Publications of Kevin Maréchal
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailCoexistence of Cooperative Models as Structural Answer to Lock-Ins in Diversification Pathways: The Case of the Walloon Dairy Sector
De Herde, Véronique; Baret, Philippe V.; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems (2020), 4(584542), 22

Drawing on an analysis of the Walloon dairy sector, this paper aims at bringing novel insights on the coexistence issue in agrifood transition studies. Whereas most studies explore the coexistence of farm ... [more ▼]

Drawing on an analysis of the Walloon dairy sector, this paper aims at bringing novel insights on the coexistence issue in agrifood transition studies. Whereas most studies explore the coexistence of farm models, our study focuses on value chains, in particular on cooperatives. In the Walloon Region, new dairy cooperatives emerged, as substitute or as complement to the incumbent vertically integrated dairy cooperatives. This paper focuses on the coexistence of dairy cooperative models as enabler of transition toward product diversification. Dairy cooperatives are hybrid actors: economic agents on the market on the one hand, structure of collective agency on the other hand. Williamson's framework of New Institutional Economics acknowledges that the allocation of resources by cooperatives depends on governance processes and on the wider institutional context in which the cooperatives evolve. Within the broader frame of the Multi-Level Perspective, this approach allows to consider the socio-technical coherence in which the cooperatives evolve, the effects of this coherence on their pathways of development, and the complementarity of the cooperative models. This qualitative analysis builds on semi-directed interviews with actors of the Walloon dairy sector. The results outline distinctions between the new cooperative models and mainstream dairy cooperatives in market approach, definition of milk quality, distribution of added value, governance, and interactions with partners. Both models evolve within a distinct socio-technical coherence, holding, in the case of the mainstream dairy cooperatives, lock-ins to diversification related to the relationship with the farmer-members and the milk they produce in the industrial vertically integrated model. The new cooperative models circumvent these lock-ins through de-integration and externalization of initiatives, remuneration, and risk. They allow specific groups of actors—still related or unrelated to the mainstream dairy cooperative—to explore new market pathways in accordance with their potential, and to mutually agree on criteria qualifying milk. This research draws the picture of a possible reconfiguration of the dairy landscape toward a more diversified ecosystem of actors and invites to consider structures of governance in collective action as a cornerstone issue, because of their significant role in terms of enablement, coexistence, and complementarity throughout the transition process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLearning Interdisciplinarity and Systems Approaches in Agroecology: Experience with the Serious Game SEGAE
De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Mireille ULiege; Jouan, Julia; Carof, Matthieu et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(11), 4351

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailTransitieplan voor België: lessen trekken uit Covid-19-crisis om toekomstige systeemcrisissen te voorkomen
Gemenne, François ULiege; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULiege et al

Article for general public (2020)

Terwijl Covid-19 nog dagelijks honderden medeburgers het leven kost en duizenden anderen worden gered dankzij de voorbeeldige toewijding van het personeel van de ziekenhuizen en de zorgsector, gedwongen ... [more ▼]

Terwijl Covid-19 nog dagelijks honderden medeburgers het leven kost en duizenden anderen worden gered dankzij de voorbeeldige toewijding van het personeel van de ziekenhuizen en de zorgsector, gedwongen te werken in bijzonder moeilijke omstandigheden, kijken onze autoriteiten logischerwijs naar scenario's voor het beëindigen van deze crisissen. In het meervoud, omdat we zowel een gezondheidscrisis doormaken die door de lockdown onder controle wordt gehouden, als een economische crisis die door de lockdown dreigt te verergeren. Dit is de complexe uitdaging die we moeten aangaan om te voorkomen dat we in een ernstige sociale crisis terechtkomen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 171 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailSortir de la crise du Covid-19 et en tirer les leçons pour éviter de contribuer à de nouvelles crises systémiques
Gemenne, François ULiege; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULiege et al

Article for general public (2020)

