Publications of Serge Bredart
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See detailStrategies to resolve recall failures for proper names: New data
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege

in Memory and Cognition (2020)

Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. Studies describing people’s spontaneous strategies for resolving such failures have indicated that people frequently search for semantic ... [more ▼]

Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. Studies describing people’s spontaneous strategies for resolving such failures have indicated that people frequently search for semantic or contextual information about the target person. However, previous experimental studies have shown that, while providing phonological information may help resolve a name recall failure, by contrast, providing semantic information is usually not helpful. In the first study, in order to reduce a bias present in previous studies of spontaneous strategies, explicit instructions were given to participants, specifying that the focus of the study was on a voluntary search for information. Participants reported strategically searching for semantic/contextual strategies when they tried to resolve a name retrieval failure more often than they reported searching for phonological/orthographic information. In addition, phonological/orthographic strategies were perceived as more difficult than semantic/contextual strategies. In a second experiment, we investigated whether retrieving phonological information by oneself is objectively difficult in a face naming task: in the event of retrieval failure, participants were instructed to search for phonological information in some trials and for semantic information in other trials. Participants recalled semantic information in 94% of the trials when instructed to search for semantic information. By contrast, when instructed to search for phonological information, participants remained unable to recall any correct piece of phonological information in about 55% of the trials. This result shows that the retrieval of phonological information is objectively difficult. This difficulty could explain why people do not privilege searching for phonology to resolve name retrieval failures. [less ▲]

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See detailWe can stop believing in memories of any age
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

Poster (2019, July 05)

The phenomenon through which an autobiographical memory is no longer believed to be a representation of an event that really happened, despite a vivid recollection of the event, has been termed a ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon through which an autobiographical memory is no longer believed to be a representation of an event that really happened, despite a vivid recollection of the event, has been termed a nonbelieved memory (NBM). The age distribution of NBMs reported by young and older adults typically reflects a large proportion of events dated to childhood. The present study aimed to further investigate the age of origin of NBMs by using instructions that include an NBM related to adulthood. Participants aged from 40 to 80 years were asked to describe an NBM, to explain why they had stopped believing their memory, and to rate its phenomenal characteristics. Participants also described and rated an age-matched believed memory (BM). The results revealed a similar proportion of nonbelieved events experienced in childhood and adulthood, thus calling into question the hypothesis that NBMs are mainly related to childhood events. We also found that NBMs might emerge for different reasons depending on the time of events. Additional analyses indicated that, overall, the influence of temporal distance on the ratings of phenomenal characteristics was similar for BMs and NBMs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Fatigue on Proper Name Retrieval
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Dupont, Manuel ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

Poster (2019, March 09)

Forgetting people’s names in one of the most frequent memory complaints for older adults. Names have been showed to be more difficult to recall than conceptual biographical information about people such ... [more ▼]

Forgetting people’s names in one of the most frequent memory complaints for older adults. Names have been showed to be more difficult to recall than conceptual biographical information about people such as the person’s profession or nationality, or even more specific, unique, pieces of information. Given this particular vulnerability of proper name retrieval, the present study evaluated whether cognitive fatigue impacted the retrieval of people’s names more strongly than the retrieval of biographical information about people. We found that the retrieval of people's names was affected by time on task whereas the retrieval of conceptual biographical information about people's identity was not affected. This is new evidence of the particular fragility of proper name retrieval. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies to improve name learning: A review
Brédart, Serge ULiege

in European Psychologist (2019), 24(4), 349-358

The following points emerge from the present review of strategies to improve the learning of proper names: (a) Face-name mnemonic techniques based on mental imagery have been shown to be efficient in ... [more ▼]

The following points emerge from the present review of strategies to improve the learning of proper names: (a) Face-name mnemonic techniques based on mental imagery have been shown to be efficient in laboratory settings in both young and older adults. Unfortunately, they are particularly effortful and require capacity for imagination, making them difficult to apply in a real conversational context. (b) Strategies based on spaced retrieval practice have been found to be efficient both in laboratory and more ecological settings, and both in young and older adults. (c) Techniques based on spaced retrieval practice appear to be more efficient than those based on mental imagery. (d) More recent research has proposed new perspectives, such as basing learning strategies on implicit, rather than explicit, memory processes such as hyper-binding. Finally, neuroscience research has started to investigate the possibility of using non-invasive electrical brain stimulation to improve name learning. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous strategies to resolve face naming failures
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege

Poster (2019)

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See detailBelief in memories may be relinquished as often for adulthood as for childhood events, but for different reasons
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Moyse, Evelyne ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Memory (2019), 27(5), 705-713

The age distribution of nonbelieved memories (NBMs) reported by young and older adults typically reflects a large proportion of events dated to childhood. The present study aimed to further investigate ... [more ▼]

The age distribution of nonbelieved memories (NBMs) reported by young and older adults typically reflects a large proportion of events dated to childhood. The present study aimed to further investigate the age of origin of NBMs by using instructions that include an NBM related to adulthood. Participants aged from 40 to 80 years were asked to describe an NBM, to explain why they had stopped believing their memory, and to rate its phenomenal characteristics. Participants also described and rated an age-matched believed memory (BM). The results revealed a similar proportion of nonbelieved events experienced in childhood and adulthood, thus calling into question the hypothesis that NBMs are mainly related to childhood events. We also found that NBMs might emerge for different reasons depending on the time of events. Additional analyses indicated that, overall, the influence of temporal distance on the ratings of phenomenal characteristics was similar for BMs and NBMs. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Information Helps Resolve Recall Failures for Familiar People's Names?
Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Advances in Cognitive Psychology (2018), 14(4), 160-166

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See detailWhich information helps resolve face naming failures?
Brédart, Serge ULiege

Conference (2018, August 30)

Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. In the present talk, a review of studies describing people’s spontaneous strategies for resolving failures in face naming, as well as ... [more ▼]

Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. In the present talk, a review of studies describing people’s spontaneous strategies for resolving failures in face naming, as well as laboratory studies of experimentally-induced resolution of name recall failures are presented. This review indicates that, on the one hand, people frequently use spontaneous strategies based on a mental search for additional structural (facial appearance), semantic (biographical details) and contextual information (e.g. the context of first encounter) about the target person. On the other hand, both cueing and priming experimental studies have shown that providing phonological information may help resolve a name recall failure, whereas providing structural or semantic information is usually not helpful. A possible explanation of the spontaneous use of semantic/contextual information despite the uselessness of this kind of information will be discussed. It is proposed that 1) people’s metacognitive knowledge about the resolution of face naming failures is inaccurate; and 2) this inadequate knowledge perpetuates via a wrong inference process about the cause of naming failures resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailNonbelieved memories may occur as frequently for adulthood as for childhood events
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Moyse, Evelyne ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

Poster (2018, August 30)

The phenomenon through which an autobiographical memory is no longer believed to be a representation of an event that really happened, despite a vivid recollection of the event, has been termed a ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon through which an autobiographical memory is no longer believed to be a representation of an event that really happened, despite a vivid recollection of the event, has been termed a nonbelieved memory (NBM). The age distribution of NBMs reported by young and older adults typically reflects a large proportion of events dated to childhood. The present study aimed to further investigate the age of origin of NBMs through the use of instructions that include an NBM related to adulthood. Participants aged from 40 to 80 years were asked to describe an NBM, why they had stopped believing their memory and to rate its phenomenal characteristics. Participants also described and rated an age-matched believed memory (BM). The results revealed a similar proportion of nonbelieved events experienced in childhood and adulthood, thus calling into question the hypothesis that NBMs are mainly related to childhood events. We also found that NBMs might emerge for different reasons depending on the time of events. Additional analyses indicated that, overall, the influence of temporal distance on the ratings of phenomenal characteristics was similar for BMs and NBMs. [less ▲]

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See detailAn own-name effect on person memory in twins
Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Names: A Journal of Onomastics (2018), 66(1), 47-53

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See detailFace description abilities predict line-up performance
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege; Dehon, Hedwige ULiege

Poster (2017, August 31)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (9 ULiège)
See detailDo nonbelieved memories typically refer to childhood memories?
Vanootighem, Valentine ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege

Conference (2017, May 31)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (8 ULiège)
See detailAutoréférence et mémoire
Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Encyclopaedia Universalis (en ligne) (2017)

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See detailNonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older adults
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Bouffier, Marion ULiege

in Consciousness and Cognition (2016), 42(2), 352-357

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See detailNames and cognitive psychology
Brédart, Serge ULiege

in Hough, C (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (36 ULiège)
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See detailSimilarities between the target and the intruder in naturally occurring repeated person naming errors
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(art 1474),

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (10 ULiège)
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See detailImpairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Moyse, Evelyne ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (2015), 45

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (14 ULiège)
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See detailAre you sure this was your own idea?
Beaufort, Aline ULiege; Brédart, Serge ULiege; Dehon, Hedwige ULiege

Poster (2014, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (10 ULiège)