Publications of Céline Parotte
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See detailBelgian grey literature related to transitions and change in labor market. WP4 LAMARTRA project
Delvaux, Sarah ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege; Calay, Vincent et al

Report (2021)

This document connects to Work Package (WP) 4 ‘Anticipating low-carbon/labor pathways in salient selected sectors’. It is a deliverable part of Task 4.1 ‘Literature Review: inventory of anticipated ... [more ▼]

This document connects to Work Package (WP) 4 ‘Anticipating low-carbon/labor pathways in salient selected sectors’. It is a deliverable part of Task 4.1 ‘Literature Review: inventory of anticipated transitions’, which reports an ‘Internal research note grey literature related to transitions and change in labor market’ (D.4.1.2.). More specifically, this deliverable aims to report on some recent scenarios and studies (from 2013 onwards) related to the low-carbon transition and labor market change in Belgium. This report focuses first and foremost on studies and reports which have been funded by public authorities and private actors . The actors who realized those studies come from research centers (VITO, IWEPS), consultancy firms (Climact), private and public actors, and include some level of involvement of universities (VUB, KUL). The purpose of this deliverable is to highlight: • how the scenarios and studies on labor change related to the low-carbon transition are framed in the grey literature related to climate, energy and labor market transitions, • what type of methods are favored by the actors in charge of conducted such surveys, • and what main results they sustain. [less ▲]

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See detailCultiver les vertus de l'ignorance avec le Pathways Evolution Process Serious Game
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, December 03)

Cette présentation s'insère dans le panel "normes et sureté; vers un changement de doctrine?" Les questions posées en filigrane de cette présentation sont les suivantes: Devons-nous partir de ce que nous ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation s'insère dans le panel "normes et sureté; vers un changement de doctrine?" Les questions posées en filigrane de cette présentation sont les suivantes: Devons-nous partir de ce que nous savons (connaissances scientifiques produites et stabilisées) ou de ce que nous ne savons pas pour envisager la sureté nucléaire? Devons-nous accorder une place plus importante à la non-connaissance (non knowledge), à l’incertitude (uncertainty) à l’ignorance (ignorance)? Et si oui, à quelles conditions? Ces questions permettent aussi de partager un retour expérience supplémentaire en matière de scénarisation de la sureté. La présentation se divise en quatre temps. (1) Dans quel contexte les normes sont-elles produites et surtout reçues? Ce sont des éléments avec lesquels les autorités de sureté et leur appui technique doivent composer. (2) Retours sur la proposition d’un jeu sérieux (le Pathways Evolution Process - PEP serious game @SITEX) pour discuter, débattre des incertitudes associées à un projet de long terme. (3) Evaluation du Pep serious Game: Qu’est-ce que le jeu a permis? Qu'est-ce que les experts, les joueurs, les chercheurs-facilitateurs ont appris? (4) Le jeu révèle-t-il les vertus de l’ignorance? Lesquelles? [less ▲]

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See detailMake it Our Shared Wicked Problems! The "Pathways Evolution Process" Serious Game as Challenger for RWM strategies
Parotte, Céline ULiege; Ciraolo, Florence ULiege; Flore, Nathan ULiege

Conference (2021, October 08)

While STS scholars generally point out that radioactive waste management (RWM) is a sociotechnical issue, in practice the social and technical aspects are still treated separately. European nuclear ... [more ▼]

While STS scholars generally point out that radioactive waste management (RWM) is a sociotechnical issue, in practice the social and technical aspects are still treated separately. European nuclear regulatory bodies and their technical support organizations (SITEX network) are aware of this issue and are looking for innovative ways to address it. Recently, they created the “Pathways Evolution Process (PEP) Serious Game” dedicated to RWM. With the support of social experts, this foresight game initially aims at challenging RWM strategies and fostering interactions with civil society (SITEX project, 2021). Concretely, PEP Serious Game creates and imposes shared wicked problems that participants must solve together within a specific timeframe. Based on document analysis, semi-structured interviews, participatory observations and ethnographic fieldnotes, this presentation compares two recent national experiences of the Pep Serious Game applied to RWM in France (2019) and Belgium (2021). Both participatory exercises were designed to target young participants with multidisciplinary background and were jointly organized by technical and social experts, with the support of French and Belgian nuclear regulatory bodies and their technical support organizations. Our results highlight how this tool creates, perpetuates or temporarily challenges relationships between technical and social experts (from universities and relevant public administrations) and stakeholders of the future generation. A central question we ask is: what if playing seriously was a way to collectively challenge nuclear waste policies? [less ▲]

