Publications of Claudine Houbart
Bookmark and Share    
See detailRaymond M. Lemaire, a complete architect. Fellowship introductory talk
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, December 03)

Introductory talk given at the occasion of an ICCROM Fellowship (December 2021 - June 2022).

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailGrand témoin - conclusions et perspectives
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Speech/Talk (2021)

Conclusions et mise en perspective des interventions à l'issue des deux jours de la manifestation.

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULiège)
See detailThe digital transmission of heritage values: lessons from the absent, the fragmentary and the ever-changing.
Hallot, Pierre ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, October 11)

Heritage evaluation and digitization of heritage are two research axes of the DIVA group (University of Liege, Belgium (1)). At the convergence of these two fields lies the question of how far digital ... [more ▼]

Heritage evaluation and digitization of heritage are two research axes of the DIVA group (University of Liege, Belgium (1)). At the convergence of these two fields lies the question of how far digital tools can transmit the heritage values, material and immaterial, of a property. Unfortunately, this question remains little studied today: while the use of digital survey techniques (LiDAR, photogrammetry) are almost generalized for the documentation of the heritage (upstream of a project), and that increasingly sophisticated technologies allow the communication of this heritage, once the project is completed, our research considers the structural integration of some of these digital tools as complementary processes to the acts of conservation, restoration or reconversion, which may change the scale or nature of these acts. To illustrate the questions raised by this ongoing research, we will use three complementary case studies: the Hotel Rigo, a building now demolished (Liège, Belgium), the Hotel Aubecq, a masterpiece by Victor Horta, now preserved in a fragmentary state (Brussels, Belgium) (2), and the Abode of Chaos, a threatened atypical and evolving site mixing architecture and artworks (Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or), in France (3). When confronted with the typology of values proposed in 2016 by H. Fredheim and M. Khalaf (4), each of these cases poses specific challenges regarding the transmission and even safeguard of these values. This paper will present the methodological avenues we have identified to integrate digital techniques as integral components of valorization projects. (1) https://www.diva.uliege.be (2) P. Hallot & C. Houbart, « May digital reconstruction tools help preserving the material and evocative value of fragments? The case of Victor Horta’s Hôtel Aubecq in Brussels », in Das Fragment im Digitalen Zeitalter. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen neuer Techniken in der Restaurierung. Proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference of the HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen in cooperation with ICOMOS AG Konservierung-Restaurierung and the Verband der Restauratoren e. V., May 7-8, 2021 in Hildesheim, Schriften des Hornemann Instituts, 21, p. 107-123. (3) https://www.demeureduchaos.com ; C. Houbart & M. Verbeeck, « The Abode of Chaos: a Refreshing Challenge for Conservation Theory and Practice », in ICOM-CC Modern Materials - Contemporary Art Newsletter, 12, Triennium 2021-23, p. 27-28. (4) L. Harald Fredheim & Manal Khalaf, « The significance of values: heritage value typologies re-examined », in International Journal of Heritage Studies, 22, no. 6, 2 July 2016, p. 466-481. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (2 ULiège)
See detailHeritagization and Endurance: False Friends? The Case of the ′′Industrial Abbeys′′ in Belgium.
Macaux, Mathilde; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, October)

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are ... [more ▼]

