Publications of Ilenia Paparella
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See detailResolving perceptual rivalry: an ultra-high field 7T fMRI study
Koshmanova, Ekaterina ULiege; Beckers, Elise ULiege; Campbell, Islay ULiege et al

Poster (2021, November 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (12 ULiège)
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See detailChunking by social relationship in working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task [less ▲]

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See detailPsycho-social factors associated with mental resilience in the Corona lockdown.
Veer, Ilya M.; Riepenhausen, Antje; Zerban, Matthias et al

in Translational Psychiatry (2021), 11(1), 67

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social ... [more ▼]

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes, as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resilience refers to the maintenance of mental health despite adversity. To gain mechanistic insights about the relationship between described psycho-social resilience factors and resilience specifically in the current crisis, we assessed resilience factors, exposure to Corona crisis-specific and general stressors, as well as internalizing symptoms in a cross-sectional online survey conducted in 24 languages during the most intense phase of the lockdown in Europe (22 March to 19 April) in a convenience sample of N = 15,970 adults. Resilience, as an outcome, was conceptualized as good mental health despite stressor exposure and measured as the inverse residual between actual and predicted symptom total score. Preregistered hypotheses (osf.io/r6btn) were tested with multiple regression models and mediation analyses. Results confirmed our primary hypothesis that positive appraisal style (PAS) is positively associated with resilience (p < 0.0001). The resilience factor PAS also partly mediated the positive association between perceived social support and resilience, and its association with resilience was in turn partly mediated by the ability to easily recover from stress (both p < 0.0001). In comparison with other resilience factors, good stress response recovery and positive appraisal specifically of the consequences of the Corona crisis were the strongest factors. Preregistered exploratory subgroup analyses (osf.io/thka9) showed that all tested resilience factors generalize across major socio-demographic categories. This research identifies modifiable protective factors that can be targeted by public mental health efforts in this and in future pandemics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (12 ULiège)
See detailFunctional response of attention-related cortical networks to multi-sessions tRNS
Pergher, Valentina; Contò, Federica; Paparella, Ilenia ULiege et al

Poster (2020, December)

Background: Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) has been shown to facilitate visual-attention abilities. Yet, the impact of this type of stimulation alone on brain dynamics remains to be ... [more ▼]

Background: Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) has been shown to facilitate visual-attention abilities. Yet, the impact of this type of stimulation alone on brain dynamics remains to be determined. Aim: We investigated the effect of off-line multi-session tRNS on brain activity and visual-attention behavior. We hypothesized that parietal stimulation would impact brain activity related to attentional processes that could consequently facilitate behavior. Methods: 28 healthy subjects participated in a 5-day experiment and were assigned to one of four conditions in a between-subject design: two active conditions (tRNS was delivered over hMT+ or over parietal cortex) and two no-stimulation conditions (sham and behavioral only). From day 1 to day 4 subjects received stimulation (depending on their condition) while at rest. On day 5, brain activity was recorded while subjects performed the visual-attention task. Results: Parietal tRNS significantly modulated brain activity compared to control groups. However, no difference in performance was found. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that off-line multi-session parietal tRNS has a long-lasting impact on brain activity but not on behavior. This study shows that this type of stimulation can be efficient alone to influence brain states and such stimulation efficacy could be advantageous in the rehabilitation context where active patients’ collaboration is not always possible. Furthermore, this study is a starting point to exploit the physical properties of this stimulation method to influence the cortex. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (5 ULiège)
See detailEffect of spatial positioning and semantic content in visual working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

Poster (2019, October)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (6 ULiège)