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See detailSorting cells out: an inquiry into the circulation and valuation of cord blood units
Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Macq, Hadrien ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, October 06)

Novel entities like stem-cells and related medical therapies not only encapsulate huge hopes for medical treatments, they have also become key sites of capital accumulation. The valuation of life science ... [more ▼]

Novel entities like stem-cells and related medical therapies not only encapsulate huge hopes for medical treatments, they have also become key sites of capital accumulation. The valuation of life science objects has been treated in several ways in recent years. In STS, a first strand addresses the value of tissues and body parts mainly in terms of commodification. By contrast, a second strand emphasizes the importance of assetization as the key driver in technoscientific capitalism. Finally, anthropological contributions interested in valuation often question the boundary between commodity and gift. In this paper, we take stock of these contributions by empirically studying the donation of cord blood units (CBUs) and following their multiple paths (i.e. release for storage, direct use, trash) as co-modified with infrastructures that translate and valorize them. We develop a framework to address the set of practices and operations that constitute and configure multiple, potentially conflicting, forms of ‘value’ (i.e. economic, political, therapeutic, scientific). Relying on prolonged ethnographic research conducted in a cell therapy laboratory of a university hospital in Belgium, we find that the performance of sorting cells out is a crucial tool of valuation, as it dramatically affects the circulation, value and status of cells. By providing compelling evidence that moving cells to the market thrives on the interplay between strategies of turning living entities into gifts, commodities or assets, we aim to reinvigorate scholarly discussions by showing how complex valuation processes can significantly mark the social life of the same cells. [less ▲]

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See detailGouverner les objets nucléaires: les cinq défis des ancêtres que nous sommes
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

Voici les cinq défis que nous autres, en tant qu'ancêtres, nous devons gérer mais aussi léguer aux générations futures. Ces cinq défis sont interreliés et concernent l'ensemble des pays nucléarisés et ... [more ▼]

Voici les cinq défis que nous autres, en tant qu'ancêtres, nous devons gérer mais aussi léguer aux générations futures. Ces cinq défis sont interreliés et concernent l'ensemble des pays nucléarisés et leurs pays limitrophes. Ils renvoient à quatre questions: 1. comment prendre en considération l'histoire longue du nucléaire, 2. comment cadrer le problème et l'objet à gérer?, 3. comment créer une volonté et un intérêt de se saisir de ces questions?, 4. Quand l'intérêt est là, qu'est-ce qui rassemble et/ou s'impose aux personnes qui se sentent concernées? [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding a Hybrid Forum to bridge low-carbon and labour market transitions. WP4 - LAMARTRA project
Delvaux, Sarah ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege; Calay, Vincent et al

Report (2021)

The research question of the LAMARTRA project is: ‘How to understand the ongoing and future developments of the low-carbon and labour transitions, and which governance strategies are available in Belgium ... [more ▼]

The research question of the LAMARTRA project is: ‘How to understand the ongoing and future developments of the low-carbon and labour transitions, and which governance strategies are available in Belgium to ensure the joint pursuit of climate targets and ‘just’ work and employment? This document connects to Work Package (WP)4 ‘Anticipating low-carbon/labour pathways in salient selected sectors’. It is a deliverable part of Task 4.1 ‘Literature Review: inventory of anticipated transitions’, which reports an ‘Internal research note foresight studies of transitions and change in labour market’ (D.4.1.1). The aim of this WP is to develop desirable low-carbon/labour futures and the pathways to reach them, for each of the four cases of the LAMARTRA project, through the conceptualization and the setting up (and its management) of a foresight exercise. The ambition of this foresight exercise is to move beyond continuity-based (Raskin & Swart, 2020), business-as-usual exercises focusing on either the environmental or the labour aspects and expert-dominated, ‘technocratic’ foresight that ignores situated experiences, fears and hopes of transitions. By contrast, the foresight exercise as we see it encompasses both the environmental and labour aspects of transitions and includes both expert and non-expert knowledge. It also seeks to bridge quantitative (WP3) and qualitative data (WP4), and to inform consistent and comprehensive transitions strategies and federal-level policies (cross-sectorial, multi-level governance, short- and long-term). [less ▲]

