Publications of Cindy Regnier
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See detailCrafting Security Expertise: a Sociological Approach to Think Tankers Relations with NATO
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2021, March)

In 2014, the RAND corporation, one of the leading American think tanks in security and defence, organised a wargame simulating a Russian invasion on the Baltic countries. According to this simulation ... [more ▼]

In 2014, the RAND corporation, one of the leading American think tanks in security and defence, organised a wargame simulating a Russian invasion on the Baltic countries. According to this simulation, those countries could be under Russian control within 36 hours (Shlapack and Johnson, 2016). This study “made waves in Washington and other NATO capitals” and is said to have been behind NATO’s decision to undertake one of the biggest deployment of troops in Europe in a generation (Overhaus 2019: 19). This begs the question of what role external security experts have in shaping major NATO decisions. It does also question how external experts access the alliance, as well as with what discourses and recommendations. In order to explore those questions, this paper proposes a first assessment of how think tankers access the alliance and what are the main recommendations provided. While, at first, this may appear as a straightforward inquiry that would bring about simple answers, the lack of institutionalized interactions with external actors or official calls for experts has led to a rather ad hoc and fluid relation between NATO actors and think tankers. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of actors within NATO (i.e. military, diplomats and bureaucratic staffers), their corresponding professional cultures, and missions as well as their relative autonomy have shaped different approaches and expectations towards experts. By building on the literature on sociology of expertise, this paper intends to explore the interactions between think tankers and NATO, focusing separately on the bureaucratic, the diplomatic and the military part of the alliance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe accountability of Russia on the international stage: assessing critically how experts attribute responsibility
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

in Chabal, Pierre; Alix, Yann; Baizakova, Kuralay (Eds.) Evolving regional values and mobilities in global contexts The emergence of new (Eur-)Asian regions and dialogues with Europe (2021)

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See detailCirculation of Knowledge: Assessing Different Types of Interactions with Experts
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2020, August 26)

Past studies have broadly analysed the role of external experts in shaping security policies by examining, for instance, how an assemblage of experts becomes highly relevant for a particular issue or by ... [more ▼]

Past studies have broadly analysed the role of external experts in shaping security policies by examining, for instance, how an assemblage of experts becomes highly relevant for a particular issue or by assessing the influence that such experts exercise on specific topics. Similarly, scholars have also explored different aspects regarding experts’ interactions with different types of practitioners, including bureaucrats, diplomats and militaries. Yet, despite this increasingly rich literature, no comprehensive research has been conducted with the explicit aim of comparing those interactions in a common context, for a common issue or for actors driven by overall common purposes. By building on the literature on sociology of expertise, this paper intends to fill this gap by exploring the interactions between think tanks and NATO, focusing separately on the bureaucratic, the diplomatic and the military part of the alliance. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge production through practices, the case study of policy institutes at NATO
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2019, September 13)

There is a small but growing literature focusing on the proactive role of experts in crafting their recommendations and developing useful practices in order to access and shape the decision-making process ... [more ▼]

There is a small but growing literature focusing on the proactive role of experts in crafting their recommendations and developing useful practices in order to access and shape the decision-making process. This paper intends to contribute to this literature by analysing the expertise that shaped NATO’s 2016 decision to launch four battalions in the Baltics in order to deter a ‘newly assertive’ Russia. Doing so, this paper argues that relevant expertise for policy relies on two intertwined elements: a common discourse between think tanks and decision-makers and a set of ‘good’ practices on the side of the think tanks. Research question: How practices and discourses allow think tanks and experts to be considered as provider of credible knowledge? The first part of this paper relies on interviews and focuses on the different practices mobilised by experts and think tanks in order to have their expertise considered relevant. The second part provides a discourse analysis of the reports published by think tanks prior to the Warsaw Summit (2016). The discourse analysis will be both inductive, with a special attention on recommendations provided by think tanks and deductive following concepts of critical geopolitics. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pointe avancée de lʼOTAN dans les pays baltes : une épine pour Moscou
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Article for general public (2019)

En 2017, l’OTAN renforçait sa présence sur le flanc Est de son territoire avec l’opération « présence avancée rehaussée », qui consiste dans le déploiement de quatre bataillons multinationaux dans les ... [more ▼]

En 2017, l’OTAN renforçait sa présence sur le flanc Est de son territoire avec l’opération « présence avancée rehaussée », qui consiste dans le déploiement de quatre bataillons multinationaux dans les pays baltes (Estonie, Lettonie et Lituanie) et en Pologne. La France, présente en Estonie avec 300 soldats, participe avec les autres États membres de l’OTAN à ce déploiement. Depuis la fin de la Guerre froide, aucun déploiement de cette ampleur n’a eu lieu au sein de l’Alliance atlantique. Cette décision d’envoyer des troupes aux frontières de la Russie s’est faite en réponse à un sentiment d’insécurité au sein de ces pays. En effet, l’intervention russe en Ukraine motivée officiellement par la volonté de défendre les citoyens russophones et la politique du « fait accompli » qui en résulte ont augmenté ce sentiment d’insécurité au sein de ces trois pays frontaliers de la Russie, malgré leur appartenance à l’OTAN. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Practices and Discourses in Making Expertise Relevant, the case study of Policy Institutes at NATO
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2019, June 27)

The current literature regarding expertise has relatively left aside the proactive role of experts in crafting their recommendations and developing useful practices in order to influence the decision ... [more ▼]

The current literature regarding expertise has relatively left aside the proactive role of experts in crafting their recommendations and developing useful practices in order to influence the decision-making process. This paper intends to fill in this gap by analysing the expertise that shaped NATO’s 2016 decision to launch four battalions in the Baltics in order to deter a newly assertive Russia. Doing so, this paper argues that relevant expertise for policy relies on two elements: a common discourse between think tanks and decision-makers and a set of ‘good’ practices on the side of the think tanks. Research question: What are the practices and discourses that allow for policy institutes to be considered as provider of credible knowledge? The first part of this paper relies on interviews and focuses on the different practices mobilised by think tanks in order to have their expertise considered relevant. The second part of this paper provides a discourse analysis of the reports published by think tanks prior to the Warsaw Summit (2016). The discourse analysis will be both inductive, with a special focus on recommendations provided by think tanks and deductive following concepts of critical geopolitics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Securitizing Role of the Attribution of Responsibility
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2019, April 11)

This paper focuses on the specific interpretations, provided by experts, that follows controversial actions of a state on the international stage and the diverging interpretation of the responsibility of ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the specific interpretations, provided by experts, that follows controversial actions of a state on the international stage and the diverging interpretation of the responsibility of that state. While some experts will argue that the state is fully accountable for its actions, others will highlight external reasons that may downplay the state’s responsibility. This particular framing of the issue will impact the understanding of a situation. This paper argues that a dispositional attribution of responsibility triggers a securitizing move. In other words, dispositional attribution of responsibility entails a specific framing of the issue identifying not only an existential threat and a referent object, but also a responsibility that is directly attributable to an actor. [less ▲]

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See detailLa constitution au fil de ses versions
Regnier, Cindy ULiege; Verjans, Pierre ULiege

Book published by crisp (2019)

Évolution de la Constitution belge depuis 1831

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See detailNarrating Russia in Policy Institutes
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, June 18)

This paper focuses on the narratives of Russia within the West and more particularly within NATO. To do, this paper intends to analyse the different representations of Russia carried out by policy ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the narratives of Russia within the West and more particularly within NATO. To do, this paper intends to analyse the different representations of Russia carried out by policy institutes at NATO. Doing so, the first part of this paper will provide a theoretical framework by linking the the-ories on representations and images, the role of expertise and narratives in diplomacy and in security studies. The second part of this paper will analyse every reports and articles of the Atlantic Council related to Russia published in 2013-2014, prior to the suspension of practi-cal contact of April 2014 between NATO and Russia. [less ▲]

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See detailCSTO reinforcement of the ‘self’ through the categorization of NATO as the ‘other’
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, November 29)

This presentation focuses on the way the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (hereafter CSTO) is depicted in contrast to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (hereafter NATO) in Russian newspapers ... [more ▼]

This presentation focuses on the way the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (hereafter CSTO) is depicted in contrast to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (hereafter NATO) in Russian newspapers. Doing so we will highlight more particularly how NATO is represented as the “threatening other” while the CSTO is depicted as a modern alliance without enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailGéopolitique et géostratégie, quand théories et recommandations se confondent
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), 2

Au 19e siècle Mackinder définit une dichotomie entre land et sea powers. D’après l’auteur, ces deux entités sont destinées à s’opposer et entrer compétition pour le Heartland, zone de terre étendue et non ... [more ▼]

Au 19e siècle Mackinder définit une dichotomie entre land et sea powers. D’après l’auteur, ces deux entités sont destinées à s’opposer et entrer compétition pour le Heartland, zone de terre étendue et non accessible par la mer. Ce Heartland, situé sur une grande partie du territoire russe et s’étendant en Asie centrale, est actuellement toujours au cœur des tensions entre les grandes puissances. Ainsi des théoriciens tant américains que russes vont reprendre les théories de Mackinder pour analyser mais aussi conseiller la politique étrangère de leurs États. Dès lors, ces auteurs vont appuyer l’importance pour leurs États de maintenir ou reprendre l’hégémonie sur le Heartland. Cet article se penche donc sur l’utilisation, par des académiques contemporains, de la théorie de Mackinder et les recommandations qui en découlent. Nous argumentons que ces recommandations inciteraient les États à émettre des actions qui confirmeraient de facto la théorie et conduiraient dès lors à une escalade de tension entre les États. [less ▲]

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See detailLa géopolitique comme discipline de science politique, un outil au service des décideurs ?
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, May 03)

Approche historique et critique de la géopolitique

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See detailRussie – Venezuela : l’alliance stratégique à l’épreuve des faits
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

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See detailLa politique étrangère russe envers le Venezuela, entre balancing et new world order
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

La politique étrangère de la Russie envers le Venezuela au travers des approches réaliste et libérale. Entre opposition aux Etats-Unis et coopération sur la scène internationale.

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (6 ULiège)