Publications of Marie Geurten
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See detailImpaired explicit self-awareness but preserved behavioral regulation in patients with Alzheimer Disease
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege

in Aging and Mental Health (2021), 25(1), 142-148

Objectives: Impairments of metacognitive skills represent a critical symptom in Alzheimer Disease (AD) because it frequently results in a lack of self-awareness. However, recent findings suggest that ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Impairments of metacognitive skills represent a critical symptom in Alzheimer Disease (AD) because it frequently results in a lack of self-awareness. However, recent findings suggest that, despite an inability to explicitly estimate their own cognitive functioning, patients might demonstrate some implicit recognition of difficulties. In this study, we tested whether a behavioral dissociation between explicit and implicit measures of metacognition can be found in both healthy older controls (n = 20) and AD patients (n = 20). Methods: Our two groups of participants (AD vs. Controls) were asked to complete a forced-choice perceptual identification test and to explicitly rate their confidence in each decision (i.e., explicit measure of metacognition). Moreover, they also had the opportunity to ask for a cue to help them decide if their response was correct (i.e., implicit measure of metacognition). Results: Data revealed that all participants asked for a cue more often after an incorrect response than after a correct response in the forced-choice identification test, indicating a good ability to implicitly introspect on the results of their cognitive operations. On the contrary, only healthy participants displayed metacognitive sensitivity when making explicit confidence judgments. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that implicit metacognition may be less affected than explicit metacognition in Alzheimer’s disease. [less ▲]

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See detail"Raconte-moi un peu, qu'as-tu fait à l'école ?" : Proposition d'une intervention de type guidance parentale ciblant le style de réminiscence
Léonard, Christina ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

Poster (2021)

L’objectif de notre projet est de promouvoir le rôle des parents dans le développement mnésique (épisodique) de leur enfant. Ce développement est capital tant pour la construction de l’identité de ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de notre projet est de promouvoir le rôle des parents dans le développement mnésique (épisodique) de leur enfant. Ce développement est capital tant pour la construction de l’identité de l’enfant que pour ses capacités d’apprentissage. En neuropsychologie, les auteurs pointent le manque de recherches testant l’efficacité des méthodes de rééducation de la mémoire épisodique chez les enfants de moins de 7 ans (pour une revue systématique, voir (Schaffer & Geva, 2015)). Pour pallier ce manquement, nous proposons d’explorer une piste d’intervention : la psychoéducation des parents à propos de la manière dont ils discutent d’évènements passés avec leur enfant d’âge préscolaire. En effet, la réminiscence parentale est une activité universelle et précoce mais inégale : les parents se différencient sur le continuum de l’élaboration et les réminiscences plus élaboratives (fréquentes, détaillées et collaboratives) favorisent le développement cognitif de l’enfant dont le développement mnésique (Waters et al., 2019). Des études ont montré la possibilité d’améliorer de manière durable le style de réminiscence parentale via de brèves séances psychoéducatives, avec des répercussions positives sur les capacités mnésiques d’enfants neurotypiques (pour une revue, voir (Léonard et al., 2020)). Dans cette communication affichée, nous décrivons la méthodologie de notre guidance parentale ainsi que des résultats préliminaires auprès de 10 participants (parents et enfants d'âge préscolaires tout-venants). [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring impulsivity in Children: Adaptation and Validation of a Short Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviors Scale in Children and Investigation of Its Links with ADHD
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Catale, Corinne ULiege; Gay, Philippe et al

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2021), 25(1), 105-114

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method ... [more ▼]

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged from 8 to 14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale. Additional analyses emphasized the good internal and test-retest reliability of the short UPPS-P-C. Furthermore, our results also revealed that lack of premeditation and urgency subscales were able to discriminate between children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their matched controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the short UPPS-P-C may be considered as a promising time-saving tool to assess impulsivity traits in healthy children and in children with psychiatric disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailLes discussions parent-enfant à propos du passé : un moyen de stimuler la performance en mémoire épisodique des enfants d'âge préscolaire
Léonard, Christina ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

Poster (2020, May)

Le développement de la mémoire épisodique est bien entendu lié à la maturation cérébrale1 mais différents facteurs environnementaux semblent également jouer un rôle important – c’est le cas peut-être des ... [more ▼]

