Publications of Anne-Claude Romain
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See detailCan we combine field olfactometry and plume method measurements ?
Vieira, M. M.; Guillot, J.-M.; Belli Filho, P. et al

Conference (2018)

Field campaigns were conducted, in Flanders (northern Belgium), to evaluate the applicability of field olfactometry to potentially improve the plume method. These field measurements were carried out ... [more ▼]

Field campaigns were conducted, in Flanders (northern Belgium), to evaluate the applicability of field olfactometry to potentially improve the plume method. These field measurements were carried out around five different industrial sites under neutral or slightly unstable weather conditions. Preliminary results show some limitations and possible applications of in-field odour-measuring devices to enhance the method by supplementing bare nose sniff testing observations. [less ▲]

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See detailRevision de la legislacion sobre olores en varias partes del mundo, un trabajo de 14 expertos internacionales
Bokowa, A.; Diaz, C.; Izquierdo, C. et al

Conference (2017, September)

In this paper we will try to introduce some of the information that a group of 14 experts from different countries is discussing regarding odour regulations. The aim is to publish the first critical ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will try to introduce some of the information that a group of 14 experts from different countries is discussing regarding odour regulations. The aim is to publish the first critical review over odour legislation in several parts of the world, analysing not only from a descriptive way any single regulation, but also from a critical point of view. This review will try to identify points to improve and will offer alternatives to some common issues when dealing with regulating the odour impact. The final paper will be published in a Journal not determined yet. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité de l'air intérieur en Belgique
Bladt, Sandrine; Bouland, Catherine; Casimir, Georges et al

Report (2017)

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See detailFirst step to build on index to detect microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by moulds growing on building materials.
Falzone, Claudia ULiege; Dinne, Karla; Kuske, Martyna ULiege et al

in Olfaction and electronic nose (ISOEN), 2017 ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on (2017, May 29)

Nowadays, the detection of moulds hidden in buildings is only possible after degradation of the building materials. In the early 2000s, a new approach is suggested to detect fungal contamination of ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, the detection of moulds hidden in buildings is only possible after degradation of the building materials. In the early 2000s, a new approach is suggested to detect fungal contamination of building materials. This one is based on the determination of the VOC emitted by the mouds, called Microbial-VOC (MVOC). This study was conducted to screen the emission of MVOCs by three different moulds growing on specific materials (shower mat, plasterboard, wood wool). The carbon dioxide, as indicator of biological activity, was also measured. In this paper, the development of an integrated index was considered for a new approach in the detection of hidden moulds. The index will be an algorithm with various variables specific to the moulds (for example : RH, CO2, single VOC and specific VOC pattern...). The goal is to propose an innovative and simple tool working with low cost sensors. [less ▲]

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See detailInstrumental odour monitoring : actions for a new european standard
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Capelli, Laura; Guillot, Jean-Michel

in Olfaction and electronic nose (ISOEN), 2017 ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on (2017, May 29)

Odour concentration is measured sensorially, thus needing a human panel, whereas the measurement of odorous compounds is typically based on physical and chemical analysis. Some systems such as electronic ... [more ▼]

Odour concentration is measured sensorially, thus needing a human panel, whereas the measurement of odorous compounds is typically based on physical and chemical analysis. Some systems such as electronic noses try to correlate both approaches in order to measure odour instrumentally. In the domain of instrumental odour monitoring, e-noses are the main candidates, although a wide range of devices based on different sensing technologies and data processing methods can be used for this purpose. Such devices are already applied in different situations, especially for monitoring of odours in ambient air. However, up to now, there is still neither standardization nor regulatory reference for this technology. In 2015, a European working group (WG41), in the frame of technical comittee CEN/TC264 Air Quality, was established aiming to develop a standard related to instrumental odour monitoring. This paper presents the scope and the general outline of this forthcoming standard. [less ▲]

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See detailMSW odor quantification using electronic nose and chemical analyzers : relative exploration of prediction capabilities and robust model development
Deshmukh, Sharvari; Purohit, Hermant J.; Vaidya, Atul N. et al

in Olfaction and electronic nose (ISOEN), 2017 ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on (2017, May 29)

