Publications of Caroline Zickgraf
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See detailSlow onset events related to climate change and human mobility: Synthesizing current knowledge
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

in Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability (in press)

The breadth of emerging case studies and empirical evidence linking slow onset events and human mobility (migration and displacement) is difficult to succinctly summarize, owing to the wide range of slow ... [more ▼]

The breadth of emerging case studies and empirical evidence linking slow onset events and human mobility (migration and displacement) is difficult to succinctly summarize, owing to the wide range of slow onset hazards, their impacts, their varied interactions with other drivers of population movement, and the specificity of local contexts. Nevertheless, the growing literature demonstrates that the effects of slow onset processes interact with social, political, economic, environmental, and demographic factors to drive both human migration and displacement. One of the major impacts of slow onset events evident in the literature is the disruption of local livelihoods, particularly for those people dependent on natural resources, e.g. farmers, fishers, and pastoralists. Commonly, this underpins empirical case studies related to economic, more ‘voluntary’ migration patterns, yet these events may also contribute to displacement by decreasing ecosystem services and overwhelming populations’ capacity to withstand both slow- and rapid-onset events. The combination of these impacts can lead local communities to reach climatic and social tipping points, at which the socio-ecological capacity to cope in situ is exceeded, leading to displacement. This synthesis article, therefore, distinguishes between displacement and more voluntary forms of migration in slow onset contexts related to climate change, while acknowledging that a clear distinction between migration and displacement is often blurred in the context of slow-onset events such as sea-level rise, desertification and land and forest degradation. It recognizes that slow-onset events may in many situations interact or exacerbate rapid-onset events in multi-risk scenarios, increasing the risk of loss and damage. The article assesses the state of knowledge on human mobility related to slow onset events by distilling academic and ‘grey’ literature across geographical regions, with particular attention given to developing country contexts. It will draw from various secondary and bibliographic resources including the CLIMIG database. This contribution identifies commonalities as well as gaps and tensions in the field at different spatial scales, in order to provide scientific information that can support and inform national planning and policymaking processes in assessing and addressing the mobility impacts and risks associated with slow onset events. [less ▲]

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See detailThe State of Environmental Migration 2019: A Review of 2018
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege; Hut, Elodie ULiege; Castillo Betancourt, Tatiana ULiege

Book published by Presses universitaires de Liège (in press)

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See detailHandbook on Climate Change and Human Mobility
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege; Gemenne, François ULiege

Book published by Edward Elgar (2021)

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See detailTransformative climate action in cities
Gemenne, François ULiege; Depoux, Annelise ULiege; Pettinotti, Laetitia et al

in Forced Migration Review (2020), 63

A critical, but understudied, issue of concern is how climate change will affect migrant populations living in cities, and how local governance and actions to combat the effects of climate change will ... [more ▼]

A critical, but understudied, issue of concern is how climate change will affect migrant populations living in cities, and how local governance and actions to combat the effects of climate change will address displaced people’s vulnerability and support their integration. This article is based on desk research, interviews with experts in a variety ofdomains, and representatives of mayoral and municipal offices in North American, European, African, and Asian cities. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change and Migration: Myths and Realities
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailScoping analysis on the nexus between climate change and migration in cities
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege; Gemenne, François ULiege; Depoux, Annelise ULiege

Report (2020)

Report prepared for C40 – Cities Climate Leadership Group and The Mayors’ Migration Council (MMC)

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (4 ULiège)
See detailMigration and Security
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Speech/Talk (2019)

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See detailClimate migration myths
Boas, Ingrid; Farbotko, Carol; Adams, Helen et al

in Nature Climate Change (2019), 9

Misleading claims about mass migration induced by climate change continue to surface in both academia and policy. This requires a new research agenda on ‘climate mobilities’ that moves beyond simplistic ... [more ▼]

Misleading claims about mass migration induced by climate change continue to surface in both academia and policy. This requires a new research agenda on ‘climate mobilities’ that moves beyond simplistic assumptions and more accurately advances knowledge of the nexus between human mobility and climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change and Human Mobility
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Speech/Talk (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULiège)
See detailClimate Change and Migration in Africa
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailHuman Rights and Displacement :The Adverse Effects of Climate Change
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailMigration into and within Europe and Security Issues
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege; Hut, Elodie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULiège)
See detail(Im)mobilities & climate Change: Locating environmental immobility in theory and in practice
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Conference (2019, June 06)

Thus far, most research on the human impacts of climate change has focused on the people displaced, who have come to incarnate the human faces of global warming (Gemenne 2011). However, the people who ... [more ▼]