Le Resilience Management Group est composé d’académiques, économistes et d’entrepreneurs de la transition qui concilient la réflexion et les expériences du terrain. A l’heure des scénarios de sortie de ... [more ▼]

Le Resilience Management Group est composé d’académiques, économistes et d’entrepreneurs de la transition qui concilient la réflexion et les expériences du terrain. A l’heure des scénarios de sortie de crises, il propose un plan de transition pour la Belgique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 406 (24 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailIntégrer la territorialité pour une économie de la fonctionnalité plus soutenable
Roman, Philippe; Muylaert, Coralie ULiege; Ruwet, Coline et al

in Développement Durable et Territoires (2020), 11(1),

Product-service systems (PSS) are often presented as a new model which would be conducive to sustainable development. In most English-speaking work on PSS, the environmental dimension is at times put to ... [more ▼]

Product-service systems (PSS) are often presented as a new model which would be conducive to sustainable development. In most English-speaking work on PSS, the environmental dimension is at times put to the fore, or even considered as inherent to the model, but the issue of the territorial insertion of such activities is not addressed, or just in passing. Numerous reasons justify thinking that implementing PSS activities without considering their territorial embeddedness may end up with outcomes short of their full sustainability potential. We therefore believe it is important to explicitly question the territoriality of PSS initiatives. In the present article, we perform a literature review on the PSS-territory nexus and we propose a discussion aiming at shedding light on the relevance of integrating a territorial reflection to the scientific work on PSS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailQuantifying the Use of Forest Ecosystem Services by Local Populations in Southeastern Cameroon
Lhoest, Simon ULiege; Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege; Fayolle, Adeline ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(6), 2505

In order to improve sustainability and design adequate management strategies in threatened tropical forests, integrated assessments of the use of ecosystem services are needed, combining biophysical ... [more ▼]

In order to improve sustainability and design adequate management strategies in threatened tropical forests, integrated assessments of the use of ecosystem services are needed, combining biophysical, social, and economic approaches. In particular, no integrated ecosystem services (ES) assessment has been conducted in Central Africa, where rural communities deeply depend on forests in a high-poverty context. Here, we aimed to quantify the use of ES provided by tropical forests to local populations in the Dja area (Cameroon), identify its determinants and evaluate its sustainability. We conducted various interviews and field surveys with 133 households in three villages, focusing on three provisioning services (bushmeat, firewood, and timber), and five cultural services (cultural heritage, inspiration, spiritual experience, recreation, and education). Local populations consumed a mean of 56 kg of bushmeat/person/year (hunting zones covering on average 213 km2), 1.17 m3 of firewood/person/year (collection zones covering on average 4 km2), and 0.03m3 of timber/person/year. Between 25% and 86% of respondents considered cultural services as important. The use of ES was mainly influenced by population size, deforestation rate, and forest allocations, whereas the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of households remained limited to slight di erences between Baka and Bantu people. We conclude that the consumption of firewood and timber is sustainable, whereas high hunting pressure has resulted in severe defaunation in the area due to the large decline in the abundance and biomass of forest mammals hunted for bushmeat by local populations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 174 (23 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLock-Ins and Agency: Towards an Embedded Approach of Individual Pathways in the Walloon Dairy Sector
De Herde, Véronique; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Baret, Philippe

in Sustainability (2019), 11

As the 2009 dairy crisis drew attention to the situation of dairy farmers in Europe, the extent of strategical power left to farmers in dairy cooperatives of increasing size is a frequently raised issue ... [more ▼]