The work investigates the real-time measurements of municipal solid waste odors using both low-cost chemical sensor array (electronic nose) and chemical analyzers. The study aimed to develop mathematical ... [more ▼]

The work investigates the real-time measurements of municipal solid waste odors using both low-cost chemical sensor array (electronic nose) and chemical analyzers. The study aimed to develop mathematical models using multilinear regression for prediction of odor concentration using electronic nose and chemical five months (50 days) were simultaneously analyzed using electronic nose, chemical analyzers and olfactometer installed at Municipal Solid Waste site. Principal component analysis was carried out on sensors data to study the different sources and concentration levels of odors. The output of olfactometer was correlated with the resonse of sensor array and chemical analyzers using multilinear regression model. The prediction models developed for correlating electronic nose and olfactometer & chemical analyzer with olfactometer helped to understand the usability of both electronic nose and chemical analyzer for odor concentration prediction. The results on these aspects are discussed in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailSite de traitement de déchets de Habay : Estimation des odeurs par olfactométrie déambulatoire en 2015-2016
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Molitor, Noémie ULiege

Report (2017)

Cette étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de la mission "Réseau de contrôle des C.E.T. en Région wallonne" confiée à l'ISSeP par la DGO3. La partie « odeur » est prise en charge par le laboratoire SAM (Sensing ... [more ▼]

Cette étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de la mission "Réseau de contrôle des C.E.T. en Région wallonne" confiée à l'ISSeP par la DGO3. La partie « odeur » est prise en charge par le laboratoire SAM (Sensing of Atmospheres and Monitoring) du Département des Sciences et Gestion de l'Environnement de l'Université de Liège. L’olfactométrie déambulatoire et la modélisation est sous-traitée à la spin-off Odometric [less ▲]

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See detailL'observatoire des odeurs : un outil de résolution des conflits ? Réflexions d'un acteur de terrain
Cors, Marie; Cobut, Pierre; Fanlo, Jean-Louis et al

in Pollution Atmosphérique : climat, santé, société (2017), (234),

Considérant la complexité d’établir un lien entre la dose et l’effet en matière de nuisance olfactive, et par là la difficulté d’apporter une réponse satisfaisante aux riverains subissant la nuisance, les ... [more ▼]

Considérant la complexité d’établir un lien entre la dose et l’effet en matière de nuisance olfactive, et par là la difficulté d’apporter une réponse satisfaisante aux riverains subissant la nuisance, les expériences de terrain rapportent la prépondérance des situations conflictuelles. Ces dernières étant dommageables à la recherche de solution, cet article questionne le potentiel de l’observatoire des odeurs comme méthode, non seulement de caractérisation des émissions olfactives, mais aussi de résolution de conflit. Les objectifs qu’il poursuit classiquement sont mis en regard des écueils relevés par la pratique. La capacité du processus à produire un équilibrage du rapport de force entre les parties prenantes et à fournir une matière première sur laquelle baser des définitions communes ouvre les portes d’une négociation possible. Sans cette dernière, la définition d’un niveau acceptable de la nuisance restera conceptuelle et contestable. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison low cost chemical sensors analytical instruments for odour monitoring in a municipal waste plant
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Molitor, Noémie ULiege; Adam, Gilles et al

in Chemical Engineering Transactions (2016), 54

The gas sensing performances of low cost commercial chemical sensors are compared to the ones of standardized chemical analysers. Real time measurements are performed on the field of three municipal solid ... [more ▼]

The gas sensing performances of low cost commercial chemical sensors are compared to the ones of standardized chemical analysers. Real time measurements are performed on the field of three municipal solid waste plants (MSW). Long-term campaigns of several months have been organised during the period 2010-2015. The sensors and the reference analysers have worked simultaneously. The selected sensors are commercial metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOx, Figaro). The sensors-array devices are developed at the ULg laboratory (SAM). Analysers are certified and operated by the official Wallonia public scientific institute (ISSeP). In addition to odour, other target compounds are considered: methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, but also NMHC as limonene, pinene and BTEX The laboratory has a long experience in using chemical sensors for odour in-field measurements, especially for landfills and composting plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances of chemo-resistors array for continuous monitoring of compounds typical of municipal wastes in comparison to reference analysers. It highlights weaknesses and strengths of the two kinds of devices. The obtained results are considered for odour event detection as well as for chemical compound quantification and are discussed to evaluate the efficiency of metal oxide sensors for a low cost gas emissions assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe volet sanitaire de l'habitat et les performances énergétiques
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Conference (2015, December 08)

otre maison n’est pas toujours le cocon douillet que l’on imagine ! Polluants chimiques, agents biologiques et facteurs physiques polluent nos intérieurs en interagissant entre eux et sur les personnes de ... [more ▼]

otre maison n’est pas toujours le cocon douillet que l’on imagine ! Polluants chimiques, agents biologiques et facteurs physiques polluent nos intérieurs en interagissant entre eux et sur les personnes de manière différenciée... ce qui rend le diagnostic particulièrement complexe. Malgré le fait que l’air intérieur est aujourd’hui considéré comme plus pollué que l’air extérieur et sachant que l’on passe 20h par jour à l’intérieur, on peut s’étonner de la quasi-inexistence de réglementation en la matière... Tout aussi interpellant est le bilan de la PEB sur la qualité de l’habitat dit « durable ». D’un côté, une isolation élevée qui conduit à l’augmentation du confinement et de l’autre, des ventilations mécaniques pas toujours adaptées en termes de débit de renouvellement de l’air, des installations non entretenues et ici encore, une absence de règlementation et d’harmonisation des normes ! Sans remettre en cause les bienfaits de la performance énergétique des bâtiments, force est de constater qu’un important travail d’harmonisation des normes et des labels et de règlementation quant à la maintenance des installations de ventilation est indispensable [less ▲]

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See detailPollution de l'air intérieur : ma santé est-elle en danger?
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Conference (2015, May 05)

l’intérêt porté à la réduction des gaz à effet de serre et de la consommation d’énergies fossiles dans un contexte de crise économique a motivé une meilleure isolation des bâtiments. Cette isolation ... [more ▼]

l’intérêt porté à la réduction des gaz à effet de serre et de la consommation d’énergies fossiles dans un contexte de crise économique a motivé une meilleure isolation des bâtiments. Cette isolation accrue, certes bénéfique d’un point de vue des performances énergétiques des bâtiments, peut cependant présenter un effet pervers sur la qualité de l’air intérieur. En effet, dans certaines situations, une accumulation accrue des polluants domestiques dans l’air dit intérieur est observée. Il est reconnu que la teneur en polluants dans nos logements est aujourd’hui plus élevée que dans l’air ambiant. Or nous passons plus de 20 heures par jour à l’intérieur de locaux. Souvent considérée comme insignifiante au regard de la pollution atmosphérique, la qualité de l’air de nos intérieurs contribue pourtant, selon une étude européenne, à un tiers de la perte de l’espérance de vie du à l’air pollué. Quel le est la composition de cet air intérieur, quels sont ses impacts sur notre santé, que font les pouvoirs publics ? [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic nose Technology for reactor state and biogas quality assessment in anaerobic digestion
Adam, Gilles ULiege; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier et al

Poster (2015, March 17)

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See detailSick Building Syndrome : Analyse et prévention
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Scientific conference (2015, January 22)

Le SBS se caractérise par un ou plusieurs symptômes non spécifiques touchant la peau, les muqueuses, le système respiratoire et/ou le système nerveux central. Ces symptômes apparaissent rapidement lorsque ... [more ▼]

Le SBS se caractérise par un ou plusieurs symptômes non spécifiques touchant la peau, les muqueuses, le système respiratoire et/ou le système nerveux central. Ces symptômes apparaissent rapidement lorsque des personnes séjournent dans un bâtiment et s’estompent, voire le plus souvent disparaissent, dès qu’elles le quittent, le soir, le week end ou durant les vacances. Ils sont donc indéniablement liés à l’occupation des locaux. Le SBS a été défini par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé ou OMS en 1983 qui en 1984 a évalué à 30% des bâtiments nouveaux ou rénovés le taux de « sick buildings ». Les symptômes a long terme incluent les allergies et l’asthme, certains cancers, des maladies auto-immunes ou neurodégénératives. POINTS ABORDES • Définition du SBS • Analyse des sources de contamination indoor • Solutions pour réduire la contamination indoor • Actions préventives OBJECTIFS • Comprendre le SBS, ses expressions • Identifier les sources d’inconfort • Pouvoir anticiper et solutionner les problèmes sources d’inconfort [less ▲]

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See detailUpscaling of an electronic nose for continuously stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant
Adam, Gilles ULiege; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier et al

in Bioresource Technology (2015), 178

This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T² statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport d'étude convention ISSEP-ULg Mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Champ de Beaumont" à Monceau sur Sambre 5ème campagne Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Report (2015)

L’étude des nuisances olfactives du CET de Monceau-sur-Sambre s’inscrit dans le cadre de la mission "Réseau de contrôle des C.E.T. en Région wallonne" confiée à l'ISSeP par la DGO3 et sous traitée par l ... [more ▼]

L’étude des nuisances olfactives du CET de Monceau-sur-Sambre s’inscrit dans le cadre de la mission "Réseau de contrôle des C.E.T. en Région wallonne" confiée à l'ISSeP par la DGO3 et sous traitée par l'unité de recherche SAM (Sensing of Atmospheres and Monitoring : nouvelle appellation de l’unité « Surveillance de l’environnement ») du Département des Sciences et Gestion de l'Environnement de l'Université de Liège. Le présent rapport concerne la cinquième campagne 2014-2015 menée sur le site de Monceau-sur-Sambre et fait suite aux campagnes de 2002, 2004, 2008 et 2011. L’étude a pour objectif de faire état de la situation « odeur » actuelle du site et de la comparer aux résultats des campagnes précédentes [less ▲]

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See detailOutline of ULg chemical sensors applications for IAQ evaluation
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Conference (2014, December 04)

The arrival of the European and National laws* concerning the official labelling of building materials (CE marking) and the respect of concentration values for some compounds regulations in public ... [more ▼]

The arrival of the European and National laws* concerning the official labelling of building materials (CE marking) and the respect of concentration values for some compounds regulations in public buildings as for instance schools, the emergence of the Environmental Assessments of buildings (Breeam, HQE,…) beside the energy performance, as well as the awareness increase of the impact of indoor air quality on the wellness and health (ie ENVIE and Healthvent projects [1]) lead inevitably to the development of new sensing technologies related to the IAQ evaluation. Among the numerous existing measurement devices, electrochemical cells, NDIR and PID ones are the most encountered sensors on the market. The major uses are real time monitoring (CO2) and “friendly” handheld devices. Other applications are also studied in several research labs. Few years ago, the ULg research team investigated the interest of MOS chemical sensors arrays for IAQ evaluation. This presentation aims to review some of the results of those projects. A first is the fast and simple diagnosis of moulds on building materials. The identification of contaminated materials among uncontaminated ones was successful [2-4]. However, the low concentration of the MVOC markers compounds (below 10 µg/m³) and the complexity of the background (material emissions, and VOC content of the indoor air) curbed the use of MOS sensors. Specific preconcentrations have to be developed to improve the diagnosis. Nowadays, with the emergence of new sensing materials and new measurement principles (eg IMS-ion mobility spectrometry [5]), perspectives are again opened. Another project (HEMICPD, Belgian project “Horizontal evaluation method for the implementation of the Construction Products Directive”-Emissions to indoor air [6]) concerned the marking of building materials and one of the tasks was to test the sensors array principle to monitor the compounds emanation from different building material, during 28 days, in emission test chambers. Another goal was to investigate a classification of the materials including their odour level. The results on the use of sensors to evaluate the efficiency of “masking” products pulverised in wallpapers and to manage their use are also explained. [less ▲]

