Publications of Fanny Vanrykel
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See detailAn analysis of energy taxes in light of electrification of transport
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

Conference (2019, September 26)

With the rise of environmental awareness, electric vehicles lie at the cornerstone of European and national energy policies. This paper analyses the implications on energy taxation resulting from ... [more ▼]

With the rise of environmental awareness, electric vehicles lie at the cornerstone of European and national energy policies. This paper analyses the implications on energy taxation resulting from electrification of the transport system. It departs from the observation that in the context of transport electrification, fuel and electricity play a similar role. Yet, shifting from fuel consumption to electricity consumption is not trivial with regard to taxation, as taxes on fuel and taxes on electricity fulfil different functions and ally to different concerns, which have shaped their design and evolution. As such, current tax frameworks appear to be poorly suited to the scale-up of electric vehicles, arguing that transport electrification may require the adoption of well-tailored tax instruments, such as a per- kilometre tax. This contribution provides an analysis of the national framework in Belgium and of the EU framework on energy taxation to illustrate this assertion. [less ▲]

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See detailCommentaire de l'article 2 du Protocole facultatif à la Convention sur l'élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l'égard des femmes, fait à New York le 6 octobre 1999
Behrendt, Christian ULiege; Vandenbosch, Sofia ULiege; Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

in Hertig Randall, Maya; Hottelier, Michel; Lempen, Karine (Eds.) CEDEF - La Convention sur l'élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l'égard des femmes, Commentaire (2019)

Commentaire international, article par article, de la Convention et de son Protocole facultatif, publié sous la direction scientifique de l'Université de Genève (Profs. Maya HERTOG RANDALL, Michel ... [more ▼]

Commentaire international, article par article, de la Convention et de son Protocole facultatif, publié sous la direction scientifique de l'Université de Genève (Profs. Maya HERTOG RANDALL, Michel HOTTELIER et Karin LEMPEN). [less ▲]

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See detailFostering Share&Charge through proper regulation
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

in Competition and Regulation in Network Industries (2018)

This article studies the emergence of Share&Charge, a German platform that organizes the sharing of charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) and the billing for the energy transactions. Share&Charge ... [more ▼]

This article studies the emergence of Share&Charge, a German platform that organizes the sharing of charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) and the billing for the energy transactions. Share&Charge follows a peer-to-peer fashion, enabling direct transactions between charging station owners and EV drivers. On the demand side, the platform, with its interactive map, makes it possible for EV owners to find a charging station in the most suitable location, for instance, at their place of work or where they live. On the offer side, Share&Charge enables station operators (private individuals or companies) to rent their charging stations and eventually to sell the electricity they produce. Charging tariffs within the charging station network are determined by the charging station operators themselves, but the platform provides indicative tariffs. Launched in September 2017, Share&Charge follows other initiatives, such as the French platforms Wattpop and ChargeMap, and the Swedish Elbnb. Share&Charge’s network is already proven to be successful with German citizens. Share&Charge adds certain elements of value at different stages of EV utilization. First, this model allows for a co-financing of charging infrastructures by individuals and businesses in the private sector by sharing the infrastructure costs among EV drivers. Besides the purchase price of EVs, the implementation of charging infrastructures and their financing represent a significant barrier to the rise of e-mobility. Share&Charge helps remove this obstacle without adding a further burden on the governmental budget. In addition, this approach follows the ‘‘user pays principle,’’ which engages in fair and effective financing. Second, the platform increases decentralized production value and facilitates its expansion. It also helps in avoiding grid congestion and energy loss, as well as increasing flexibility within the electricity market. Third, data use enables the optimization of energy demand and supply, and the optimal determination of tariffs, although these remain facultative. Models like Share&Charge could thus positively impact energy policy by tackling several upcoming obstacles associated with the development of EVs and decentralized energy production capacities. However, new forms of network structures (decentralized networks, sharing economy) and new actors (prosumers, platforms, etc.) also raise regulatory challenges. This article presents some of the legal issues associated with the development of models like Share&Charge. In particular, we study the tax framework applicable to this model, assuming that as such, it would be introduced into the Belgian market. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Strong, the Weak and the Law - Proceedings of the 6th ACCA Conference held in Liege on June 23, 2017
Miny, Xavier ULiege; Cordier, Quentin ULiege; Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege et al

Book published by Larcier (2018)

The relations between the law, the weak and the strong have given rise to considerable debates for centuries. Father Henry Lacordaire once eloquently observed : « Between the strong and the weak, between ... [more ▼]

The relations between the law, the weak and the strong have given rise to considerable debates for centuries. Father Henry Lacordaire once eloquently observed : « Between the strong and the weak, between the rich and the poor, between master and servant, it is freedom that is oppressive and the law that sets free ». This inspiring sentence supposes that the law allows to restore equality between the weak and the strong, by protecting the weaker one. But is it always the case ? Does the law necessarily act in favour of the weak ? Although individuals may have de iure the same rights, de facto the situation can be that only the stronger ones may exercise their rights over the weaker ones, which are therefore deprived of their freedom. Besides can we consider that the law still can resist to the will of the mighty ? « While the strong relies on strength, the weak relies on the law » wrote Thucydides. The present issue raises many questions relating to the interaction between the weak and the strong and how this interaction is grasped by the law. How does the law answer to differences in terms of (commercial, military, social, financial, etc.) power, or to situations in which there is no real equality between the parties? Of course, this subject is broad and can encompass various topics such as fundamental rights, consumer protection, social law, international relations, protection of the environment and rules of procedure. During the Sixth ACCA Conference held on June 23rd 2017 at the University of Liège, researchers and academics from all Belgian universities were invited to make their observations on this particular topic. This book, gathering more than twenty texts from this national Conference, has been published in order to share their research findings. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport du groupe d’experts sur la fiscalité des véhicules en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

in Revue de Fiscalité Régionale et Locale (2018), 1

La Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, désireuse de rendre son parc auto- mobile plus performant sur le plan environnemental a décidé, au début de la législature 2014-2019, de réformer ses taxes de circulation ... [more ▼]

La Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, désireuse de rendre son parc auto- mobile plus performant sur le plan environnemental a décidé, au début de la législature 2014-2019, de réformer ses taxes de circulation. À cette fin, une Taskforce composée d’experts en fiscalité et en sciences de l’environnement a été mise en place, en vue d’élaborer une proposition de réforme sur le verdissement des taxes de circulation et de mise en circulation en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale3. Le rapport rendu, qui fait l’objet de cet exposé, a été présenté au Parlement bruxellois le 4 juin 20184. En particulier, la présente contribution s’attache à introduire les élé- ments de contexte sous-tendant la réforme (1.), pour ensuite exposer le contenu du rapport final de la Task- force (2.). Enfin, plusieurs éléments de discussion et de conclusion sont présentés (3.). [less ▲]

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See detailRegulatory Challenges for Share&Charge Models
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

in Network Industries Quarterly (2018), 20(3), 17-21

The platform Share&Charge provides an innovative solution to the lack of electric vehicles charging infrastructure, lying at the crossroad of the electricity market, the transport market and ... [more ▼]

The platform Share&Charge provides an innovative solution to the lack of electric vehicles charging infrastructure, lying at the crossroad of the electricity market, the transport market and digitalisation. This paper presents the functioning of Share&Charge and its potential, before assessing the tax treatment of operations involved in the use of the platform. [less ▲]

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See detailFostering Share&Charge through Proper Regulation
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

Conference (2018, June 22)

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See detailTaxation and sustainable mobility: constraints, limits and prospects
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

Poster (2018, May 30)

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See detailLa politique belge en matière de climat, entre autonomie et coopération. Quelle place pour une vision commune à l’échelle natio- nale ?
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

in Revue Belge de Droit Constitutionnel (2017), 3

La présente contribution étudie les tensions qui existent, au niveau interne, entre les facteurs d’autonomie, d’une part, et d’harmonisation, d’autre part, de la politique climatique en Belgique. Elle ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution étudie les tensions qui existent, au niveau interne, entre les facteurs d’autonomie, d’une part, et d’harmonisation, d’autre part, de la politique climatique en Belgique. Elle vise également à mettre en exergue les éventuels dysfonctionnements des institutions dotées d’un rôle en matière de changement climatique et à en tirer les conclu- sions sur le plan de l’établissement d’une politique cohérente à l’échelle nationale. Dans ce contexte, la première section est consacrée aux fac- teurs d’autonomie de la politique climatique en Belgique (I), tandis que la seconde porte sur les facteurs d’harmonisation (II). Chacune de celles-ci aborde, d’un point de vue critique, le cadre institutionnel et les législations et accords qui en découlent. [less ▲]

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See detailL'exercice du droit d'enquête au sein des parlements fédérés
Behrendt, Christian ULiege; Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege

in D'Argent, Pierre; Renders, David; Verdussen, Marc (Eds.) Les visages de l'Etat - Liber amicorum Yves Lejeune (2017)

La contribution étudie la manière dont les entités fédérées ont fait usage du droit d'enquête.

Detailed reference viewed: 227 (27 ULiège)