Publications of Thomas Morard
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See detailRoman Street and Urban Economy
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Mainet, Grégory ULiege

Book published by Propylaeum-EBOOKS (in press)

The streets played a key role in shaping the ancient economic townscape. Usually, we just consider the street as a way for traffic, but this conception is presumably wrong as a reading of ancient authors ... [more ▼]

The streets played a key role in shaping the ancient economic townscape. Usually, we just consider the street as a way for traffic, but this conception is presumably wrong as a reading of ancient authors like Martial or Juvenal suggests. The “space of the street” was built in three dimensions and was an important place for the social and economic interactions constituting the urban sociability during Antiquity. Such a function clearly appears in the architecture of the street shaped by numerous tabernae built within atrium houses, rows of shops or multi-storey buildings and by the activities which happened there. In other words, the economy of ancient cities was not confined to specific buildings such as macella. On the contrary, economic activities extended beyond the walls of such buildings and invaded the whole urban fabric along the streets. The papers of the panel “Ancient Streets and Urban Economy” intend to shed new light on the role of the space of the street in the urban economy in ancient societies between the 2nd century BC and the 3rd century AD in particular. To further our understanding, the different authors propose to examine some case studies such as Alba Fucens, Athens, Lugdunum, Norba, Ostia or Pompeii. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sols en béton de tuileau de la "Domus aux Bucranes" à Ostie : Contexte de production et observations technologiques
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Wastiau, Charles ULiege

in Blanc-Bijon, Véronique (Ed.) Pavements et sols en mortier : vocabulaire, techniques, diffusion (in press)

The cement pavements of the Domus dei Bucrani, a remarkable Late Republic villa unearthed from the deepest strata of the Schola del Traiano in Ostia Antica, have already been discussed in several ... [more ▼]

The cement pavements of the Domus dei Bucrani, a remarkable Late Republic villa unearthed from the deepest strata of the Schola del Traiano in Ostia Antica, have already been discussed in several publications. To this day, the context of the find, its chronological sequence and its description, all in relation with other elements of the Second Style decorative system, are well known amongst the specialised scientific community. Nevertheless, a technological analysis of these floors, in the specific context of the Latium production has yet to be completed. The documentation campaigns led at the moment by the Université de Liège on the site and in the deposits of Ostia Antica aim to fill this critical gap with a close study that will be supported by an archaeometrical analysis. The preliminary results of these ventures are presented here. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Vigna Manzi a Garaguso (MT) : Vecchi scavi, ricerche in corso e prospettive di studio di un importante sito indigeno
Cuvelier, Graham ULiege; Morard, Thomas ULiege; Motta, Lucie

in Siris: Studi e Ticerche della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia di Matera (in press)

This article traces the history of the archaeological research conducted on the site of the Vigna Manzi in Garaguso starting from the excavation of Vittorio Di Cicco in 1916 (which uncovered the famous ... [more ▼]

This article traces the history of the archaeological research conducted on the site of the Vigna Manzi in Garaguso starting from the excavation of Vittorio Di Cicco in 1916 (which uncovered the famous “Dea di Garaguso” and her tempietto) to the five surveys run by Jean-Paul Morel between 1969 and 1970. It then presents the results of the campaign led by Jean-Marc Moret in 2008 as well as the reopening and the prospects of the study of this site by the University of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailIl caso della "Schola del Traiano" dall’E42 a oggi
Morard, Thomas ULiege

in Forma Urbis. Itinerari nascosti di Roma antica (2020), 25(1), 43-45

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See detailLe IIe style en reliefs : les ensembles de stucs de la Domus aux Bucranes à Ostia Antica
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Girard, Thibault

in Flazone, Stella; Galli, Eduardo (Eds.) Pitture frammentarie di epoca romana da Roma e dal Lazio : nuove ricerche (2019, December)

The publication of the book Nani in Festa. Iconografia, religione e politica in Ostia durante il secondo triumvirato (C. Bocherens ed., Edipuglia, 2012) was the occasion to highlight the exceptional ... [more ▼]

The publication of the book Nani in Festa. Iconografia, religione e politica in Ostia durante il secondo triumvirato (C. Bocherens ed., Edipuglia, 2012) was the occasion to highlight the exceptional decorative system of the “Domus aux Bucranes” and, especially, to put forward the frieze of dwarfs and its interpretation. With the discovery of these paintings, in the œcus, we have discovered a remarkable collection of stuccos, until today remains unpublished. This article gives a first description and an initial analysis of the fragments of stucco. Their placement on the wall and their relationship with pavements, frescoes and painted ceilings are studied, as well as the iconography they carrying, in close relation with the context of the domus, and, more generally, with Ostia in the late-republican period. [less ▲]

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See detail12 MeV Proton Activation Analysis combined to IBA techniques for compositional studies of various archeological artefacts from Roman and Merovingian sites (Ostia Antica, Artena, Nevers)
Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege et al

Poster (2019, September 18)

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of ... [more ▼]

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of Liège, and thus, to a wide variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery, mortars and pigments) all provided by on-going studies and excavations of housing materials, wall decorations, and vessels led on two remarkable Roman sites and one Medieval site: First, from an important agricultural complex excavated on an artificial terrace from a republican town, Artena, located, 40 km South-East from Rome, near the Via Latina and the Campania; second, from the Domus dei bucrani, a house dating from the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of the Trajan at Ostia Antica and third, from the sixth-century glass mosaic from Saint Etienne church in Nevers, France. The aim of the present work is to explore and report the specific analytical interests of Charge Particle Activation Analysis implemented with protons ranging from 10 to 15 MeV, as a non-invasive analytical technique for the detection of elements with Z = 11–40 and beyond, and to address its suitability to solve questions raised by archaeologists. We present in this paper the preliminary results obtained following methodologies reported in recent pioneering and more recent works and emphasize on the achieved sensitivities (Limits of Detections) for elements as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) levels. [less ▲]

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See detailPIXE-PIGE and Proton Activation Analysis of Analysis of Roman archeological artefacts
Strivay, David ULiege; Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege et al

Poster (2019, June 11)

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of ... [more ▼]

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of Liège, and thus, to a wide variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery (terra sigillata), mortars and pigments) all provided by on-going studies and excavations of housing materials, wall decorations, and vessels led on two remarkable Roman sites: First, from an important agricultural complex excavated on an artificial terrace from a republican town, Artena, located, 40 km South-East from Rome, near the Via Latina and the Campania and second, from the Domus dei bucrani, a house dating from the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of the Trajan in Ostia. The aim of the present work is to explore and report the specific analytical interests of Charge Particle Activation Analysis implemented with protons ranging from 10 to 15 MeV, as a non-invasive analytical technique for the detection of elements with Z = 11-40 and beyond, and to address its suitability to solve questions raised by archaeologists. We present in this paper the preliminary results obtained following methodologies reported in recent pioneering and more recent works1-4 and emphasize on the achieved sensitivities (Limits of Detections) for elements as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) levels. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-analytical study of mural paintings from a Republican house from 1st BC in Ostia
Herens, Elodie ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Motta, Lucie ULiege et al

Poster (2019, May)

Ostia Antica, the ancient port of Rome, is overflowing with many remains, proofs of the greatness and the important activity of this area. Among them, the Schola del Traiano, along the Decumanus Maximus ... [more ▼]

Ostia Antica, the ancient port of Rome, is overflowing with many remains, proofs of the greatness and the important activity of this area. Among them, the Schola del Traiano, along the Decumanus Maximus in the neighbourhood of Porta Marina , presents a complex history. In addition to the excavation by archaeologists of three successive buildings on this parcel, the discovery of an uncommon dwarfs frieze (dating from 40 - 30 BC) brought attention. Usually depicted in decadent or ridiculous scenes, dwarfs are pictured here in scenes of daily life. This frieze is surrounded by other very elaborated friezes and tiles: Green and red masks friezes, dentils, the dwarfs frieze, a vegetal frieze, coloured tiles, a fruits frieze, and big red tiles surrounded by coloured lines combine to form a colourful room decoration. To deepen our understanding of this particular decor, various complementary analytical techniques were used: Raman spectroscopy, MA-XRF, hyperspectral imaging and digital microscopy. Besides the identification of the pigments used for each colour (Egyptian blue, cinnabar, iron oxide, chalk, ...), these techniques also allow to compare the different decoration parts together and to highlight common points and differences between them, in term of chemical composition but also concerning the decor elaboration and the successive steps in the painting implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailI pavimenti della Domus a Peristilio (IV, V, 16) nel contesto ostiense tra l’età augustea e l’età severiana
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege; Mainet, Grégory ULiege et al

Conference (2019, March 14)

La Domus a Peristilio (IV, V, 16) est l’une des rares maisons à atrium d’Ostie qui ont été fouillées récemment de manière exhaustive. Les investigations conduites sur cette parcelle par l’Université ... [more ▼]

La Domus a Peristilio (IV, V, 16) est l’une des rares maisons à atrium d’Ostie qui ont été fouillées récemment de manière exhaustive. Les investigations conduites sur cette parcelle par l’Université Lumière Lyon 2 entre 2002 et 2010 ont permis de poser un regard nouveau sur cette forme architecturale et de poser de nouvelles questions à propos de cet type d’habitat qui, jusqu’à présent, est resté en marge des études sur l’architecture domestique d’Ostie depuis les dégagements des années 1938-42. L’étude des sols et des pavements en particulier a livré de nouvelles données. Les fouilles stratigraphiques menées sur cette parcelle ont mis en évidence les différentes composantes des sols de cet édifice construit au début de l’empire. Notre communication se proposera dans un premier temps d’étudier les différentes couches qui composent ces sols, qui se rapprochent de la description du sol type proposée par Vitruve lui-même (statumen, rudus, nucleus), et de montrer leur particularité par rapport aux sols postérieurs mis en évidence à Ostie. En effet, les fouilles conduites à l’embouchure du Tibre depuis les années 60-70 sous les niveaux de sols impériaux ont permis de mieux caractériser la composition de nombreux sols aménagés à partir du IIe s. de notre ère et la mission de la Schola del Traiano ne fait pas exception, puisque plusieurs sols construits au IIIe siècle ont été documentés. Cette première partie posera ainsi des jalons essentiels pour appréhender l’histoire des techniques adoptées pour la constructions des sols à l’embouchure du Tibre, avant que ne soient réaliser des analyses archéométriques. Dans un second temps, cette communication s’intéressera plus particulièrement aux divers pavements qui recouvraient les sols de la Domus a Peristilio, parmi lesquels un des plus anciens opus sectile du port de Rome. Cette étude prendra à la fois en compte le style de ces pavements et les matériaux utilisés pour les réaliser. Certains d’entre eux témoignent de réaménagements, voire de restaurations, opérés dans cette maison au cours de son histoire qui prit fin sous les Sévères. La stratigraphie des sols montrent par exemple que les pavements de l’atrium et du péristyle ont été refait, au moins en partie. Ces nouveaux pavements, qu’il s’agisse de mosaïques ou de béton de sol avec incrustations de marbre, contrastent avec les pavements des nouvelles demeures construites à Ostie à partir du IIe siècle ap. J.-C., comme l’Insula delle Muse (III, IX, 22). Cette situation n’est pas isolée à Ostie et un constat similaire semble s’imposer dans la Domus di Giove Fulminatore (IV, IV, 3) [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 ULiège)
See detailAnalysis of archeological artefacts from Ostia and Arena Roman sites by PIXE-PIGE and Proton Activation Analysis
Strivay, David ULiege; Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege et al

Conference (2019, March)

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of ... [more ▼]

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of Li`ege, and thus, to a wide variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery (terra sigillata), mortars and pigments) all provided by on-going studies and excavations of housing materials, wall decorations, and vessels led on two remarkable Roman sites: First, from an important agricultural complex excavated on an artificial terrace from a republican town, Artena, located, 40 km South-East from Rome, near the Via Latina and the Campania and second, from the Domus dei bucrani, a house dating from the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of the Trajan in Ostia. The aim of the present work is to explore and report the specific analytical interests of Charge Particle Activation Analysis implemented with protons ranging from 10 to 15 MeV, as a non-invasive analytical technique for the detection of elements with Z = 11-40 and beyond, and to address its suitability to solve questions raised by archaeologists. We present in this paper the preliminary results obtained following methodologies reported in recent pioneering and more recent works [1-4] and emphasize on the achieved sensitivities (Limits of Detections) for elements as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) levels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (6 ULiège)
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See detailUn mosaico ostiense di prima età imperiale poco noto. L'ambiente 81 della “Domus a Peristilio” (IV, V, 16)
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege; Wastiau, Charles ULiege

in Atti del XXIV Colloquio dell'Associazione Italiana per lo Studio e la Conservazione del Mosaico (AISCOM) (2019)

Discovered in 1938-1939 under the “Schola del Traiano”, the “Domus a Peristilio” has immediately been remarkably reconstructed. Even though the construction itself was thrown the spotlights, the mosaic of ... [more ▼]

Discovered in 1938-1939 under the “Schola del Traiano”, the “Domus a Peristilio” has immediately been remarkably reconstructed. Even though the construction itself was thrown the spotlights, the mosaic of the room 81 failed to catch the attention of modern researchers. However, this mosaic is marked out by two reasons: in first place, it is one of the very few examples of mosaic work of the beginning of the Empire in Ostia, and for that reason, it was pointed out as one of the earliest opera tessellata unearthed in the site. On the other hand, its honeycomb-pattern, also presenting a pseudoemblema, is absolutely outstanding and unique. Based on the documentation established during the archaeological mission of the “Schola del Traiano” (2002-2010), we hope to bring back this mosaic from the abysses and to update the concerning available information (new photographic coverage, drawings and graphic restitution). We also aim to sit- uate this mosaic, first amongst the rest of the Latium productions, then in a larger, italic scale. Finally, we hope to reconstruct the mosaic and the room in which it lays according to the relations it entertained with surrounding areas. [less ▲]

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See detailRoman Streets and Urban Economy
Mainet, Grégory ULiege; Morard, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2018, May 25)

Among the urban infrastructures which shaped the economy, the street played a major role in ancient cities because it contributed to durably structure the urban economy. This use of the street has often ... [more ▼]

Among the urban infrastructures which shaped the economy, the street played a major role in ancient cities because it contributed to durably structure the urban economy. This use of the street has often been overlooked by archaeologists – until now. Indeed, such a topic naturally finds its place within the 19th congress of the International Association for Classical Archaeology whose theme is the economy of the classical world. First of all: how do we consider the street? As a mere route whose only purpose is traffic? No. This notion is wrong as it appears by reading ancient authors like Martial and Juvenal. The space of the street was built in three dimensions and was developed to answer the needs of the local population. It was indeed a place for important social and economic trades, constitutive elements of urbanity. The economic function of the street clearly appeared in its architecture which was shaped by the construction of numerous tabernae within the insulae and by the promotion of the activities (advertising) which happened there. Therefore, the roman cities economy was not divided and confined into specific buildings such as macella. On the contrary, it was incorporated into the whole urban fabric through the streets. With this panel, we offer to shed a new light to the role of the street within the urban economies through the imperium romanum between the 2nd century B.C.E. and the 3rd century A.C.E. Is the economic importance of the streets the same across the whole empire? What about the cities where people were settled before Rome’s arrival? On the contrary, what about all those which were founded by Rome? Did Rome and the Eastern Roman cities inherit their characteristics from Hellenistic cities? Or was the Roman model born in Italy? The problem is wide, contrary to the sources at our disposal. To solve it, two axis will be examined starting from precise archaeological cases, chosen within different periods: a) the qualitative study of the development of some streets well known thanks to extensive excavations like the Via dell’Abbondanza in Pompei or the Main Street of the Theatre District in Delos. b) the quantitative study of the distribution of economic functions along the network and the interactions between them thanks to comprehensive excavations or geophysical prospections. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive analysis of mural paintings from a Republican house from 1st B.C. in Ostia
Herens, Elodie ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Morard, Thomas ULiege et al

Conference (2018, May 23)

This paper is a comprehensive analytical study of the murals belonging to an ancient Roman house through the characterization of materials. The project focuses on the wall paintings of the Domus dei ... [more ▼]

This paper is a comprehensive analytical study of the murals belonging to an ancient Roman house through the characterization of materials. The project focuses on the wall paintings of the Domus dei bucranes, a house of the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of Trajan in Ostia. This Domus has undergone several phases of development in the 1st century BC before being destroyed around 20 BC. A new house was immediately rebuilt after a major change from the ground, which allowed exceptional preservation of the decoration system. The results complement our knowledge of Roman painting techniques during the 1st century BC and also provide a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to the problem of conservation of wall paintings. These two related objectives have been studied using non-destructive testing methods (MA-XRF, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy). The analyzes have been performed in situ using our mobile systems. The different set-ups had to be modified in order to be able to work on horizontal surfaces, specially our XRF scanner. The study of the pictorial layers address various issues in the field of archaeology: what technique has been implemented? Does the same technique was used in both phases of the development of Domus? Do they correspond to the techniques described by ancient writers? These responses are compared to those observed in other sets of murals dating from the 1st century BC. [less ▲]

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See detailEléments de réflexions à propos de l’occupation de la parcelle de la Schola del Traiano (IV, V, 15-16) à Ostia Antica
Morard, Thomas ULiege

in De Ruyt, Claire; Morard, Thomas; Van Haeperen, Françoise (Eds.) Ostia Antica. Nouvelles études et confrontation des recherches sur les quartiers occidentaux de la cité (2018)

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See detailOstia Antica. Nouvelles études et recherches sur les quartiers occidentaux de la cité, Actes de colloque international (Rome-Ostia Antica, 22-24 septembre 2014)
De Ruyt, Claire; Morard, Thomas ULiege; Van Haeperen, Françoise

Book published by Brepols Publishers (2018)

Ce volume, issu d’un colloque international qui s’est tenu à Rome à l’automne 2014, présente une série de recherches récentes et variées sur le site d'Ostie antique, avec une attention particulière aux ... [more ▼]

Ce volume, issu d’un colloque international qui s’est tenu à Rome à l’automne 2014, présente une série de recherches récentes et variées sur le site d'Ostie antique, avec une attention particulière aux investigations et études concernant les quartiers occidentaux de la cité, situés de part et d’autre du decumanus. L’ouvrage est articulé autour de trois axes : le premier est consacré aux nouveaux projets de recherches et aux analyses portant sur des aspects urbanistiques dans les différents quartiers de la ville ; le deuxième aux fouilles et études portant sur des édifices situés dans les quartiers occidentaux (Régions III et IV) ; le dernier rassemble des questions spécifiquement épigraphiques. Différentes thématiques transversales ont été envisagées, visant à créer un lien entre les diverses contributions : l’urbanisme, le parcellaire et le réseau viaire ; l’eau, qu’il s’agisse de l’approvisionnement, du conditionnement ou de l’évacuation ; la question cruciale des rehaussements successifs, tant du decumanus que des parcelles qui le bordent ; l’évolution topographique et fonctionnelle des divers quartiers et parcelles de la ville ; les critères de datation. [less ▲]

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