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are witnesses of the industrial fate that many rural monastic sites knew from the 19th century onwards. Sold as Biens Nationaux, as a consequence of the French Revolution (1796-1813), they took part in the early industrialization of Wallonia, second industrial power of the world in the 19th century after the United Kingdom. Coveted for their many assets (hydraulic energy, vast and robust buildings, significant land heritage), these secularized monastic estates were particularly conducive to the establishment of industrial complexes whose activities continued, for the most remarkable, until the second half of the 20th century. During the last decades of the 20th century, many of these sites entered the heritage corpus, as former monastic ensembles. The industrial phases were considered as inappropriate interventions, insensitive to the cultural values of the buildings. Thus many valorisation projects included heavy and costly restorations or evocations of the monastic phases at the expense of later transformations. Today, at a time when heritage can less and less claim an exceptional status, escaping the global effort to save material and financial resources, these pragmatic appropriations, which in spite of everything have enabled these sites to survive the centuries, appear to us in a different light. Among these reused sites, the abbey of Saint-Denis-en-Brocqueroie, used as a cotton spinning mill from 1803 to 1957, is an exception. Here, no major restoration programme with a colossal budget, but rather occasional renovation and restoration works, in constant evolution, undertaken with little means by about thirty families who have been working together for forty years to keep the site alive. Rather than denying the complex evolution of the site, with its ups and downs, the approach is part of the gradual construction of a palimpsest. It significantly contributes to the persistence of the site’s genius loci through different cultural and economic contexts. Unlike many other comparable sites, the heritagization of this abbey has not introduced a break, or even a step backwards, in its history. The site has adapted, almost "naturally", to successive reuse phases and is therefore a model of endurance. Through this counter-current example, set in relation to contemporary cases, we aim to highlight the possible contradictions between the consequences of heritagization and the notion of endurance. In today’s society, is it not sometimes preferable to draw inspiration from the pragmatic and spontaneous approaches of the 19th century industrial reuses, rather than risk freezing the sites in artificial states through restoration, breaking with the "natural" capacity of buildings to adapt to the successive contexts and their constraints? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULiège)
See detailLearning from the Abode of Chaos: institutions, stakeholders and contemporary challenges of conservation doctrine
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, September)

The Abode of Chaos is a complex site located in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or, a village ten kilometers North of Lyon, France (https://www.demeureduchaos.com). Dating back to the 17th century, the site hosts ... [more ▼]

The Abode of Chaos is a complex site located in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or, a village ten kilometers North of Lyon, France (https://www.demeureduchaos.com). Dating back to the 17th century, the site hosts the remains of a Protestant temple as well as vernacular buildings integrated into a total work of art created since 1999 by thierry Ehrmann, artist and businessman. The buildings as well as the site have become the support of more than 6500 artworks mostly made of recycled materials, echoing the often dark news of the last 20 years: climate change, the consequences of globalized trade, the exhaustion of resources, terrorism, war, intolerance, are embodied there without concession. This aspect runs through all the components of the site, materializing in the murals, the inscriptions, the monumental sculptures, the wounds inflicted on the vernacular buildings, the recycled materials and the obsolete objects diverted and reused. This living, evolving site has welcomed more than 2,000,000 free visitors from all over the world since 2006. Since 2005, however, it has been threatened with disappearance following the demand of the municipal authorities to bring it into conformity with town planning and heritage regulations. Indeed, the ongoing creative process involving the site does not fall under the classical approaches of conservation-restoration, as enshrined in doctrinal documents. But at the same time, since 2006, not less than 770 000 signatures have been collected in favor of the preservation of the site. A selection of comments posted by signatories have been gathered in a book which is a wonderful source allowing to perceive the cultural significance granted to the site by its various stakeholders (Honte à vous 2018). If we accept that cultural significance is a social construction emanating not only from experts carrying an "authorized heritage discourse » (Smith 2006), validated by scientific arguments, but also from multiple users, asserting a sensory and emotional expertise, the Abode of Chaos should undoubtedly join the multiform corpus of heritage. But if it finally does, what questions will it pose to our doctrinal principles, and what will it bring to their development? The Abode of Chaos is of course an “extreme specimen”. But that makes it a particularly thought-provoking expression of the current questioning of European heritage practices inherited from the 19th and 20th centuries. It becomes more and more clear that these practices alone are no longer sustainable in the face of current challenges related to climate change, economic crises, and the diversification of actors involved in the making of projects. The transmission process of an increasingly diversified heritage, now encompassing a large part of the environment, far from the selective inventories of the mid-20th century, cannot be thought with the only concepts from the past. Through the emerging concepts of “post-preservation” (DeSilvey 2017), “experimental preservation” (Otero-Pailos e.a. 2016), “counterpreservation” (Sandler 2016) or “hardcore heritage approach” (Rietveld & Rietveld 2017), the world of heritage is progressively opening up to new open-ended perspectives, respectful of the diversity of the narratives carried by the buildings or sites and the way in which they are experienced and interpreted by their current users according to their contemporary questioning. In this sense, the Abode of Chaos shakes up reference points and principles and questions the way in which our relation to the past and to memory is materialized in our choices of intervention on the existing heritage, in the context of the current crises. So, as surprising as it may seem, it can probably help us rethink our principles and even question their relevance and usefulness in the contemporary world. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThe Abode of Chaos: a Refreshing Challenge for Conservation Theory and Practice
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

in ICOM-CC Modern Materials - Contemporary Art Newsletter (2021), 12(Triennium 2021-23), 27-28

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULiège)
See detailLes Lemaire, des monuments au patrimoine: filiation, émancipation, rémanences
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, June 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailTranscending boundaries in the use of concepts: the case of antifragility
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

in Bridgland, Janet (Ed.) Transcending Boundaries: Integrated Approaches to Conservation. ICOM-CC 19th Triennial Conference Preprints, Beijing, 17–21 May 2021 (2021, May 19)

Since the middle of the 20th century, principles and ethical codes have multiplied in the field of conservation-restoration applied to works of art and architecture. Starting from the observation that ... [more ▼]

Since the middle of the 20th century, principles and ethical codes have multiplied in the field of conservation-restoration applied to works of art and architecture. Starting from the observation that this proliferation has not always stimulated the critical spirit of professionals, the CoToCoCo project aims to encourage reflection "out of the box". Case studies are confronted with concepts borrowed from disciplines outside the field of conservation-restoration, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, semiology and mathematics, among others. In this article, we examine two case studies of "lost art" through the prism of the concept of antifragility, developed by the mathematician Nassim Nicholas Taleb (1960-): The frescoes of St Francis Basilica in Assisi and the fragments of Victor Horta’s Hôtel Aubecq in Brussels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThe Abode of Chaos. Cultural Significance Assessment
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Report (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULiège)
See detailFrom Venice to Riga: Authenticity and Globalisation
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, February 24)

In an interview with Christina Cameron in 2011, Herb Stovel, one of the masterminds of the Nara Declaration of 1994, commented that “the authenticity discussion opened up the possibility for the world as ... [more ▼]

In an interview with Christina Cameron in 2011, Herb Stovel, one of the masterminds of the Nara Declaration of 1994, commented that “the authenticity discussion opened up the possibility for the world as a whole, the conservation field as a whole to say you must judge conservation decision-making in its cultural context (…) So beginning with that simple little word authenticity, the ripples in the water expanded to bring in this much larger idea”. And indeed, the debate on authenticity is deeply linked to the increasing globalisation of heritage discussions in the second half of the 20th century, particularly following the adoption by a growing number of countries around the world of the World Heritage Convention, drafted in 1972. It questions the balance between the need for universals and the respect for different cultures and thus, the possibility of a global consensus on conservation principles. After a look back at the process of internationalisation of debates from the end of the 19th century onwards, this lecture will focus on the difficulties of making explicit a notion that was taken for granted in the European context, as illustrated by its use until the 1964 Venice Charter. Absent from the World Heritage Convention text but playing a key role in the Operational guidelines formulated for the first time in 1978, the notion of authenticity never ceased to cause dissents among the experts of various origins in charge of deciding whether a building or site deserved to be inscribed on the list. The drafting process of the Nara document, which was supposed to clarify the implementation of the “test of authenticity”, illustrates the difficulty of reaching a consensus on this notion, which is intrinsically linked to a differentiated appreciation of the values carried by an increasingly diverse heritage. The delay between the drafting of the document and its effective application within the Guidelines more than ten years later, even more so. Since then, the debate is by no means over, and the Riga Charter, adopted in 2000, is just one illustration of this. As Françoise Choay already pointed out in 1994, the concept of authenticity is far from being operative in the field of heritage. But on the other hand, it remains a formidable subject of discussion, crystallizing the complexity of the issues involved in safeguarding heritage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLes églises rurales: un potentiel à activer
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Cahier Espace public (2021), (39),