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See detailMoving cells to the market: an inquiry into the circulation and valuation of stem cells
Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Hendrickx, Kim ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, June 17)

Innovation in the life sciences in general and stem cell science in particular is driven by an interlinked set of market demands with regulatory arrangements. Predominant among these markets are research ... [more ▼]

Innovation in the life sciences in general and stem cell science in particular is driven by an interlinked set of market demands with regulatory arrangements. Predominant among these markets are research funding, scientific labor, research materials, clinical labor, venture capital, patenting and, last but not least, patients. In other words, biological materials and biomedical products have become key sites of capital accumulation and encapsulate huge hopes for new health therapies and economic growth. Yet very little scholarly attention has been paid to the movement of human tissues from the clinic to the market — the various steps from sampling to storage, packaging, transportation and commercialization — and the successive stages to ‘realize value’. To address this shortage, we suggest to empirically investigate stem cells not as objects in their own right, but as co-constituted with infrastructures that translate and valorize them. We develop a framework to detect multiple, potentially conflicting, notions of ‘value’ and focus on the difficulties and negotiations to objectify this multiplicity in standards of economic value (e.g. in financial terms such as price and reimbursement). Relying on prolonged ethnographic research conducted in parallel in a laboratory of gene and cell therapy at a university hospital and in a clinical stage pharmaceutical company, this presentation will empirically allow to question how, why and with what consequences stem cells circulate and gain value by following their journey from donors to the market. Informed by science and technology studies, valuation studies and the material turn in social science, our results will illuminate the mutual shaping of moving stem cells markets, medical and regulatory practices. [less ▲]

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See detailWasted opportunities? Nuclear STS lost in translation
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, May 17)

In 2010, Solomon et al. published "Three Decades of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges." Ten years later, Hietala and Geysmans (2020) once again ... [more ▼]

In 2010, Solomon et al. published "Three Decades of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges." Ten years later, Hietala and Geysmans (2020) once again assessed the added value and limitations of social science thinking on radioactive waste management (RWM). STS researchers engaged in multiple ways (critical thinker, translator, participant observer) and provided many concepts that they considered useful for conceptualizing or critiquing such sensitive sociotechnical processes. In short, they have also experimented with how their theoretical (and even pragmatic) suggestions have been understood, received, rejected, or ignored by different audiences engaged in and outside the nuclear world. In this presentation, I take a pragmatic and reflexive stance to ask: how do social scientists and STS researchers contribute to the design and evaluation of radioactive waste management processes and for what consequences? Following the key challenges that Belgian radioactive waste management actors have identified for the future of radioactive waste management and spent fuel programs (Parotte and Fallon 2020), the arguments of the presentation will develop as follows: For each challenge, I will first highlight some STS concepts that have already been suggested to RWM practitioners in Belgium and elsewhere. Then, I will critically evaluate how and why these STS concepts have received limited attention from RW practitioners. I emphasize that in some cases, STS specialists may be lost in translation, unable to reach particular audiences or to integrate contextual constraints and understand other languages. Based on concrete examples, I will highlight how STS concepts travel politely around the world or can be superficially instrumentalized to serve particular interests with limited consequences. Are these attempts missed opportunities? In any case, this is the perfect opportunity for us STS researchers to clearly identify and assume the kind of worlds we wish to live in and to ask the sensitive and provocative questions we like to ask of others: who am I willing to live with? What are the means or pathways I refuse to take? [less ▲]

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See detailThe Power and Limits of Classification: Radioactive Waste Categories as Reshaped by Disposal Options
Parotte, Céline ULiege

in Nuclear Technology (2021)

How does naming an object affect the way it is or could be managed? This paper examines and compares classification systems for radioactive waste applied by the IAEA and in France, Canada and Belgium. I ... [more ▼]