Thus far, most research on the human impacts of climate change has focused on the people displaced, who have come to incarnate the human faces of global warming (Gemenne 2011). However, the people who face the same adverse conditions, but who stay in communities of origin have been relegated to the academic and political backburner. Only recently have scholars noted that ‘in the decades ahead millions of people will be unable to move away from locations in which they are extremely vulnerable to environmental change’, becoming trapped populations (Foresight 2011). While those ‘trapped’ or who choose to stay in areas affected by climate change represent a substantial policy issue, there is little empirical work specifically targeting such populations. The scant attention that is afforded to immobility emphasises financial constraints as drivers of immobility (Zickgraf 2018). In other words, it is frequently assumed that people facing climate change yet who do not leave simply cannot afford to move. As an essential part of the mobility spectrum, the complexity of immobility in crisis, including its social and political dimensions, warrants thorough investigation. In response to these research gaps, from 2015 to 2018, the IMMOBILE project asked why people become (or remain) immobile in the face of climatic and environmental change and then articulated the relationship between migration, on one hand, and immobility, on the other. This contribution locates environmental immobility within mobilities studies, its conceptual complexities, and, finally, illustrates these issues with the findings of the IMMOBILE project. The findings are based on 160 semi-structured interviews conducted in three developing countries experiencing environmental degradation (including but not limited to the impacts of climate change): Senegal, Comoros, and Viet Nam. The presentation delves into the nature of (im)mobility patterns and outcomes as they interact with social, political, economic, environmental and demographic forces. In political spaces that are dominated by a desire to limit human mobility and reinforce sedentary biases, we underline the effects of these discourses, policies, and programmes on people’s aspirations and abilities to migrate out of harm’s way. [less ▲]

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See detailThe State of Environmental Migration
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Invited Speaker to International Resource Panel (IRP) Internal Scoping Workshop on Environmental Displacement and Migration

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See detailHuman Mobility and Climate Change: Migration and Displacement in a Warming World
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Article for general public (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULiège)
See detailClimate Change and Migration Crisis in Africa
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

in Menjívar, Cecilia, Cecilia; Ruiz, Marie; Ness, Immanuel (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Migration Crises (2019)

The conventional narrative on the crisis of climate change and its links to migration sees the physical impacts of climate change—such as sea-level rise, drought, soil salinization, and floods—as driving ... [more ▼]

The conventional narrative on the crisis of climate change and its links to migration sees the physical impacts of climate change—such as sea-level rise, drought, soil salinization, and floods—as driving massive human migration, increasing existing flows from the Global South to the Global North as people flee disasters and famine. Yet contradictory evidence demonstrates that the relationship between climate change and migration is not so simple. Africa is indeed the most vulnerable content to these impacts, but this extreme vulnerability arises from physical exposure and because of the interplay of numerous social, political, economic, and environmental factors. Moreover, migration dynamics related to the climate change crisis manifest in nonlinear, heterogeneous ways across subregions and countries. Thus, this chapter outlines the varying and multidimensional relationships between human mobility and climate change in Africa. It considers the threat of climate change to African settlement dynamics both presently and in the century to come, before providing an overview of climate change–migration dynamics and challenges throughout the continent. [less ▲]

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See detailKeeping people in place: Political factors of (im)mobility and climate change
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

in Social Sciences (2019), 8(8), 28

While those 'trapped' or who choose to stay in areas affected by climate change represent a substantial policy issue, there only a small amount of empirical work specifically targeting such populations ... [more ▼]

While those 'trapped' or who choose to stay in areas affected by climate change represent a substantial policy issue, there only a small amount of empirical work specifically targeting such populations. The scant attention that is afforded to immobility often emphasizes financial constraints as factors driving (involuntary) immobility. As an essential part of the mobility spectrum, the complexity of immobility in crisis, including its political dimensions, warrants thorough investigation. In response to these gaps, this contribution locates environmental immobility within mobilities studies, its conceptual complexities, and, finally, illustrates the importance of political factors in shaping (im)mobilities. The findings are based on semi-structured interviews conducted in two developing countries experiencing the impacts of climate change. We delve into the socio-cultural and economic nature of (im)mobilities as they interact with political forces, specifically by exploring international bilateral agreements (Senegal) and a relocation program (Vietnam). In political spaces that are dominated by a desire to limit human mobility and (re)produce stasis, we challenge traditional dichotomies between mobile/immobile and sedentary/migration polices by underlining how policy interventions can simultaneously promote mobility and immobility, demonstrating complex co-existing mobilities. Keeping people in place can, in fact, mean allowing the very same people to move. © 2019 by the authors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULiège)
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See detailChapter 4: Cross-Cutting Issues
McMullen, Catherine; McLain, Shana; Abiodun, Babatunde Joseph et al

in Gupta, Joyeeta; Boileau, Pierre; Ekins, Paul (Eds.) UN ENvironment Global Environment Outlook: GEO-6 (2019)

Stage78444.1IntroductionAs understanding of the interdependence between a healthy planet and healthy people becomes more developed, complex issues that thread through systems and societies gain new ... [more ▼]

Stage78444.1IntroductionAs understanding of the interdependence between a healthy planet and healthy people becomes more developed, complex issues that thread through systems and societies gain new importance. Beyond the traditional Global Environment Outlook (GEO) themes addressing air, biodiversity, oceans, land and fresh water, this GEO-6 assessment addresses cross-cutting issues worthy of further examination. Using a systems approach, these cross-cutting issues offer entry points allowing another dimension for analysing GEO-6 themes as well as understanding the network of interconnections throughout earth and human systems. These cross-cutting issues are grouped according to shared characteristics: health, environmental disasters, gender, education and urbanization are grouped as ‘people and livelihoods’; climate change, polar and mountain regions, chemicals and waste and wastewater are grouped as ‘changing environments’; and resource use, energy and food systems are considered as ‘resources and materials’. While each issue provides useful entry points into GEO-6 themes, it is important to discuss the state of the environment and policy context for each one. [less ▲]

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See detailFuture Flows : Forecasting and Responding to Environmental Migration
Zickgraf, Caroline ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULiège)