Publications of Jacques Defourny
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See detailThe effects of workers’ participation in governance, ownership and profit sharing on the survival of worker cooperatives - An empirical analysis of 2500 French SCOP
Dethier, Fanny ULiege; Périlleux, Anais; Defourny, Jacques ULiege

Conference (2019, June 26)

Research question and review of literature: The paper answers the following question: “How does the level of workers’ participation in governance, ownership and profit sharing affect the expected survival ... [more ▼]

Research question and review of literature: The paper answers the following question: “How does the level of workers’ participation in governance, ownership and profit sharing affect the expected survival of worker cooperatives?”. As such, this research focuses on the nexus between workers’ participation and worker cooperatives (WCs)’ performance. Theory identifies three channels through which workers’ participation affects, either positively or negatively, company's performance: the workers’ productive capacity (Park, Kruse, & Sesil, 2004), the workers’ effort (Bonin, Jones, & Putterman, 1993) and the company’s organizational effectiveness (Hansmann, 2000). From an empirical point of view, in comparison with conventionally owned firms (CFs), previous studies have generally assessed that early survival of WCs meets or exceeds CFs’ and that they demonstrate a median lifespan as long or longer than CFs (Pérotin, 2004 and Burdín, 2014). Various studies also tend to suggest a positive effect of workers’ participation on productivity. However, like CFs, WCs suffer from an elevated probability of not-surviving in their early years (Olsen, 2013) and the positive effect of workers' participation on productivity seems to vary depending on the type of workers’ participation analyzed. Moreover, evidence of a lower economic performance of WCs does exist as well, especially for undercapitalized WCs and in certain industries (Defourny, 1990). Heterogeneity of the studies contexts and methods as well as divergences in results support the necessity of further research on WCs’ performance and expected survival. Methodological approach: The methodology used consists in the estimation of a survival function for more than 2500 French WCs from 2006 to 2012. By including independent variables measuring the level of workers’ participation in governance, in ownership and in profit sharing, estimations explain the relation between the various types of workers’ participation and the probability to survive of a WC. Only few authors, among which Pérotin (2004), Olsen (2013) and Burdín (2014), have used the estimation of a survival function in the framework of WCs’ performance. Main argument: In comparison with the method generally used to evaluate the productivity of WCs, i.e. the estimation of a production function “augmented” by variables apprehending the different forms of participation, the estimation of a survival function avoids the problem of endogeneity between performance and level of involvement. Therefore, the research conducted improve the robustness of the observed effects. Main conclusions and their relevance to an international audience: Through the research, we apprehend better potential advantages and weaknesses of the specificities of the WC system and in particular, the effects of workers’ participation in governance, ownership and profit-sharing on their cooperative’s survival and performance. In an overall search for a greater pluralism of economic models, the progress of the ongoing debate on the effects of workers’ involvement appears to be crucial. Main references: Bonin, J. P., Jones, D. C., & Putterman, L. (1993). Theoretical and empirical studies of producer cooperatives: will ever the twain meet? Journal of Economic Literature, 31(3), 1290–1320. Burdín, G. (2014). Are Worker-Managed Firms More Likely to Fail Than Conventional Enterprises? Evidence from Uruguay. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 67(1), 202–238. Defourny, J. (1990). Financial Equilibrium And Risk Aversion In French Workers’ cooperatives. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 61(2‑3), 331–351. Hansmann, H. (2000). The ownership of enterprise. Harvard University Press. Olsen, E. K. (2013). The Relative Survival of Worker Cooperatives and Barriers to Their Creation. In D. Kruse (Éd.), Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory & Labor-Managed Firms (Vol. 14, p. 83‑107). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Park, R., Kruse, D., & Sesil, J. (2004). Does employee ownership enhance firm survival? In Employee participation, firm performance and survival (p. 3–33). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Pérotin, V. (2004). Early cooperative survival: the liability of adolescence. In Employee Participation, Firm Performance and Survival (Vol. 8, p. 67‑86). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. [less ▲]

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See detail“Mapping and Testing Social Enterprise Models Across the World: Evidence from the “International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) Project”,
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe; Brolis, Olivier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The relevance of an international typology of SE models, as proposed by Defourny and Nyssens (2017) is tested through an Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of a database covering 740 social enterprises in 43 ... [more ▼]

The relevance of an international typology of SE models, as proposed by Defourny and Nyssens (2017) is tested through an Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of a database covering 740 social enterprises in 43 countries from all world regions. Three of the four proposed SE models find a strong empirical support: the "Entrepreneurial Nonprofit", the "Social Cooperative" and the "Social Business" models [less ▲]

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See detailMEASURING VOLUNTARY INFORMATION DISCLOSURE BY NPOs: PROPOSITION OF AN E-TRANSPARENCY INDEX
Dethier, Fanny ULiege; Defourny, Jacques ULiege

Conference (2018, July 13)

By proposing a new e-transparency index, this paper aims to improve the understanding and the measurement of the concept of transparency of the NPOs. The index is built carefully, following the ... [more ▼]

By proposing a new e-transparency index, this paper aims to improve the understanding and the measurement of the concept of transparency of the NPOs. The index is built carefully, following the recommended methodological steps and precautions during the construction process of a composite indicator. In particular, three different weighting methods are compared, deep sensitive analyses are carried and the validity of the index is confirmed. The index results from applications of statistical methods combined with normative judgements from field experts. The proposed index is calculated for the 250 organizations collaborating with Donorinfo, a foundation working for the transparency of the Belgian philanthropic sector. The index values obtained from collected data are confronted to real donors’ perception of the transparency of the same tested websites. As a result, the paper provides a methodologically valid e-transparency index, a measurement tool of transparency ready to use and well conceptualized. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe: Models and Pratice
Defourny, Jacques ULiege

Conference (2018, April 30)

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See detailOn ne tombe pas amoureux d'une courbe de croissance: regards croisés avec Catherine Fallon
Defourny, Jacques ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailQuels modèles économiques pour rendre du sens au travail
Defourny, Jacques ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailPréface
Defourny, Jacques ULiege

in Clotuche, Florence (Ed.) Vin de Liège, au coeur des vignes (2018)

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See detailLa diversité des modèles d'entreprise sociale: nouvelles dynamiques au coeur et aux confins de l'économie sociale
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in van Pottelsberghe, Bruno (Ed.) Les enjeux de l'innovation: quelles politiques? quelles gouvernances? (2018)

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See detailLes conditions d'émergence et de développement des coopératives
Defourny, Jacques ULiege

in En Question (2017), 123

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See detailMapping Social Enterprise Models: some Evidence from the "ICSEM" Project"
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in Social Enterprise Journal (2017), 13(4), 318-328

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See detailFundamentals for an International Typology of Social Enterprise Models
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in Voluntas - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizatins (2017), 28(6), 2469-2497

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See detailMapping Social Enterprise Models: an International Perspective
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in Social Enterprise Journal (2017), 13(4),

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See detailEconomie Sociale et Solidaire. Socio-économie du troisième secteur
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

Book published by De Boeck Supérieur (2017)

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See detailLa diversité des modèles d'entreprise sociale: nouvelles dynamiques au coeur et aux confins de l'économie sociale
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in van Pottelsberghe, Bruno; Belleflamme, Paul; et alii (Eds.) Les enjeux de l'innovation: quelles politiques? Quelles gouvernances? (2017)

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See detailEntreprise sociale et économie sociale en Asie (Partie II)
Bidet, Eric; Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe (eds)

in Revue Internationale de l'Économie Sociale: Recma (2016), (n° 342),

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See detailEntreprise sociale et économie sociale en Asie (Partie I)
Bidet, Eric; Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe (eds)

in Revue Internationale de l'Économie Sociale: Recma (2016), (n° 341), 21-86

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See detailSocial Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurship Conceptions: What is at Stake beyond Discourses?
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in BBE Newsletter für Engagement und Partizipation in Deutschland (2016), 2016(5), 1-7

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See detailFundamentals for an International Typology of Social Enterprise Models
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

E-print/Working paper (2016)

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