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULiège)
See detailMay digital reconstruction tools help preserving the material and evocative value of fragments? The case of Victor Horta’s Hôtel Aubecq in Brussels.
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege

in Schädler-Saub, Ursula; Weyer, Angela (Eds.) Das Fragment im Digitalen Zeitalter. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen neuer Techniken in der Restaurierung. Proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference of the HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen in cooperation with ICOMOS AG Konservierung-Restaurierung and the Verband der Restauratoren e. V., May 7-8, 2021 in Hildesheim (2021)

Built between 1900 and 1904 along the avenue Louise in Brussels, the hôtel Aubecq is considered one of the masterpieces of Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta. But it was also one of the first victims of ... [more ▼]

Built between 1900 and 1904 along the avenue Louise in Brussels, the hôtel Aubecq is considered one of the masterpieces of Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta. But it was also one of the first victims of the disaffection from which this ephemeral artistic movement suffered and of the real estate speculation that led, in the post-World War II period, to the disappearance of many historical buildings in favour of more profitable ones. In 1948, the building is sold by the descendants of Gustave Aubecq, and two years later, demolished and replaced by apartment buildings. Only a few people protest against this demolition : as illustrated by the demolition of the Maison du Peuple more than 15 years later, it will still take time for Art Nouveau to regain public interest. But on the initiative of Horta’s widow together with one of the architect’s latest collaborators, Jean Delhaye, the dismantling of the main façade of the building is funded by the Ministry of Public works. During the next half century, the fragments of the façade (composed of around 600 stones as well as window frames and metalworks), which are the property of Belgian State, are moved several times from one site to another. Discussions and projects periodically arise, all of them considering the rebuilding of the façade : the debates are limited to the question whether it should be reused in the construction of a building, or whether it should be rebuilt in a museum context. In 2000, the fragments are handed in by the State to the Brussels Region, right at the moment when four of the main creations of the architect, all situated in Brussels, are inscribed on the World Heritage List, and Art Nouveau architecture becomes one of the main touristic assets of the capital. In that context, a study and thorough digital survey of the fragments is commissioned1, leading to a horizontal anastylosis of the façade, made public by an exhibition in 20112. But this initiative didn’t lead to any concrete long-term projects, and the stone fragments, which have remained in the warehouse where the exhibition took place, have been vandalised while the window frames have been partially burned and the metalworks, probably sold for the price of the metal. In consequence, the Brussels Region has decided to store the fragments in containers, and to ask the architects in charge of the new KANAL Contemporary Art Centre, to valorise them in collaboration with the CIVA (Centre international pour Ville, l’Architecture et le Paysage) inside the new complex. During the last year, and exhibition of a few stones and further debates have been organised inside the future museum.3 This exhibition is an invitation to broaden the range of possibilities for the fragments valorization: 16 stones, positioned on an orthogonal grid on te ground, are presented as separate art objects. Our research on this very stimulating issue started with a workshop we organised with students of the University of Liège, in collaboration with the institutions, architects and administrations involved in March 2019. This lead us to consider the opportunities and limits of the use of the available digital survey of the fragments for the valorisation projet. As to the opportunities, it appears that the existence of a digital clone may help develop two opposed valorisation choices at the same time: reconstruction, and preservation of the fragmentary state. As shown by the guestbook of the 2011 exhibition, a large part of the public would like the façade to be rebuilt, in order to recover or at least be able to perceive a part of the lost masterpiece. The fact that the digitisation took place before the disappearance or degradation of some elements makes it possible to virtually rebuilt the whole façade. But at the same time, the fragments in themselves bear very strong scientific and evocative values: the perception of their scale, texture and details delivers important information on construction history, as well as a powerful evocation of the fragility of heritage in the face of fluctuating value judgments through time, a value that would disappear with a material reconstruction. As to the limits, we have to bear in mind that the fragments have been digitised more than ten years ago, with technologies that have continued to evolve in terms of completeness and accuracy (to include, i.a. information on texture, colour, etc). The fragments storage environment makes it impossible to scan anew: so besides the reflection on valorisation options, the research also aims to study how, starting from a mesh acquisition resulting from a white light scanner, we can propose a digital reconstruction of the facade considering the difficulties of the old acquisition’s use and the inadequacy between the current representation objectives and the initial documentation criteria’s. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 187 (13 ULiège)
See detailCité Miroir. Reflections on Disabled Persons’ Experience
Eisazadeh Otaghsaraei, Negin ULiege; Heylighen, Ann; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Proceedings of the 16th International Docomomo Conference - Inheritable Resilience: Sharing Values of Global Modernities (2021)