How does naming an object affect the way it is or could be managed? This paper examines and compares classification systems for radioactive waste applied by the IAEA and in France, Canada and Belgium. I analyze how the relevant actors classify radioactive objects and, in so doing, prescribe their management. By comparing and describing four established classification systems, I highlight how the IAEA and national classification systems for radioactive waste systematically associate the “high-level radioactive waste” category with the “deep geological disposal” option. Building on Science and Technology Studies, I argue that creating categories of high-level radioactive waste does more than just describe different types of wastes: it also prescribes certain management options (e.g. deep geological disposal), thereby opening up certain options for action and closing down others. I underline how uncertainties remain about what to do with radioactive wastes in blurred, un-stabilized categories that are classified and named differently by different actors. Examples of “blurred” categories include spent nuclear fuel from uranium oxide, and spent nuclear fuel from mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Should these categories be managed as a waste, or as a resource? Should their common fate be the deep geological disposal? Revealing the power and limits of a top-down classification system to manage radioactive waste, I maintain that remaining uncertainties could reverse the dynamics of imagining a final long-term repository option for a given category. In the absence of stabilized categories, the deep geological disposal option becomes the primary mode of classifying objects as either waste or a resource. This analysis flips the conventional notion of high-level radioactive waste on its head: instead of asking what management option should be preferred to deal with nuclear waste, the chosen disposal option has a decisive influence on what counts a radioactive waste in the first place. Nuclear engineers and top nuclear managers are invited to take a fresh look at the limits of their radioactive waste classification systems and potentially consider a new focus (the disposal option) and new allies (such as geological disposal designers, NGO’s and civil society) to overcome them. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational Governance for NW: the tension builds
Parotte, Céline ULiege; Amighetti, Sarah ULiege

Conference (2021, April 04)

This presentation began with two common understandings about intergenerational governance. First, we talk about governance in societies (Schröder 2016). On this topic, pro- and anti-nuclear people share ... [more ▼]

This presentation began with two common understandings about intergenerational governance. First, we talk about governance in societies (Schröder 2016). On this topic, pro- and anti-nuclear people share concerns about the need to think about future generations: "Feelings of responsibility for our descendants seem to play an important role in the argumentation of both pro- and anti-nuclear people" (Taebi, Roeser, and Van de Poel 2012, 4) Second, NW managers and controllers face the classic planning dilemma: "Both foregoing options and introducing new technologies increase risk." (Herbold, 1995, 193). In a similar vein, Ibo Van Poel points out that "the exact impacts on society are currently largely unknown and are very difficult to predict in advance" (Van Poel, 2015,3). While there is a common agreement among people who share concerns or feel responsible for the next generations, the way in which they want to integrate them differs. This presentation focuses on four potential intergenerational tensions. Each of these tensions already exists and will continue to exist. For each tension, we ask: What do social scientists or STS researchers suggest examining? What are the very concrete issues for Sitex members? This presentation focuses on entry points that might support other ideas, highlight particular assumptions, or pose provocative questions. These STS concepts might be useful for examining NWMs or controls with other challenging perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding blocks for the long-term governance of B&C waste in Belgium
Bergmans, Anne; Parotte, Céline ULiege; Fallon, Catherine ULiege et al

Report (2021)

This report presents the overall findings of a three-tier study commissioned by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency. It was conducted between June 2018 and December 2019 by a ... [more ▼]

This report presents the overall findings of a three-tier study commissioned by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency. It was conducted between June 2018 and December 2019 by a consortium consisting of the Universities of Antwerp, Liège and Maastricht. The research was conducted independently with an explicit focus on governance and process design. The central research question of the project is as follows: ‘HOW CAN A GOVERNANCE PROCESS BE DESIGNED THAT IS SUFFICIENTLY ROBUST AND FLEXIBLE TO GUARANTEE INTERGENERATIONAL STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT AND THE SAFE MANAGEMENT OF B&C WASTE, BOTH NOW AND IN THE FUTURE?’ [less ▲]

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See detailCells and researchers in motion: making sense of the circulation and valuation of stem cells through mobile and intersecting ethnographies
Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Macq, Hadrien ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, February 15)

Novel entities like stem-cells and related medical therapies have become key sites of biomedical innovation and capital accumulation (Salter et al. 2015). Little attention has yet been paid to how ... [more ▼]

Novel entities like stem-cells and related medical therapies have become key sites of biomedical innovation and capital accumulation (Salter et al. 2015). Little attention has yet been paid to how biological materials circulate and acquire value, what kinds of value, and for whom. Following Appadurai (1986)’s methodological principle that things-in-motion illuminate their human and social context, we follow the trajectories and analyze the social life of human cells as they leave bodies to be stored, modified, transported, frozen or injected. [less ▲]

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See detail100 000 ans de déchets nucléaires : le défi de la légitimité démocratique à long terme
Parotte, Céline ULiege

in Damay, Ludivine; Jacquet, Vincent (Eds.) La légitimité démocratique dans les pratiques politiques contemporaines (2021)

Qu’est-ce qui fait la légitimité d’une politique publique particulièrement sensible dans un régime démocratique ? La question est centrale dans des domaines technologiques hautement controversés comme les ... [more ▼]

Qu’est-ce qui fait la légitimité d’une politique publique particulièrement sensible dans un régime démocratique ? La question est centrale dans des domaines technologiques hautement controversés comme les nanotechnologies, les biotechnologies, les OGM ou encore le nucléaire. Le concept de légitimité est souvent le point d’entrée qui permet de réexaminer les systèmes de gouvernance, des politiques publiques et les technologies de gouvernement qui y sont développées. Ces technologies façonnent l’ordre social autant qu’elles sont façonnées par ce dernier (Jasanoff 2004). Cet article analyse la trajectoire de la politique publique de gestion des déchets hautement radioactifs à partir d’une étude de cas unique : celle du Canada. Il interroge l’évolution de 1950 à nos jours des approches stratégiques et institutionnelles qui permettent à un projet de gestion à long terme controversé, porteur d’incertitudes radicales, d’acquérir et maintenir sa légitimité démocratique. Cette étude de cas, comme celles de la Finlande ou de la Suède, est considérée comme particulièrement innovante en ce que les pratiques managériales de gouvernement reconnues comme légitimes ont été fondamentalement modifiées au fil des années (Fallon et al. 2012; Parotte 2018; Ramana 2013). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytique de gouvernement pour étudier les transitions
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Learning material (2021)

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See detailSpecial Section on Participatory Innovation
Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege; Macq, Hadrien ULiege

in Science as Culture (2021), 30(2), 161-236

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See detailExploring Frictions of Participatory Innovation between Sites and Scales
Macq, Hadrien ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege; Delvenne, Pierre ULiege

in Science as Culture (2021), 30(2), 161-171

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See detailEvaluation des politiques publiques
Fallon, Catherine ULiege; Pavier, Jeanne ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege et al

Learning material (2021)

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See detailMéthodologie qualitative en sciences politiques
Parotte, Céline ULiege; Fallon, Catherine ULiege; Delvenne, Pierre ULiege et al

Learning material (2021)

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See detailHigh-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent fuel as Matters of Care: Assembling Neglected Things for their Futures. Final Results of the ONDRAF/NIRAS project - ULiège, UA and UMaastricht
Parotte, Céline ULiege; Fallon, Catherine ULiege; Cörvers, Ron et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2020)

This project highlighted how the current assessment of B&C waste program and its future is not only a matter of facts, it is also a matter of concerns (Latour 2004) and for some actors, clearly matter of ... [more ▼]

This project highlighted how the current assessment of B&C waste program and its future is not only a matter of facts, it is also a matter of concerns (Latour 2004) and for some actors, clearly matter of care (de la Bellacasa 2011). B&C waste and spent fuel have a social life: how to manage such radioactive materials is not only a matter of established facts but it is also a matter of interests, a ‘matter of concerns’. They are indeed intimately interrelated: ‘Matters of facts are processes of entangled concerns’ (De La Bellacasa, 2011, p.89). Concerns attach and hold together matters of fact and contribute to affirming their reality by adding further articulations’ (id.) ONDRAF/NIRAS, like each actor involved in the management program, produce ‘matters of concerns’ strongly entangled with its matter of facts. In some case, things can be more than interrelated matters of facts and concerns: they are ‘matters of care’. But what does it mean exactly? In any situation, if we ask yourselves: ‘is it a fact?’, ‘Am I concerned?’ or ‘do I care?’, our practices, our discourses and our engagement on an issue differ (de la Bellacasa 2011). Applied to B&C waste and spent fuel, it could be ‘waste are already here and it must be managed’ versus ‘I’m concerned by the faith of such radioactive materials’ versus ‘I care about the way to handle them’. Then, considering the B&C waste as matters of care changes the way we are engaged in the program and the way we frame it. [less ▲]

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