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See detailOmniscientis project-final report
Omniscientis, partenaires; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Conference (2014, December)

The EU-funded 'Odour monitoring and information system based on citizen and technology innovative sensors' (http://www.omniscientis.eu/, OMNISCIENTIS) project has made significant inroads in this regard ... [more ▼]

The EU-funded 'Odour monitoring and information system based on citizen and technology innovative sensors' (http://www.omniscientis.eu/, OMNISCIENTIS) project has made significant inroads in this regard with the aim of mitigating odour annoyance. To begin with, documents were developed describing the desired specifications for odour measurement, dispersion modelling and information technologies. In parallel, the needs and expectations of all stakeholders, including citizens, regulatory authorities and industrial bodies, were taken into consideration. Citizens' feedback on odour acceptability levels were gathered through smartphones and using the living lab approach. They were further combined with measurements from e-nose and odour dispersion models. Project members developed an Odour Information System that produces validated monitoring statistics and impact levels for local authorities to support environment-related decision-making and for citizens to give them feedback on their complaints. A mobile application is also available, used by citizens to perform odour related observations. Over 5000 observations were sent until now. Besides, two in-situ e-nose sensors and a meteorological station were installed and calibrated in the industrial site in Belgium, serving as pilot. Further 18 industrial parameters are collected in real time and 15 odour field surveys have been performed to understand odour sources and characteristics. The e-nose technology was optimised through tests and improvements to better understand relevant odour parameters at the second pilot site, a pig farm in Austria. Researchers adapted the GRAL-System pollutant dispersion model to develop a fast odour dispersion modelling system using harmonised real-time meteorological data and industrial emission measurements. It was validated with the odour emission rates, olfactometry campaigns and citizens observations. Most of the GRAL-solver components were implemented in Cuda with a speed improved by a factor superior of 100. Project activities were disseminated via project website and factsheets, 3 scientific papers, 13 international conferences and 3 user workshops involving selected citizens, technicians and authorities. Local environmental governance was enhanced through citizen empowerment via monthly meetings and specific methodologies. Better and timely feedback on undesirable odours arising from certain emissions will help in setting evidence-based acceptable odour limits. Ultimately, a particular attention have been addressed by all partners and in particular by involved SMEs in order to ensure the exploitation of the results and enabling the identification of concrete commercial opportunities that may be pursued after the project. [less ▲]

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See detailOdour measurement networks: e-noses and emission data
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege

Conference (2014, September 23)

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See detailChemical Mass Balance model applied to an olfactory annoyance problematic
Clarke, Kevin; Redon, Nathalie; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege et al

in Environmental Science & Technology (2014), Just accepted manuscript(web),

The source-receptor model CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) generally used for air pollution studies is applied for the first time to solve odour signatures issues. The olfactory annoyance perceived at a ... [more ▼]

The source-receptor model CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) generally used for air pollution studies is applied for the first time to solve odour signatures issues. The olfactory annoyance perceived at a receptor site of an industrial area is often the result of a combination of different smells, emitted by several industrial sources. To identify the main responsible for the inconvenience, tools able to determine the contribution of each source directly where the annoyance is perceived are widely developed and deployed. In this work, the contributions of VOC sources, coming from a waste treatment plant containing 3 potential sources of olfactory annoyance (waste storage, production of biogas, and compost piles of green wastes), and perceived at a village located downwind, are studied by chemical analyses. The CMB methodology is applied and the results are finally compared to olfactometric methods, in order to validate whether it is appropriate to use this model for olfactory problems or not. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic nose for reactor stability monitoring of an agricultural co-digestion biogas plant
Adam, Gilles ULiege; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Progress in Biogas III - Biogas Production from agricultural biomass and organic residues (2014, September)

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