Publications of Guy Munhoven
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See detailAnthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean
Regnier, Pierre A.G.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe et al

in Nature Geoscience (2013), 6(0), 597-607

A substantial amount of the atmospheric carbon taken up on land through photosynthesis and chemical weathering is transported laterally along the aquatic continuum from upland terrestrial ecosystems to ... [more ▼]

A substantial amount of the atmospheric carbon taken up on land through photosynthesis and chemical weathering is transported laterally along the aquatic continuum from upland terrestrial ecosystems to the ocean. So far, global carbon budget estimates have implicitly assumed that the transformation and lateral transport of carbon along this aquatic continuum has remained unchanged since pre-industrial times. A synthesis of published work reveals the magnitude of present-day lateral carbon fluxes from land to ocean, and the extent to which human activities have altered these fluxes. We show that anthropogenic perturbation may have increased the flux of carbon to inland waters by as much as 1.0 Pg C yr-1 since pre-industrial times, mainly owing to enhanced carbon export from soils. Most of this additional carbon input to upstream rivers is either emitted back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (~0.4 Pg C yr-1) or sequestered in sediments (~0.5 Pg C yr-1) along the continuum of freshwater bodies, estuaries and coastal waters, leaving only a perturbation carbon input of ~0.1 Pg C yr-1 to the open ocean. According to our analysis, terrestrial ecosystems store ~0.9 Pg C yr-1 at present, which is in agreement with results from forest inventories but significantly differs from the figure of 1.5 Pg C yr-1 previously estimated when ignoring changes in lateral carbon fluxes. We suggest that carbon fluxes along the land–ocean aquatic continuum need to be included in global carbon dioxide budgets. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of the Marine Carbon Cycle
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

Scientific conference (2012, October 17)

The lecture is subdivided into two parts. The first one deals with the essence of modelling, with the main principles and stages of development. The procedure of model development will be exemplified on ... [more ▼]

The lecture is subdivided into two parts. The first one deals with the essence of modelling, with the main principles and stages of development. The procedure of model development will be exemplified on the basis of a practical question. During this first part, a number of concepts and parameters that are important for the particular case of ocean carbon cycle modelling are already introduced. In the second part, we further deepen these. We explore the main physical and biogeochemical processes that are important to understand how the carbon cycle operates in the world ocean and provide insight into the way they are represented in different types of models currently used. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rain Ratio Hypothesis Revisited
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

Poster (2012, September 21)

The Rain Ratio Hypothesis (Archer and Maier-Reimer, 1994, Nature 367, 260–263) ascribes an important part of the observed glacial-interglacial variations of CO2 in the atmosphere to reduced sea-floor rain ... [more ▼]

The Rain Ratio Hypothesis (Archer and Maier-Reimer, 1994, Nature 367, 260–263) ascribes an important part of the observed glacial-interglacial variations of CO2 in the atmosphere to reduced sea-floor rain ratio (i.e., carbonate-C/organic-C in the biogenic particle flux at the sea-floor) during glacial times. With a lower sea-floor rain ratio the influence of organic carbon respiration on carbonate dissolution is stronger. The deep-sea carbonate ion concentration required for global ocean carbonate compensation will then be higher, which in turn contributes to lower atmospheric pCO2. Munhoven (2007, Deep-Sea Research II, 722–746) showed that the suggested rain ratio reductions lead to unrealistic sedimentary records for %CaCO3: the transition zone changes in the model sedimentary record were too large and opposite in phase to available observational data. The rain ratio reduction applied by Munhoven (2007) was uniform over the ocean and the author hypothesised that a non-uniform reduction could change the complete picture. If the rain ratio variations had primarily taken place in open ocean areas of great depth—essentially in regions where the sea floor was deeper than the saturation horizon or the CCD—then the transition zone boundaries could possibly have moved less. Here, we test this hypothesis and analyse the effect of depth dependent variations. We find that concentrating rain ratio changes over areas of great water depth completely alters the sedimentary imprint: the phase relationship of the signal reverts (compared to the uniform case) and the amplitude of the change decreases, bringing it into better agreement with available observations. However, the global average rain ratio reduction of 40% that yielded a 40 ppm reduction of atmospheric pCO2 in the uniform case only leads to 25 ppm in this non-uniform case. [less ▲]

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See detailMitigation Potential of Artificial Ocean Alkalinization For Ocean Acidification and Atmospheric CO2
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULiege et al

Poster (2012, September)

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in climate change and ocean acidification. Enhanced weathering or artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) has been proposed as a geoengineering method to mitigate further ... [more ▼]

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in climate change and ocean acidification. Enhanced weathering or artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) has been proposed as a geoengineering method to mitigate further increase of atmospheric CO2 and decrease of ocean pH. A variant of AOA involves reacting carbonates and adding the dissolved materials into the upper ocean. The net effect of this approach is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to store fossil fuel CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. We test implications of AOA for marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in the amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We show that large-scale AOA scenarios in which large amounts of alkalinity are added would be necessary to avoid a significant increase in atmospheric CO2 and to hold the global seawater pH close to today’s value. Even a short-term AOA would have long-lasting effects on seawater chemistry. When AOA stops, atmospheric CO2 (and pH) reverts back to rising (decreasing) at the rate determined by the fossil fuel CO2 emissions growth, but the effect of AOA is permanent. Hence, in contrast to SRM, effects of AOA on seawater chemistry and atmospheric CO2 retain after stopping alkalinity addition; AOA would not involve a long-term commitment. [less ▲]

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See detailGlacial CO2 cycle as a succession of key physical and biogeochemical processes
Brovkin, V.; Ganopolski, A.; Archer, D. et al

in Climate of the Past (2012), 8(1), 251--264

During glacial-interglacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 concentration varied by about 100 ppmv in amplitude. While testing mechanisms that have led to the low glacial CO2 level could be done in equilibrium ... [more ▼]

During glacial-interglacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 concentration varied by about 100 ppmv in amplitude. While testing mechanisms that have led to the low glacial CO2 level could be done in equilibrium model experiments, an ultimate goal is to explain CO2 changes in transient simulations through the complete glacial-interglacial cycle. The computationally efficient Earth System model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 is used to simulate global biogeochemistry over the last glacial cycle (126 kyr). The physical core of the model (atmosphere, ocean, land and ice sheets) is driven by orbital changes and reconstructed radiative forcing from greenhouses gases, ice, and aeolian dust. The carbon cycle model is able to reproduce the main features of the CO2 changes: a 50 ppmv CO2 drop during glacial inception, a minimum concentration at the last glacial maximum 80 ppmv lower than the Holocene value, and an abrupt 60 ppmv CO2 rise during the deglaciation. The model deep ocean δ13C also resembles reconstructions from deep-sea cores. The main drivers of atmospheric CO2 evolve in time: changes in sea surface temperatures and in the volume of bottom water of southern origin control atmospheric CO2 during the glacial inception and deglaciation; changes in carbonate chemistry and marine biology are dominant during the first and second parts of the glacial cycle, respectively. These feedback mechanisms could also significantly impact the ultimate climate response to the anthropogenic perturbation. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term biogeochemical impacts of liming the ocean
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULiege et al

Conference (2011, December 08)

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate impacts of CO2 emissions and resulting ocean acidification that are based on this property. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) in the upper ocean and is termed as liming the oceans. The net effect of this approach is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases only alter alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturb both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in the amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the longterm effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive comment on “LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model” by R. E. Zeebe
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions (2011), 4

The paper "LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model” by R. E. Zeebe is reviewed.

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See detailClimate-carbon cycle feedback during glacial cycles
Ganopolski, A; Brovkin, V; Calov, R et al

Conference (2011, August 15)