Le développement de la mémoire épisodique est bien entendu lié à la maturation cérébrale1 mais différents facteurs environnementaux semblent également jouer un rôle important – c’est le cas peut-être des discussions parent-enfant à propos du passé. Il a en effet été suggéré qu’un style de réminiscence parentale élaboratif (c.à.d., discussions fréquentes, détaillées et collaboratives à propos du passé) favorise les capacités du jeune enfant en mémoire épisodique2. Notre objectif est d’explorer, via une étude longitudinale, quels éléments du style de réminiscence des parents influencent la performance en mémoire épisodique d’enfants âgés de 3 à 5 ans (n = 57). Le style de réminiscence parentale est analysé via une discussion parent-enfant à propos d’un événement préalablement vécu (visite standardisée de l’aquarium de Liège) et les capacités de mémoire épisodique de l’enfant sont évaluées via une tâche de rappel d’histoire en immédiat (T1) et après 9 mois (T2). Ensuite, nous avons mené des analyses de régression pas-à-pas descendantes sur les capacités en mémoire épisodique des enfants. Ces analyses ont montré de meilleures performances en mémoire épisodique au T1 pour les enfants dont les parents approfondissent la discussion des éléments du passé. En outre, nos résultats indiquent que lorsque les parents situent les éléments discutés dans leur contexte temporo-spatial et utilisent un discours méta-mnésique, les enfants obtiennent après 9 mois de meilleurs scores en mémoire épisodique. Dès lors, nos résultats confirment que discuter du passé de manière plus détaillée et contextualisée ainsi qu’en commentant les performances et/ou opérations mnésiques en cours favorise la performance du jeune enfant en mémoire épisodique. De futures recherches devraient donc approfondir cette question de l’influence des réminiscences parentales sur le développement de la mémoire épisodique. Nos résultats indiquent que la question d’un développement sous-jacent des compétences métacognitives chez l’enfant par le biais des réminiscences parentales devrait être investiguée. Les techniques de prise en charge visant la mémoire épisodique du jeune enfant étant actuellement rares, ces futures études pourraient se révéler une étape essentielle à l'implémentation d'interventions de guidance parentale ciblant le style de réminiscence. 1. Casey, B. J., Tottenham, N., Liston, C. & Durston, S. (2005). Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 104-110. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.01.011 2. Langley, H. A., Coffman, J. L., & Ornstein, P. A. (2017). The socialization of children’s memory: Linking maternal conversational style to the development of children’s autobiographical and deliberate memory skills. Journal of Cognition and Development, 18, 63-86. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1135800 [less ▲]

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See detailHunting down the source: how amnesic patients avoid fluency-based memory errors
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology (2020), 34(1), 15-23

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of amnesic and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in ... [more ▼]

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of amnesic and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in the use of fluency as a cue for memory. Method: Patients with severe memory deficits and matched controls were presented with three forced-choice recognition tests. In each test, an external source of fluency was provided by manipulating the perceptual quality of the studied items during the test phase. The detectability of the perceptual manipulation varied in each test (i.e., a 10%, 20%, or 30% contrast reduction were given). Results: The results indicated that all participants were able to rely on fluency when making recognition decisions as long as the perceptual manipulation remained unnoticed. Interestingly, our data also revealed that the level of contrast reduction at which the alternative source is detected differs between healthy controls and amnesic patients. Specifically, patients with amnesia appeared to disqualify fluency as a cue for memory even when the contrast reduction was moderate while healthy participants only disqualified fluency when the contrast reduction was clearly visible. Conclusion: Overall, our results seem to suggest that the ability to use fluency is probably not impaired in amnesia but undergo metacognitive changes resulting in the implementation of explicit or implicit strategies aiming at tracking alternative sources in order to reduce memory errors. [less ▲]

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See detailFluency-Based Memory Decisions in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Matter of Source Detection?
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Salmon, Eric ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology (2020), 34(2), 176-185

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can ... [more ▼]

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in the use of fluency - i.e., the ease with which information is processed - as a cue for memory. Method: Twenty-two patients with AD and 22 matched controls were presented with three forced-choice visual recognition tests. In each test, an external source of fluency was provided by manipulating the perceptual quality of the items during the test phase. The detectability of the perceptual manipulation varied in each test (i.e., 10%, 20%, or 30% contrast reduction were given). Results: Data indicated that AD patients rely on fluency in a similar extent than older adults as long as they demonstrate intact detection of differences in the perceptual quality of the items. Specifically, it appears that patients’ ability to visually discriminate stimuli differing in terms of their perceptual quality is critical for patients to be able to implement strategies to appropriately use or correctly disqualify fluency during a recognition task. Conclusion: Overall, these findings suggest that the disruption of some basic cognitive processes could prevent AD patients to experience fluency in a similar extent than healthy controls. However, when the ability to detect differences in the perceptual quality of the stimuli was taken into account, patients appeared to be as able as controls to rely on fluency to guide their memory decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailTalking about the past: a way to stimulate episodic memory development in preschoolers
Léonard, Christina ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

in Brain and Cognition (2019, December), 137

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See detailConcurrent learning of explicit and implicit sequences
Marinelli, Vincent ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

This research focused on the efficiency of implicit sequence learning when an interfering sequence was presented in the same series of trials, with regards to the nature of the secondary sequence learning ... [more ▼]

This research focused on the efficiency of implicit sequence learning when an interfering sequence was presented in the same series of trials, with regards to the nature of the secondary sequence learning. In one condition, the interfering sequence was also learned implicitely. In another condition, the interfering sequence was described to the participant beforehand and trained. Results show that implicit learning is effective when an interfering secondary explicit sequence is presented. Although we could not clearly demonstrate an effective implicit learning in the implicit interference condition, there was no significant difference between the two conditions. These result indicate that the differential attentional requirements of the secondary sequence do not seem to play a role in the implicit learning of a previous sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous strategies to resolve face naming failures
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege

Poster (2019)

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See detailMetacognition for strategy selection during arithmetic problem-solving in young and older adults
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Lemaire, Patrick

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2019), 26(3), 424-446

We examined participants’ strategy choices and metacognitive judgments during arithmetic problem-solving. Metacognitive judgments were collected either prospectively or retrospectively. We tested whether ... [more ▼]

We examined participants’ strategy choices and metacognitive judgments during arithmetic problem-solving. Metacognitive judgments were collected either prospectively or retrospectively. We tested whether metacognitive judgments are related to strategy choices on the current problems and on the immediately following problems, and age-related differences in relations between metacognition and strategy choices. Data showed that both young and older adults were able to make accurate retrospective, but not prospective, judgments. Moreover, the accuracy of retrospective judgments was comparable in young and older adults when participants had to select and execute the better strategy. Metacognitive accuracy was even higher in older adults when participants had to only select the better strategy. Finally, low-confidence judgments on current items were more frequently followed by better strategy selection on immediately succeeding items than high-confidence judgments in both young and older adults. Implications of these findings to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in adults’ metacognitive monitoring and metacognitive regulation for strategy selection in the context of arithmetic problem solving are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrative Memory model of recollection and familiarity to understand memory deficits
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Besson, Gabriel ULiege; Simon, Jessica ULiege et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2019), 42(e281), 1-60

Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate ... [more ▼]

Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate about how recollection and familiarity are organized in the brain. Here, we propose an Integrative Memory model which describes the distributed and interactive neurocognitive architecture of representations and operations underlying recollection and familiarity. In this architecture, the subjective experience of recollection and familiarity arises from the interaction between core systems storing particular kinds of representations shaped by specific computational mechanisms and an attribution system. By integrating principles from current theoretical views about memory functioning, we provide a testable framework to refine the prediction of deficient versus preserved mechanisms in memory-impaired populations. The case of Alzheimer’s disease is considered as an example because it entails progressive lesions starting with limited damage to core systems before invading step-by-step most parts of the model-related network. We suggest a chronological scheme of cognitive impairments along the course of Alzheimer’s disease, where the inaugurating deficit would relate early neurodegeneration of the perirhinal/anterolateral entorhinal cortex to impaired familiarity for items that need to be discriminated as viewpoint-invariant conjunctive entities. The Integrative Memory model can guide future neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies aiming to understand how such a network allows humans to remember past events, to project into the future and possibly also to share experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions with the Integrative Memory model
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Besson, Gabriel ULiege; Delhaye, Emma ULiege et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2019), 42(e304), 40-60

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See detailTravail avec les parents dans la prise en charge précoce du bégaiement
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Moyse, Astrid ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, October 06)

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See detailLes études de cas en psychologie clinique, neuropsychologie et logopédie : les principes des lignes de base
Geurten, Marie ULiege

Conference (2018)

Au cours de ce symposium, les principes méthodologiques permettant d'évaluer l'efficacité d'une prise en charge psychologique, logopédique ou neuropsychologique sont détaillés. Des outils méthodologiques ... [more ▼]

Au cours de ce symposium, les principes méthodologiques permettant d'évaluer l'efficacité d'une prise en charge psychologique, logopédique ou neuropsychologique sont détaillés. Des outils méthodologiques et statistiques congrès applicable en clinique sont présentés. [less ▲]

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See detailPropriétés psychométriques d’un questionnaire de validation de symptômes
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Seron, Xavier

Conference (2018)

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See detailFrom domain-specific to domain-general? The developmental path of metacognition for strategy selection
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Lemaire, Patrick

in Cognitive Development (2018), 48

We examined the developmental course of metacognition concurrently in arithmetic problem solving and in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, children aged between 8 and 13 were asked to judge the ease with ... [more ▼]

We examined the developmental course of metacognition concurrently in arithmetic problem solving and in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, children aged between 8 and 13 were asked to judge the ease with which they would select the better strategy on a given item before actually selecting and executing it. In Experiments 2 and 3, children had to judge their level of confidence in a strategy once selected. Results of these experiments indicated that children are able to accurately judge whether they select the better strategy on a given item in both the arithmetic and the memory domains, and that this ability improves with age. Using a comprehensive set of metacognitive measures, our data support the hypothesis that metacognition is first domainspecific and then generalizes across domains as children mature. Implications of these findings to further our understanding of age-related changes in metacognition and its involvement in strategy selection are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA closer look at children’s metacognitive skills: The case of the distinctiveness heuristic
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2018), 172

The primary aim of this study was to document the developmental course of distinctiveness effects throughout childhood. Specifically, we examined whether the reduction in false recognition rates that is ... [more ▼]

The primary aim of this study was to document the developmental course of distinctiveness effects throughout childhood. Specifically, we examined whether the reduction in false recognition rates that is traditionally observed in children after distinctive encoding could be explained not only by enhanced discrimination between studied and new items but also by the implementation of a conservative response criterion resulting from the use of metacognitive expectations about the quality of memories (i.e., distinctiveness heuristic). Two experiments were conducted in which children aged 4–5, 6–7, and 8–9 years old were asked to study a set of items presented either in pictorial (distinctive) or in word (less distinctive) form. In Experiment 1, pictures and words were displayed in two separate lists, a design that is supposed to favor reliance on the distinctiveness heuristic. In Experiment 2, the two types of stimuli were presented within the same list, a design that is supposed to make using the metacognitive heuristic ineffective. Overall, Experiments 1 and 2 provide evidence that children as young as 4 rely on the distinctiveness heuristic to guide their memory decisions, resulting in a reduction in the false recognition rate when items are presented using a pure-list design (Experiment 1), but not when they are presented using a mixed-list design (Experiment 2). The implications of these findings for our understanding of the development of metacognition and the involvement of metacognitive skills in children’s memory performance are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe learned reinterpretation of fluency in amnesia
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

in Neuropsychologia (2017), 101

Fluency is one of many cues that are involved in memory decisions. To date, however, the extent to which fluency-based decisions are preserved in amnesia is not yet clear. In this study, we tested and ... [more ▼]

Fluency is one of many cues that are involved in memory decisions. To date, however, the extent to which fluency-based decisions are preserved in amnesia is not yet clear. In this study, we tested and found differences in how patients with amnesia (n = 8) and control participants (n = 16) use fluency when making recognition decisions (Experiment 1). Our results suggested that these differences could be due to changes in the readiness with which patients attribute the subjective feeling of fluency to pre-exposure when an alternative explanation is available (i.e., the perceptual quality of the item). Secondly, we explored the hypothesis that changes in attribution processes in patients with amnesia are explained by a decrease in contingency between processing fluency and previous occurrence of stimuli in patients’ daily lives, leading them to consider that fluency is not a relevant cue for memory (Experiment 2). Specifically, 42 healthy participants were put either in a condition where the positive contingency between fluent processing and previous encounters with an item was systematically confirmed (classic condition) or in a condition where the classical association between fluency and prior exposure was systematically reversed (reversed condition). Results indicated that participants more readily attribute fluency to the alternative external source than to past experience in the reversed condition than in the classic condition, mimicking the pattern of results shown by participants with amnesia in Experiment 1. Implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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