As the 2009 dairy crisis drew attention to the situation of dairy farmers in Europe, the extent of strategical power left to farmers in dairy cooperatives of increasing size is a frequently raised issue. Four dairy cooperatives collect 97% of the milk in the Walloon Region (in the southern part of Belgium). Two of them integrated agro-food multinationals. We decided to analyze the trajectories of Walloon dairy farmers exploring alternatives to the delivery of milk to these mainstream dairy cooperatives. We focused on the territories situated to the east of the Walloon Region, where dairy farming represents 75% of farming revenues. Alternatives consist either of processing milk on farm or in concluding a contract with a cheese processor collecting milk directly from farmers. Our objective was to understand the issues faced in these alternative trajectories and the reason why these alternatives remained marginal. We designed a qualitative case study based on interviews with farmers and local cheese processors. We mobilized evolutionary approaches on the stability and transitions of systems and approaches of change at the farmer level. It appears that the alternative trajectories remain embedded in a broader dairy context. The lock-ins emerging from this context determine the evolution of the farming model towards intensification and the individual identity and capabilities of farmers. We present a model of interconnected andembedded lock-ins, from the organizational frame of the regime to the individual frame. This model illustrates how the agency articulates with structural dynamics. We propose structural measures in the organization of agricultural education and in terms of support to alternative supply chains that will enhance agency in favor of a change. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLa viabilité du maraîchage urbain à l’épreuve de l’installation professionnelle
Plateau, Lou; Maughan, Noémie; Pipart, Nathalie et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (2019), 28(6), 8

agriculture is in vogue and unfolds in a diversity of ways, which imply, amongst others, the development of professional activities. From 2015 to 2018, two participatory action research projects have been ... [more ▼]

agriculture is in vogue and unfolds in a diversity of ways, which imply, amongst others, the development of professional activities. From 2015 to 2018, two participatory action research projects have been running in Brussels questioning the viability of small-scale urban market gardening as a way to earn a living, all the while producing food more sustainably. Their focus is on the start-up phase of market-garden farms.We followed a transdisciplinary research setup to reinforce the reflexivity of these market gardeners, and uncover several “knots” these market gardeners face along their start-up trajectory. We define a “knot” as a thematic whole of tensions, compromises and/or adaptations market gardeners struggle with while putting into practice their aspirations. Three thematic knots are presented and discussed here: strategies to access land, the mechanization dilemma and the role of volunteering. To cope with these knots, the trajectory of market gardeners in the start-up phase shows strategic bends and turns so as to stay afloat financially as a business in the short term, yet without getting rid of the knots in the longer term. This work shows that solving the challenges (knots) in the search for long-term sustainability of this type of projects extends far beyond the individual struggles of starting market gardeners. It begs for the reconstruction of a community of practices embedding these neo-farmers, that can be fostered through building an enabling legal, Financial and political environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 144 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailRéseaux de collaboration et valorisation des ressources locales en bois dans le secteur de la construction : évaluation du potentiel de développement de la filière bois wallonne par les proximités
Muytjens, Lionel ULiege; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Jourez, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2018, November 20)

Dans un contexte de redéveloppement des circuits courts, plusieurs initiatives de valorisation des ressources locales en bois dans le secteur de la construction ont été lancées en Wallonie. Par ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte de redéveloppement des circuits courts, plusieurs initiatives de valorisation des ressources locales en bois dans le secteur de la construction ont été lancées en Wallonie. Par l’application d’une grille de lecture dérivée de l’école des proximités, l'étude présentée au travers de ce poster cherche à identifier le potentiel de développement de ces circuits courts lorsque la filière met en place des réseaux de collaborations. Par la réalisation des seize entretiens semi-directifs et d’une enquête auprès de scieurs, grossistes en bois, constructeurs bois et architectes, des forces en termes de proximité géographique (partage d’un territoire) et de proximité de similitude (intentionnalités productives partagées) ont été relevées. A l’inverse, bien que la filière soit représentée par de nombreux acteurs et que des collaborations non formelles existent, la structure éclatée de la filière est pointée du doigt et la proximité « relationnelle » et « de média » sont jugées insuffisantes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (23 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailRecasting the Understanding of Habits for Behaviour-Oriented Policies in Transportation
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

in Sustainability (2018), 10(4),

The role of habits in influencing transportation behaviour is acknowledged in many studies. However, most of these analyses draw on a narrow perspective of habits. In this paper, we adopt a reversed ... [more ▼]