Social and demographic changes in the 21st century turn an inclusive approach to built heritage into a necessity. Awareness is growing that human abilities and conditions are diverse, across both people ... [more ▼]

Social and demographic changes in the 21st century turn an inclusive approach to built heritage into a necessity. Awareness is growing that human abilities and conditions are diverse, across both people and the lifespan, while disability is increasingly understood as resulting from interaction with the designed environment. Acknowledging the challenges involved in reconnecting modern heritage with this contemporary reality, this paper focuses on the transformation of la Sauvenière, former public swimming pool and thermal baths, into Cité Miroir, a cultural space focusing on citizenship, memory, and dialogue. Located in the centre of Liège and registered as monument in Wallonia (Belgium), it is one of the sites featured in DOCOMOMO’s virtual exhibition of 19 “MoMo masterpieces” in Belgium. This building has been considered as one of the most important constructions of the interbellum modernist style and referred to as the “cathedral” of sports architecture in Wallonia. Designed in the Bauhaus style and inaugurated during the German occupation in 1942, it served as a public sports centre until being abandoned in 2000 due to non-compliance with safety standards. In 2014, after an extensive rehabilitation project, Cité Miroir was opened to public. Through conducting site visits with people living with diverse abilities and/or conditions, we build upon their unique expertise-by-experience to highlight spatial qualities that typically remain unobserved. By reporting on the preliminary findings of these field studies, we shift attention from the standardized human body as the source of proportion and measures for architecture to the human experience of space. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailVestiges de l'hôtel Aubecq, Bruxelles
Eisazadeh Otaghsaraei, Negin ULiege; Bodart, Céline ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Report (2021)

Report of the workshop organized in March 2019 with a group of students of the Faculty of Architecture of University of Liège.

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (10 ULiège)
See detailDe Menselijke Driften
Adriaenssens, Werner; Demesmaeker, André; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Book published by urban.brussels (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 ULiège)
See detailLes Passions humaines
Adriaanssens, Werner; Demesmaeker, André; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Book published by urban.brusels (2021)

This work considers the history of design, the material history and the critical fortune of the ensemble constituted by Jef Lambeaux's relief "Les Passions humaines" (W. Adriaanssens) and the pavilion ... [more ▼]

This work considers the history of design, the material history and the critical fortune of the ensemble constituted by Jef Lambeaux's relief "Les Passions humaines" (W. Adriaanssens) and the pavilion that houses it (C. Houbart), Victor Horta's first public commission. It ends with a short chapter on its latest restoration (A. Demesmaeker). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (2 ULiège)
See detailThe Human Passions
Adriaenssens, Werner; Demesmaeker, André; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Book published by urban.brussels (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detail“La reconstrucción como un acto creativo”: sobre la anastilosis y la restauración en torno al Congreso de Venecia
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Conversaciones (2020), 9

Con base en la observación de Nicholas Stanley-Price de una divergencia entre principios y práctica en la reconstrucción, el presente artículo analiza un momento clave en el desarrollo de la doctrina del ... [more ▼]

Con base en la observación de Nicholas Stanley-Price de una divergencia entre principios y práctica en la reconstrucción, el presente artículo analiza un momento clave en el desarrollo de la doctrina del patrimonio en el siglo XX: el Congreso de Venecia. Mediante un análisis de las sesiones del congreso, la exhibición que lo acompañó y la redacción de la carta que fue uno de sus resultados, se cuestionan las visiones de los expertos de ese tiempo acerca de la reconstrucción de sitios arqueológicos. El resultado es un paisaje contrastado en términos de proyectos y principios, y la observación de una cierta incomodidad ante la práctica que, después de las reconstrucciones de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se justifica, para gran pesar de una parte de la profesión, por el desarrollo de la economía turística. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detail“Reconstruction as a creative act”: on anastylosis and restoration around the Venice Congress
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Conversaciones (2020), 9

Based on Nicholas Stanley Price's observation of a divergence between principles and practice in reconstruction, this article examines a key moment in the development of heritage doctrine in the 20th ... [more ▼]

Based on Nicholas Stanley Price's observation of a divergence between principles and practice in reconstruction, this article examines a key moment in the development of heritage doctrine in the 20th century: the Venice Congress. Through an examination of the sessions of the congress, the accompanying exhibition and the drafting of the charter that was one of its outcomes, it questions the views of experts of the time on the reconstruction of archaeological sites. The result is a contrasted landscape in terms of projects and principles and the observation of a certain unresolved uneasiness in the face of a practice which, after the second reconstruction, is justified, to the great regret of a part of the profession, by the development of the tourism economy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (2 ULiège)
See detailReusing postmodern heritage : how literary theories can help
Coq, Maxime ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2020, May)

While postmodern heritage is slowly gaining more and more recognition, a new question arises : what architectural language should we use to intervene on such pieces of architecture ? As the vocabulary ... [more ▼]

While postmodern heritage is slowly gaining more and more recognition, a new question arises : what architectural language should we use to intervene on such pieces of architecture ? As the vocabulary used in postmodern architecture includes nods and references to previous architectural styles, intervening on postmodern heritage takes more than being « distinct from the architectural composition and [bearing] a contemporary stamp » (Venice Charter, art.9) to create a harmonious and relevant addition or transformation that « [does] not detract from the interesting parts of the building, its traditional setting, the balance of its composition and its relation with its surroundings » (art.12). The language of postmodern architecture is one of, if not the, foremost characteristic of the architectural style that should be understood and mastered before any addition or transformation. Principles used for older building’s restoration or adaptive reuse often prove unsuitable for this specific architecture. Drawing the bridge between architecture and literature – as Robert Venturi and Sir Charles Jencks did before us – enables us to import literary concepts like transtextuality in the field of architecture. As we already have shown in a previous research (Coq 2019), these concepts, derived from Gerard Genette’s 1982 book Palimpsests, help us understand and master the different tones implied by the use of references, hints and nods in postmodern architecture. In this contribution, linked to the CoToCoCo Project (Conceptual Toolkit for Contemporary Conservation), we will explore how they can be used to think a vocabulary of intervention that fits and strikes the balance between hints to the past and contemporary additions, using examples from Belgium, such as the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (C.H.U.) by Charles Vandenhove in Liège. Coq, Maxime. 2019. “Un nouvel ordre classique… et (post-)moderne : rhétorique de la colonne dans l’œuvre de Charles Vandenhove”. Bulletin de la CRMSF (in press). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 154 (17 ULiège)