Paleoclimate records reveal a close link between global ice volume and atmospheric CO2 concentration, at least, through the last 800,000 years. Despite many efforts over the last two decades, mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Paleoclimate records reveal a close link between global ice volume and atmospheric CO2 concentration, at least, through the last 800,000 years. Despite many efforts over the last two decades, mechanisms of glacial-interglacial CO2 variability and its role for the glacial cycles remain elusive. Here using the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 which includes all major components of the Earth system – atmosphere, ocean, land surface, ice sheets, terrestrial biota, eolian dust and marine biogeochemistry – we performed simulations of the last glacial cycles employing variations in the Earth’s orbital parameters as the only prescribed climatic forcing. In the experiments with constant CO2 concentration, temporal dynamics of the simulated glacial cycles strongly depend on the CO2 level. For CO2 concentrations about and above preindustrial one, the model simulates only short glacial cycles with precessional and obliquity frequencies. However, for lower CO2 concentrations the model simulates long glacial cycles with dominant 100 kyr periodicity. Simulated glacial cycles agreed favorably with paleoclimate reconstructions, but their amplitude is underestimated compared to those of the simulations with time-dependent CO2 concentration. These results confirm that the positive climate-carbon cycle feedback plays an important role in amplification of long glacial cycles. Experiments with fully interactive CO2 shed some light on the mechanism of climate-carbon cycle feedback during glacial cycles. Forced by orbital variations only, the model is able to reproduce the main features of CO2 changes: the 40 ppmv CO2 drop during glacial inception, the minimum concentration at the last glacial maximum being 80 ppmv lower than the Holocene value, and the relatively abrupt CO2 rise during the deglaciation. The main drivers of atmospheric CO2 evolve with time: changes in sea surface temperature and volume of bottom water of southern origin exert CO2 control during glacial inception and deglaciation, while changes in carbonate chemistry and marine biology are dominant during the first and second parts of the glacial cycles, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term biogeochemical effects of adding alkalinity into the ocean
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULiege et al

Conference (2011, June 20)

Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been ... [more ▼]

Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and ocean acidification. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone, olivine) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) to the upper ocean. The net effect of these two approaches is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to take up and store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases initially only alters alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturbs both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for the marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC which also includes marine sediments. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the long-term effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interglacial carbon cycle
Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Munhoven, Guy ULiege et al

Poster (2011, April 07)

Explaining the difference in carbon cycle dynamics (and hence atmospheric CO2) between various interglacials is an elusive issue. Several biogeochemical mechanisms of different origin are involved in ... [more ▼]

Explaining the difference in carbon cycle dynamics (and hence atmospheric CO2) between various interglacials is an elusive issue. Several biogeochemical mechanisms of different origin are involved in interglacial CO2 dynamics, leading to a CO2 release from the ocean (carbonate compensation, coral growth) compensated by a land carbon uptake (biomass and soil carbon buildup, peat accumulation). The balance between these fluxes of CO2 is delicate and time-dependent, and it is not possible to provide firm constraints on these fluxes from proxy data. The best framework for quantification of all these mechanisms is an Earth System model that includes all necessary physical and biogeochemical components of the atmosphere, ocean, and land. To perform multi-millennial model integrations through the Holocene, Eemian, and MIS11, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, coupled to the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ with a recently implemented module for boreal peatland dynamics. During glacial-interglacial cycles, the carbon cycle never is in complete equilibrium due to a number of small but persistent fluxes such as terrestrial weathering. This complicates setting up interglacial experiments as the usual approach to start model integrations from an equilibrium state is not valid any more. In order to circumvent the problem of non-equilibrium initial conditions, the model is initialised with the oceanic biogeochemistry state taken from a transient simulation through the last glacial cycle with CLIMBER-2 only. In this simulation, the CLIMBER-2 model was run through the last glacial cycle with carbon cycle in “offline mode” as interactive components of the physical climate system (atmosphere, ocean, ice sheets) were driven by concentration of greenhouse gases reconstructed from ice cores. Using these initial conditions, we performed coupled climate carbon cycle experiments for the Holocene, the Eemian and MIS11, driven by orbital forcing. Contrary to the results we published previously (Kleinen et al. 2010), peat accumulation was not prescribed, but rather determined dynamically, making this model setup applicable to previous interglacials as well. For the Holocene, our results resemble the carbon cycle dynamics as reconstructed from ice cores quite closely, both for atmospheric CO2 and delta13CO2. These experiments will be presented, analysing the role of different forcing mechanisms. The land surface appears to be an overall sink for CO2, due to carbon accumulation in the soil, as well as peat accumulation, and oceanic contributions due to temperature and circulation changes are quite small. Finally, results for MIS11 and the Eemian will be shown. [less ▲]

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See detailGlacial CO2 cycle as a succession of key physical and biogeochemical processes
Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrey; Munhoven, Guy ULiege et al

Conference (2011, April 05)

Ice core records of atmospheric CO2 concentration through the last 800,000 years show the carbon cycle amplifying the climate forcing from variations in Earth’s orbit. This positive climate-carbon cycle ... [more ▼]

Ice core records of atmospheric CO2 concentration through the last 800,000 years show the carbon cycle amplifying the climate forcing from variations in Earth’s orbit. This positive climate-carbon cycle feedback could weaken or even possibly reverse present-day fossil fuel CO2 uptake by the natural carbon cycle. Despite much effort over the last two decades, a mechanistic, process-based explanation of the carbon cycle feedbacks responsible for the glacial / interglacial CO2 cycles remains elusive.We will present first transient simulations of the last glacial cycle using an Earth System model of intermediate complexity to predict atmospheric CO2 , driven by orbital changes and reconstructed radiative forcing from greenhouses gases, ice, and aeolian dust. The model is able to reproduce the main features of the CO2 changes: a 50 ppmv CO2 drop during glacial inception, a minimum concentration at the last glacial maximum 80 ppmv lower than the Holocene value, and an abrupt 60 ppmv CO2 rise during the deglaciation. The model deep ocean d13 C also resembles the reconstructions from the real ocean. The main drivers of atmospheric CO2 evolve with time: changes in sea surface temperature and volume of bottom water of southern origin exert CO2 control during the glacial inception and deglaciation, while changes in carbonate chemistry and marine biology are dominant during the first and second parts of the glacial cycle, respectively. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage counteract oceanic mechanisms during glacial inception and deglaciation, unless the potential for permafrost development is included in the soil carbon model. These feedback mechanisms could also significantly impact the ultimate climate response to the anthropogenic perturbation. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling Climate and Vegetation Interactions at the Middle Miocene with the Planet Simulator and CARAIB
Henrot, A.-J.; Munhoven, Guy ULiege; François, Louis ULiege et al

Conference (2011, January 18)

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See detailInteractive comment on “MEDUSA: a new intermediate complexity plankton ecosystem model for the global domain” by A. Yool et al.
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions (2011)

A comment on the paper "MEDUSA: a new intermediate complexity plankton ecosystem model for the global domain” by A. Yool et al. is made.

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See detailCarbon cycle dynamics during interglacials
Brovkin, V; Kleinen, T; Ganopolski, A et al

Conference (2010, December 16)

Explaining a difference in atmospheric CO2 dynamics among interglacials is an elusive issue. Several biogeochemical mechanisms of different origin are involved in interglacial CO2 dynamics leading to a ... [more ▼]

Explaining a difference in atmospheric CO2 dynamics among interglacials is an elusive issue. Several biogeochemical mechanisms of different origin are involved in interglacial CO2 dynamics leading to a CO2 release from the ocean (carbonate compensation, coral growth) compensated by a land carbon uptake (biomass and soil carbon buildup, peat accumulation). The balance between these fluxes of CO2 is delicate and time-dependent, and it is not possible to provide firm constraints on these fluxes from proxy data. The best framework for quantification of all these mechanisms is an Earth System model that includes all necessary physical and biogeochemical components of the atmosphere, ocean, and land. To perform multi-millennial model integrations through the Holocene and Eemian, we use an intermediate complexity climate model, CLIMBER-2, coupled to the LPJ DGVM model with recently implemented boreal peatland module. The global carbon cycle is never in complete equilibrium during the glacial cycles due to changes in small but persistent fluxes such as terrestrial weathering. This complicates setting up the interglacial runs as the usual approach to start model integration from equilibrium state is not valid anymore. To by-pass this problem of non-equilibrium initial conditions, the model is initialized with the oceanic biogeochemistry state taken from a transient CLIMBER-2 simulation through the last glacial cycle. In this simulation, the CLIMBER-2 model was run through the last glacial cycle with carbon cycle in “offline mode” as interactive components of the physical climate system (atmosphere, ocean, ice sheets) were driven by concentration of greenhouse gases reconstructed from ice cores. In response to simulated climate change, the carbon cycle model was able to reproduce the main features of glacial CO2 dynamics reconstructed from ice cores. Results of the CLIMBER-LPJ model integrations through the Holocene and Eemian interglacials in terms of climate changes and atmospheric CO2 and d13CO2 dynamics will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive comment on “A permafrost glacial hypothesis to explain atmospheric CO2 and the ice ages during the Pleistocene” by R. Zech et al.
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

in Climate of the Past Discussions (2010), 6

The response of the authors to the previous review (http://hdl.handle.net/2268/108341) is discussed. Persisting inexactitudes are corrected and arguments quantified.

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See detailInteractive comment on “A permafrost glacial hypothesis to explain atmospheric CO2 and the ice ages during the Pleistocene” by R. Zech et al.
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

in Climate of the Past Discussions (2010), 6

The paper "A permafrost glacial hypothesis to explain atmospheric CO2 and the ice ages during the Pleistocene" by R. Zech et al. is reviewed.

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See detailThe Rain Ratio Hypothesis: Can it be Rescued?
Munhoven, Guy ULiege

Conference (2010, May 04)

The Rain Ratio Hypothesis (Archer and Maier-Reimer, 1994, Nature 367, 260–263) ascribes an important part of the observed glacial-interglacial variations of CO2 in the atmosphere to reduced sea-floor rain ... [more ▼]

The Rain Ratio Hypothesis (Archer and Maier-Reimer, 1994, Nature 367, 260–263) ascribes an important part of the observed glacial-interglacial variations of CO2 in the atmosphere to reduced sea-floor rain ratio (i.e., carbonate-C/organic-C in the biogenic particle flux at the sea-floor) during glacial times. With a lower sea-floor rain ratio the influence of organic carbon respiration on carbonate dissolution is stronger. The deep-sea carbonate ion concentration required for global ocean carbonate compensation will then be higher, which in turn contributes to lower atmospheric pCO2. Munhoven (2007, Deep-Sea Research II, 722–746) showed that the suggested rain ratio reductions lead to unrealistic sedimentary records for %CaCO3: the transition zone changes in the model sedimentary record were too large and opposite in phase to available observational data. The rain ratio reduction applied by Munhoven (2007) was uniform over the ocean and the author hypothesised that a non-uniform reduction could change the complete picture. If the rain ratio variations had primarily taken place in open ocean areas of great depth—essentially in regions where the sea floor was deeper than the saturation horizon or the CCD—then the transition zone boundaries could possibly have moved less. Here, we test this hypothesis and analyse the effect of depth dependent variations. It is shown that concentrating rain ratio changes over areas of greatest water depth completely alters the sedimentary imprint: the phase relationship of the signal reverts (compared to the uniform case) and the amplitude of the change decreases, bringing it into better agreement with the observations. However, the pCO2 response is also reduced. The global average rain ratio reduction of 40% that yielded a 40 ppm reduction of atmospheric pCO2 in the uniform case only leads to 25 ppm in this non-uniform case. Results for other depth-dependent reductions will also be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 variations using a comprehensive Earth system model of intermediate complexity
Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrei; Calov, Reinhard et al

Conference (2010, May 04)

The mechanisms of strong glacial-interglacial variations in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the role of CO2 in driving glacial cycles still remain debatable. Here using the model of intermediate ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of strong glacial-interglacial variations in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the role of CO2 in driving glacial cycles still remain debatable. Here using the model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 which includes all major components of the Earth system – atmosphere, ocean, land surface, ice sheets, terrestrial biota and weathering, aeolian dust and marine biogeochemistry – we performed simulation of the last glacial cycle using variations in the Earth’s orbital parameters as the only prescribed climatic forcing. The model simulates rather realistically temporal and spatial dynamics of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation and temporal dynamics of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. During the glacial inception, the model is able to simulate a decrease in the atmospheric CO2, despite of release of terrestrial biosphere carbon. The drop in CO2 concentration during the first part of the glacial cycle is between 20 and 40 ppmv. It is related primarily to the physical mechanisms – increase of the ocean solubility and relative volume and the age of the Antarctic bottom water masses. The latter is related to increased sea ice formation in the Southern Ocean and lowering of the surface salinity in the northern North Atlantic. During the second part of the glacial cycle, the atmospheric CO2 concentration decreases towards the level of 200 ppmv. A part of this drop is due an increase of biological productivity in the Southern Ocean which is directly related in the CLIMBER-2 model to increase of aeolian dust supply into the Southern Hemisphere via the iron fertilization mechanism. Significant part of the decreasing CO2 trend is also explained by increased weathering on land, especially on the exposed tropical shelves. A decrease in shallow water carbonate sedimentation and shift of CaCO3 sedimentation towards the deep ocean also plays important role in CO2 decrease. With the onset of the glacial termination, initial rise in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is explained by a weakening of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation due to increased freshwater input into the northern North Atlantic. The model is able to simulate the return of CO2 concentration to its interglacial value after termination of the glacial cycle but simulated CO2 concentration still lags considerably behind the ice core reconstructions. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean vegetation evolution during the Holocene simulated by Planet Simulator and CARAIB
Haberkorn, K.; Fraedrich, K.; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULiege et al

Poster (2010, April)

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