Publications of Anne-Claude Romain
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailThe electronic nose as a warning device of the odour emergence in a compost hall
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Ledent, C.

in Marco, S.; Montoliu, I. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on olfaction and electronic nose (ISOEN 2005) (2005, April)

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as ... [more ▼]

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as discriminant analysis, are able to recognize, in real time, the odour of compost with respect to other possible sources in the hall. The paper shows that with unsupervised methods, such as principal component analysis, it is not essential to identify all the possible odour sources during the learning phase. The closeness to the compost group centroid could be used as an indicator of the compost odour level. Alternatively, by a suitable calibration from olfactory measurements, the signals generated by the sensor array can be used to estimate the odour emission rate from the compost hall. Such real time monitoring should allow to assess and to anticipate the annoyance in the surrounding. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailMicrobial volatile organic compounds as indicators of fungi. Can an electronic nose detect fungi in indoor environments?
Kuske, Martyna; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Building and Environment (2005), 40(6), 824-831

The paper presents a review of several studies on the detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) considered as indicators of fungal contamination. As fungi produce specific profiles, or ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a review of several studies on the detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) considered as indicators of fungal contamination. As fungi produce specific profiles, or fingerprints of volatile compounds, the electronic nose technology is a very promising opportunity for rapid and non costly detection of fungi in buildings. E-noses are able to distinguish between mouldy and non-mouldy samples, and also to recognise certain species of fungi. However, two limiting factors may appear decisive for employment of electronic noses in indoor fungi detection: low concentrations of MVOCs and presence of interfering substances in indoor environments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 160 (57 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFuzzy k-NN applied to moulds detection
Kuske, Martyna; Rubio, R.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege et al

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2005), 106(1), 52-60

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be ... [more ▼]

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be obtained combining an extended linear discriminant analysis plus a fuzzy k-NN classifier. The classification ability of the classifier is assessed within the dataset by crossvalidation and also in a second dataset collected 5 months later. There is a slight decrease in the classification performance for all the algorithms, being the most sensitive the most accurate one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (45 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThe electronic nose : a tool for controlling the industrial odour emission. Application to the compost processing
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Kuske, Martyna ULiege

in VDI (Ed.) VDI Report 185 international conference "environmental odour management" (2004, November)

Different laboratory-made electronic noses, based on commercial tin oxide gas sensors were used to identify typical sources of odour nuisance : printing houses, paint shop in a coachbuilding, wastewater ... [more ▼]

Different laboratory-made electronic noses, based on commercial tin oxide gas sensors were used to identify typical sources of odour nuisance : printing houses, paint shop in a coachbuilding, wastewater treatment plant, urban waste composting facilities or rendering plant. All the samples were collected in the field from real malodours in uncontrollable conditions. In spite of the influence of environmental parameters, results demonstrated the ability of such simple systems to detect and identify typical odour nuisances. Those findings encouraged us to develop portable instruments able to monitor continuously the odours emerging from factories or from landfills sites. The paper analyses the type of output signal most adapted both to detect the rise of a particular odour in the background and to monitor it continuously, in order to allow a decision making in real time. The method is illustrated on a particular application : the monitoring of the odour generated by a municipal waste composting process. The paper discusses the ability of a technique based on an electronic nose to control the odour abatement device, which is the atomisation of a neutralising agent. To reach such final goal, the main difficulties to overcome are : - to cope with the sensor drift - to lower the limit of detection and the limit of recognition of the sensor array - to improve the reproducibility of the sensors. However, comparing the sensor array signals with analytical and olfactometric results leads to promising conclusions regarding two main possible applications : - using the odour, as detected by the electronic nose, as a process variable for the compost formation; - predicting the raise of malodour in the background before it becomes an annoyance for the surrounding. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULiège)
See detaile-nose for malodour monitoring
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Poster (2004, March 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailEstablishing the limit of detection and the resolution limits of odorous sources in the environment for an array of metal oxide gas sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2004), 99(2-3), 384-392

Odour identification with gas sensor arrays relies on two main parameters: the limit of detection, defined as the concentration of the analyte corresponding to the lowest detectable signal for the sensors ... [more ▼]

Odour identification with gas sensor arrays relies on two main parameters: the limit of detection, defined as the concentration of the analyte corresponding to the lowest detectable signal for the sensors, and the limit of resolution, defined for pair-wise comparisons of vapours, as the concentration levels below which a vapour can no longer be reliably recognised from another one on the basis of its response pattern. For real-life environmental odours, however, it is no longer possible to express such limits in "concentration" terms, because they are complex gas mixtures composed of hundreds of various compounds. The paper tries to assess both limits for odorous sources in the environment firstly by finding an equivalence of the odour concentration, expressed in odorous unit per cubic meter (ou/m3), and the concentration of a reference gas, here the ethanol, and secondly by working with a statistical metric, based on the magnitude and standard deviations along linear projections of clustered response data. The methodology is illustrated for a metal oxide gas sensor array and the odour generated by urban waste composting facilities, which is compared to the background air and to ethanol vapour. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDéveloppement d'un instrument d'évaluation des impacts de matériaux sensibles aux moisissures sur la qualité de l'air intérieur.
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Kuske, Martyna

Report (2004)

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a FIRST-Europe project, the research team worked with a partner from university of Barcelona (Spain) and a company fabricating products to reduce moisture problems in dwellings. An original instrument was designed. It was based on the "electronic nose" principle. With suitable data processing tools and an adequate calibration, the instrument was able to distinguish, from the analysis of the gas phase, the emission of the clean material from the one of the same material contaminated by moulds and from the one of the product against humidity. Discriminating between different mould species was more difficult. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAdaptation et test d'un nez électronique pour suivre en continu la nuisance olfactive générée par un centre de compostage
Ledent, Catherine; Dauby, B.; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege et al

in Revue scientifique des instituts supérieurs industriels libres francophones (2004), 18

L'article présente le travail de fin d'études de Catherine Ledent. Celui-ci a consisté à la mise au point et au test sur le terrain (sur le centre de compostage à Habay) d'un nez électronique destiné à ... [more ▼]

L'article présente le travail de fin d'études de Catherine Ledent. Celui-ci a consisté à la mise au point et au test sur le terrain (sur le centre de compostage à Habay) d'un nez électronique destiné à être placé en continu sur un site industriel, de manière à détecter des occurrences d'odeur. Le prototype existant a été adapté de manière à satisfaire aux exigences du terrain. Par exemple, une régulation thermique de la chambre des capteurs a permis de s'affranchir des variations de température de l'ambiance. La phase de validation sur le terrain fut la plus exigeante: elle nécessitait en effet une présence constante de l'étudiante sur le terrain, de manière à identifier les causes possibles de variation des capteurs. En finale, le système a montré d'excellentes performances et peut servir de base à un développement technologique ultérieur. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDetection of moulds growing on building materials by gas sensor arrays and pattern recognition
Kuske, Martyna; Padilla, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege et al

in Technical digest of eurosensors : proceedings (2004)

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array Four mould species have been considered. Pattern Classification provides ... [more ▼]

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array Four mould species have been considered. Pattern Classification provides classification rates on the order of 80-90% for different species. Drift degrades slightyl these values subsequent test four months later. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFuzzy K-NN applied to moulds detection
Kuske, Martyna; Rubio, R.; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege et al

in Proceedings of ISOEN'03 (2003, June)

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be ... [more ▼]

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be obtained combining an extended linear discriminant analysis plus a fuzzy k-NN classifier. The classification ability of the classifier is assessed within the dataset by crossvalidation and also in a second dataset collected 5 months later. There is a slight decrease in the classification performance for all the algorithms, being the most sensitive the most accurate one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULiège)
See detailMonitoring the odour of compost as a process variable
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Kuske, M.; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Kleperis, janis (Ed.) book of abstracts of the 10th international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose (2003)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThe use of sensor arrays for environmental monitoring: interests and limitations
Bourgeois, W.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege et al

in Journal of Environmental Monitoring (2003), 5(6), 852-860

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ ... [more ▼]

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ monitoring. Their ability and performance under realistic conditions is discussed in this paper. Published studies report promising results despite a number of limitations that are associated with both the technology itself and its application in ever changing ambient conditions. Early investigations include the analysis of single substances as well as odour and wastewater organic load monitoring. Reported applications typically highlight the sensitivity of the currently available sensors to changes in temperature, humidity and flow rate. Two types of approaches are recommended to deal with these effects: either working under fixed experimental conditions or measuring the external parameters to numerically compensate for their change. The main challenge associated with the use of non-specific sensor arrays lies in establishing a relationship between the measured multivariate signals and the standards metrics that are traditionally used for quality assessment of gas mixtures. For instance, odour monitoring requires calibration against olfactometric measurements while investigations of wastewater samples still need to be correlated with organic pollution parameters such as BOD, COD or TOC. On the other hand, results obtained in the field have demonstrated how sensor arrays can be readily used as simple alarm devices or as early warning systems based on a general air/water quality index. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAssessment of detection thresholds of metal oxide sensors based e-nose to the pollution emitted by odorous sources.
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

in Proceedings of the Ninth international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose ISOEN'02 (2002, September)

The paper describes a method to assess the global concentration level of a complex odorous gas mixture which is detected by an electronic nose, and consequently to assess the detection threshold of the ... [more ▼]

The paper describes a method to assess the global concentration level of a complex odorous gas mixture which is detected by an electronic nose, and consequently to assess the detection threshold of the instrument for that particular odour. The studied case is the odour generated by urban waste composting facilities. The measurement is performed in the lab with an array of 12 tin oxide gas sensors on samples collected near the emission. The selected method consists in finding an equivalence between the response of each individual sensor to the concentrations of ethanol used as a standard gas and the responses to various dilution of the original sample. The main issues of that procedure are the order of magnitude of the "concentration" of the non-diluted compost emission sample expressed in ethanol-equivalent and the detection threshold of the sensor array for the compost gas. The latter result requires a suitable definition of the detection threshold, based on the signal to noise ratio. The conclusion is that the detection threshold of Tagushi sensors, expressed in equivalent-ethanol, is generally lower than 1 ppmv and is just slightly higher than the perception threshold of the human nose for the odour gener-ated by compost. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailApplying the electronic nose in the environment : requirements for the sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Szuber, Jacek (Ed.) Papers from the 3rd international seminar on semiconductor gas sensors-SGS 2002, Ustron, Poland, 19-22 september 2002 (2002, September)

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the ... [more ▼]

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the environment and directly in the field. <br />For such emissions, the gas mixtures are very complex and only their odour should be of interest, and not their chemical composition. <br />Moreover, working in the field implies various constraints. <br />The obstacles of the monitoring of real life environmental odours with an electronic nose can be classified into three main areas : the final goal of the study (measuring an odorous annoyance), the analysed sample itself (influenced by the evolution of the process and of ambient parameters) and the operating conditions (necessity to transport the reference gas and the batteries in the field, influence of air humidity). <br />The paper describes the approach of FUL to the problem with various tests conducted in the field with home-made electronic noses based on tin oxide sensors and with very simple configurations. The conclusions, which can be extrapolated to any other sensor types, are promising, but the sensor performances (sensibility, reproducibility, electrical consumption, drift, etc.) should still be improved before reaching the final goal. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (21 ULiège)
See detailDétection des moisissures de l'habitat par un nez électronique
kuske, martyna; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in actes des conférences Eurodeur-airodeur (2002, June 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAssessment of odour annoyance by e-nose in the field : some results
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Kuske, M.

Poster (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThree years experiment with the same tin oxide sensor arrays for the identification of malodorous sources in the environment
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical (2002), (84), 271-277

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either in the lab or in the field are used. The effect of the long term drift of the sensors is highlighted on the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and of discriminant function analysis (DFA). The paper examines also the applicability of some drift counteraction methods proposed in the literature. Handled with some care, a correction based on the drift direction in the principal components subspace should be applicable to the classification of real odorous sources in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailSolvent detection in indoor air with a sensor array
Maternova, J.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

in Proceedings of the 8th conference Eurodeur (2001, June)

Air composition in dwellings and public buildings is studied by means of gas chromatography and a sensor micro array 01D28 (MICROSENS, Swiss). Only benzene and its alkyl-derivatives are quantified. The ... [more ▼]

Air composition in dwellings and public buildings is studied by means of gas chromatography and a sensor micro array 01D28 (MICROSENS, Swiss). Only benzene and its alkyl-derivatives are quantified. The micro array 01D28 is composed of six metal oxide gas sensors (SnO2 doped by Pd) equipped with standard or inter-digited electrodes. Isothermal working mode (500oC for all sensors) is applied. Conductivities after 10 minutes of signal acquisition in the studied air are considered as characterizing its chemical composition. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and different linear regression techniques (Inverse Least Squares, Principal Components Regression and Partial Least Squares) are applied to find a relation between the sensors signals and the indoor air composition as determined by the gas chromatography. The presented results suggest that the monitoring of aromatics substances in the indoor air by means of a micro-array of metal oxide gas sensors is possible. The array distinguishes polluted and non-polluted air and it can even evaluate the concentration of the benzene and the toluene. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (6 ULiège)