The role of habits in influencing transportation behaviour is acknowledged in many studies. However, most of these analyses draw on a narrow perspective of habits. In this paper, we adopt a reversed perspective regarding the interplay between habits and rationality. The insightfulness of this perspective is illustrated with the findings of two empirical studies on urban transportation. This paper shows that the underlying structure (i.e., the “genotype”) behind the phenotypic manifestation of a habit is essential to grasp for getting a better understanding of the role played by habits in explaining car use. The framework of habitual practices is then put forward in discussing the results. Its rationale is to provide a characterisation of the interconnected elements that make and shape the transportation practices, together with important aspects regarding how they are formed and sustained over time. Adequately picturing both constituent elements as well as dynamic aspects is crucial for explaining the strength of habitual practices and thus car dependence. In doing so, the framework of habitual practices could thus well be of help for policy-makers in reflecting on the design of efficient and innovative interventions for the transition towards more sustainable transportation behaviours. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (12 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLes circuits courts, un court-circuit temporaire ?
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

Ce texte est le fruit d'un travail de synthèse tiré des recherches de Kevin Maréchal, Laurence Holzemer et Lou Plateau.

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (21 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLes circuits courts, un court-circuit temporaire ?
Rommelaere, Gwendoline; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

Ce texte, rédigé par Gwendoline Rommelaere (Aide au Développement Gembloux-ADG), est le fruit d'un travail de synthèse tiré des recherches de Kevin Maréchal, Laurence Holzemer et Lou Plateau.

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailInterview - Graines de Savoirs n°11 : l’Economie écologique - Canal Zoom
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLes circuits courts : organisations hybrides sous haute(s) tension(s) ?
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Plateau, Lou; Holzemer, Laurence

Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (19 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDurabilité du maraîchage urbain : entre ancrage territorial et trajectoires de mise en œuvre
Plateau, Lou; Maughan, Noémie; Visser, Marjolein et al

Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAnalyse dynamique de la durabilité vécue et mise en œuvre par les acteurs des circuits courts wallons
Plateau, Lou; Holzemer, Laurence; Nyssens, Thiago et al

Report (2016)

« Quels sont les déterminants, les freins et les leviers permettant d’améliorer la durabilité des circuits courts ? » « Comment favoriser la réappropriation de ces connaissances par les acteurs de terrain ... [more ▼]

« Quels sont les déterminants, les freins et les leviers permettant d’améliorer la durabilité des circuits courts ? » « Comment favoriser la réappropriation de ces connaissances par les acteurs de terrain ? » Telles sont les questions pour lesquelles il a été demandé à l’équipe de recherche d’apporter des éléments de réponse. L’analyse livrée est le fruit d’une recherche menée par le Centre d’Études Économiques et Sociales de l’Environnement de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles entre 2015 et 2016, financée par la Région wallonne et coordonnée par la Fédération Inter-Environnement Wallonie. L’approche avec laquelle la durabilité a été abordée dans ce projet est singulière et se démarque explicitement d’une approche qui serait centrée sur les trois piliers (économique, social et environnemental) et leurs intersections. Cet affranchissement conceptuel a été traduit par une méthode itérative et inductive qui a permis d’aboutir à un ensemble de connaissances et de constats en provenance directe de différents acteurs impliqués dans les filières en circuits courts. L’approche a permis, dans le même temps, d’augmenter le caractère réappropriable des données récoltées. La durabilité des circuits courts a été abordée au travers de sujets et d’enjeux appartenant à la réalité quotidienne des acteurs et de leurs métiers. La durabilité dont il est question ici est celle vécue et mise en oeuvre quotidiennement par les acteurs. Cette approche implique de questionner de fil en aiguille les modèles d’entreprenariat, les interactions socioéconomiques mais aussi les différentes motivations, conceptions du monde et valeurs. La démarche a cherché à adopter une perspective qui soit en résonnance avec la réalité des personnes au sein de leurs activités. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 187 (24 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailChanger la société, pas le climat
Zaccaï, Edwin; Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

Article for general public (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULiège)