Publications of Christelle Maillart
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See detailSoutenir le développement langagier à l’école Qualité des interactions obsevées dans les classes maternelles et rapportées par les enseignant.es au Liban
El Kouba, Edith ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference (2021, November 26)

Cette étude vise à décrire la qualité des interactions entre les enseignant.es et les enfants dans les écoles maternelles libanaises, à la fois, multilingues et multiculturelles. Elle permet de mettre en ... [more ▼]

Cette étude vise à décrire la qualité des interactions entre les enseignant.es et les enfants dans les écoles maternelles libanaises, à la fois, multilingues et multiculturelles. Elle permet de mettre en parallèle des données observées et déclarées au sujet de la qualité des interactions enseignant.e- enfant au préscolaire. Elle a été menée auprès de 55 enseignant.es de maternelle. Les données observationnelles ont été recueillies à travers le Classroom Assessment Scoring System, structuré autour de trois domaines : le soutien émotionnel, l’organisation de la classe et le soutien aux apprentissages. Les pratiques rapportées par les enseignantes ont été recueillies à travers le questionnaire des relations au sein de la classe (Rousselle, n.d). Les résultats des données observationnelles indiquent que les domaines de « soutien émotionnel » et de l’« organisation de la classe » sont de qualité moyenne, alors que le niveau de « soutien aux apprentissages » indique un niveau de qualité très faible. Les résultats montrent également des différences significatives entre les croyances des enseignantes et leurs pratiques effectives au sein de leurs classes. Les résultats seront discutés à la lueur des différences qui existent entre les pratiques déclarées et celles d’usage. Ils contribuent à identifier les ingrédients actifs du développement professionnel afin de favoriser la qualité des interactions en maternelle et par conséquent le soutien langagier qui y est apporté aux enfants. [less ▲]

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See detailLe prince de mots-tordus
Martinez Perez, Trecy ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

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See detailQu'est-ce que la CAA ?
Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

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See detailTrouble développemental du langage : enjeux et perspectives
Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

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See detailIn French, DLD is TDL !
Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Gingras, Marie-Pier; Brin-Henry, Frédérique et al

Conference (2021, September 20)

In 2016, for English-speaking countries, the CATALISE project, agreed on common terminology and criteria for reporting unexplained oral language impairment in children. The term "Developmental Language ... [more ▼]

In 2016, for English-speaking countries, the CATALISE project, agreed on common terminology and criteria for reporting unexplained oral language impairment in children. The term "Developmental Language Disorder" (DLD) was recommended for language difficulties that cause functional impact in everyday life and that are associated with a poor prognosis without the presence of a known biomedical etiology. The use of a single term is intended, among other things, to improve the visibility of this little-known disorder to the general population. Our aim is to present the French translation of DLD. In French-speaking countries, many terms are used to describe oral language disorders in children (retard de langage, trouble primaire du langage, dysphasie). These different terms are not interchangeable. For example, the term “dysphasie” is reserved for the most severe language disorders. An informal discussion led an international group of francophone SLTs to agree on the term "Trouble développemental du langage" (TDL) to move beyond the contrast of delay/disorder still used in clinical practice. “Dysphasie”, for example, could be integrated into TDL as part of a continuum of severity in terms of functional impact, without necessarily using a distinct term. Despite this agreement, there are ongoing challenges to the adoption of this term. However it is important to having a single common term in line with international guidelines. In France, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Lebanon and other French-speaking countries, the agreed proposed translation for DLD is “TDL”. Developmental Language Disorder – Terminology – French-speaking – Trouble développemental du langage The aim is to reach a common use of the term TDL by newly qualified and long-time licensed speech-language pathologists. On a conceptual basis, this will impact people working with people with DLD and people living with DLD themselves. This agreement on the translation of DLD into French is the first step towards a better integration of concepts of pathology specific to SLTs, whether developmental or not. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient Partenaire
Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, September 14)

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See detailEthique professionnelle en logopédie. Est-ce que le professionnalisme s’apprend ? Comment ?
Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, September 13)

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See detailLearning and generalization of lexical categories in Developmental Language Disorder
Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Philis, Jade; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Poster (2021, July)

Background : