triples the number of Carina massive stars studied spectroscopically in X-rays. The derived log(L [SUB]X[/SUB]/L [SUB]BOL[/SUB]) is -7.26 for single objects, with a dispersion of only 0.21 dex. Using the properties of hot massive stars listed in the literature, we compare the X-ray luminosities of different types of objects. In the case of O stars, the L [SUB]X[/SUB]-L [SUB]BOL[/SUB] ratios are similar for bright and faint objects, as well as for stars of different luminosity classes or spectral types. Binaries appear only slightly harder and slightly more luminous in X-rays than single objects; the differences are not formally significant (at the 1% level), except for the L [SUB]X[/SUB]-L [SUB]BOL[/SUB] ratio in the medium (1.0-2.5 keV) energy band. Weak-wind objects have similar X-ray luminosities but they display slightly softer spectra compared with "normal" O stars with the same bolometric luminosity. Discarding three overluminous objects, we find a very shallow trend of harder emission in brighter objects. The properties of the few B stars bright enough to yield some spectral information appear to be different overall (constant X-ray luminosities, harder spectra), hinting that another mechanism for producing X-rays, besides wind shocks, might be at work. However, it must be stressed that the earliest and X-ray brightest among these few detected objects are similar to the latest O stars, suggesting a possibly smooth transition between the two processes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe COSPIX mission: focusing on the energetic and obscured Universe
Ferrando, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P. et al

in Rieger, F.; van Eldik, C. (Eds.) 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (2011, April 01)

Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions ... [more ▼]

Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-rays, and polarimetric capabilities within the same focal plane instrumentation. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the mission, its baseline design, and its performances, as proposed to ESA. [less ▲]

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See detailXMM-Newton observation of the enigmatic object WR 46
Gosset, Eric ULiege; De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Nazé, Yaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 527

Aims: To further investigate the nature of the enigmatic object WR 46 and better understand the X-ray emission in massive stars and in their evolved descendants, we observed this variable object for more ... [more ▼]

Aims: To further investigate the nature of the enigmatic object WR 46 and better understand the X-ray emission in massive stars and in their evolved descendants, we observed this variable object for more than two of its supposed cycles. The X-ray emission characteristics are appropriate indicators of the difference between a genuine Wolf-Rayet star and a specimen of a super soft source as sometimes suggested in the literature. The X-ray emission analysis might contribute to understanding the origin of the emitting plasma (intrinsically shocked wind, magnetically confined wind, colliding winds, and accretion onto a white dwarf or a more compact object) and to substantiating the decision about the exact nature of the star. <BR /> Methods: The X-ray observations of WR 46 were performed with the XMM-Newton facility over an effective exposure time of about 70 ks. <BR /> Results: Both the X-ray luminosity of WR 46, typical of a Wolf-Rayet star, and the existence of a relatively hard component (including the Fe-K line) rule out the possibility that WR 46 could be classified as a super soft source, and instead favour the Wolf-Rayet hypothesis. The X-ray emission of the star turns out to be variable below 0.5 keV but constant at higher energies. The soft variability is associated to the Wolf-Rayet wind, but revealing its deep origin necessitates additional investigations. It is the first time that such a variability is reported for a Wolf-Rayet star. Indeed, the X-ray emission exhibits a single-wave variation with a typical timescale of 7.9 h which could be related to the period observed in the visible domain both in radial velocities (single-wave) and in photometry (double-wave). The global X-ray emission seems to be dominated by lines and is closely reproduced by a three-temperature, optically thin, thermal plasma model. The derived values are 0.1-0.2 keV, 0.6 keV, and ~4 keV, which indicates that a wide range of temperatures is actually present. The soft emission part could be related to a shocked-wind phenomenon. The hard tail of the spectrum cannot presently be explained by such an intrinsic phenomenon as a shocked wind and instead suggests there is a wind-wind collision zone, as does the relatively high L[SUB]X[/SUB]/L[SUB]bol[/SUB] ratio. We argue that this scenario implies the existence of an object farther away from the WN3 object than any possible companion in an orbit related to the short periodicity. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailMESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS), a Herschel Key Program
Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Waelkens, C.; Barlow, M. J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 526

MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS) is a Guaranteed Time Key Program that uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory to observe a representative sample of evolved stars ... [more ▼]

MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS) is a Guaranteed Time Key Program that uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory to observe a representative sample of evolved stars, that include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae and red supergiants, as well as luminous blue variables, Wolf-Rayet stars and supernova remnants. In total, of order 150 objects are observed in imaging and about 50 objects in spectroscopy. This paper describes the target selection and target list, and the observing strategy. Key science projects are described, and illustrated using results obtained during Herschel's science demonstration phase. Aperture photometry is given for the 70 AGB and post-AGB stars observed up to October 17, 2010, which constitutes the largest single uniform database of far-IR and sub-mm fluxes for late-type stars. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of porosity on emergent synthetic spectra of massive stars in the X-ray domain
Hervé, Anthony ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

Massive stars possess powerful stellar winds. Studies over the last decade, including the analyses of X-ray emission-line profiles, revealed the importance of wind fragmentation and clumping and led to a ... [more ▼]

Massive stars possess powerful stellar winds. Studies over the last decade, including the analyses of X-ray emission-line profiles, revealed the importance of wind fragmentation and clumping and led to a downwards revision of the mass-loss rates. We present the first results of our code that allows to compare two models of wind fragmentation, and their consequences on the emergent X-ray spectra of massive stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive binaries as seen with Gaia
Palate, Matthieu ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

Gaia, ESA's forthcoming astrometric observatory, will observe a billion stars of our Galaxy, among which thousands of high-mass stars. In this contribution, we study the capabilities of Gaia's ... [more ▼]

Gaia, ESA's forthcoming astrometric observatory, will observe a billion stars of our Galaxy, among which thousands of high-mass stars. In this contribution, we study the capabilities of Gaia's spectrometer (RVS) in the context of massive stars, especially the detectability of lower-mass companions to O-type stars. This preliminary study enables us to estimate to what extent Gaia will constrain the distribution of the physical and orbital parameters of massive binaries (luminosity, period, mass ratio, eccentricity...). [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of a possible X-ray sensor based on the Plasmon Surface Resonance for the next generation of instruments
Hervé, Anthony ULiege; Hastanin, Juriy ULiege; Habraken, Serge ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2011), 80

With the new generation of X-ray space observatories, such as IXO in preparation, we explore a new technology in order to improve the spectral resolution and the sensitivity of future instruments. We have ... [more ▼]

With the new generation of X-ray space observatories, such as IXO in preparation, we explore a new technology in order to improve the spectral resolution and the sensitivity of future instruments. We have studied the possibility to create a sensor based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), already used in chemistry and biomedical applications, and have determined the preliminary constraints on its size, energy resolution and working temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying massive stars with the International X-ray Observatory
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Oskinova, Lida

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

Chandra and XMM-Newton have deeply changed our view of the X-ray emission of massive stars. However, the majority of the massive stars being rather faint sources, the number of high-resolution X-ray ... [more ▼]

Chandra and XMM-Newton have deeply changed our view of the X-ray emission of massive stars. However, the majority of the massive stars being rather faint sources, the number of high-resolution X-ray spectra of massive stars remains rather limited and obtaining these spectra requires rather long exposure times. ESA, NASA and JAXA are currently designing the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) that will provide a quantum leap in collecting area compared to the current missions. In this contribution, we highlight the capabilities of IXO and its instrumentation for the study of massive stars in our Galaxy and beyond. [less ▲]

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See detailThe X-ray emission of the WR+O binary WR 79
Gosset, Eric ULiege; Sana, Hugues; Rauw, Grégor ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

In the framework of our multiwavelength study of the open cluster NGC 6231, we observed the colliding-wind WR+O binary WR 79 at six different epochs with the XMM-Newton observatory. These pointings offer ... [more ▼]

In the framework of our multiwavelength study of the open cluster NGC 6231, we observed the colliding-wind WR+O binary WR 79 at six different epochs with the XMM-Newton observatory. These pointings offer the possibility to study the X-ray spectrum of WR 79 and its possible variability. Our results are briefly discussed and compared with the X-ray characteristics of other similar objects. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic binaries as observed by the future Gaia space mission
Damerdji, Yassine ULiege; Delchambre, Ludovic ULiege; Morel, Thierry ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

The future Gaia satellite will observe a large number of stars through its three main channels: astrometric, photometric and, for the brightest stars, spectroscopic. The satellite is equipped with the RVS ... [more ▼]

The future Gaia satellite will observe a large number of stars through its three main channels: astrometric, photometric and, for the brightest stars, spectroscopic. The satellite is equipped with the RVS spectrograph, which will provide medium-resolution spectra over a small wavelength range. These spectra should allow us to identify stars exhibiting a composite spectrum, either because of a chance alignment or a true binarity. We discuss the various aspects related to the data treatment of the binary candidates and describe the algorithms that are intended to be included in the processing pipeline. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for X-ray sources around WR 22 in the Carina region
Claeskens, Jean-François ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege; Nazé, Yaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 525

We present the results of a deep search for X-ray sources in a circular field of 30' in diameter situated around WR 22 in the Carina region and observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. This field is ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a deep search for X-ray sources in a circular field of 30' in diameter situated around WR 22 in the Carina region and observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. This field is broadly located to the west of the main part of the Carina nebula. On the basis of six pointings (nominal exposure time: 10 ks each) centred on the WR+O binary star WR 22, we perform a survey with an effective exposure time of 68.8 ks. We introduce a catalogue of 43 bona-fide X-ray point sources, most of which were unknown before the XMM-Newton observations, and perform the first steps towards their identifications by cross-correlating the positions with optical/infrared catalogues. We investigated the possible variability of these sources in the X-ray domain and we extracted a few X-ray spectra for the brightest ones. A short description of the diffuse X-ray emission present in the region is also given. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailA photometric study of the Carina nebula region around WR 22
Kumar, Brajesh ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

We performed the first photometric observations of a field situated around WR 22 in the Carina nebula region. We present and discuss the preliminary results of the study.

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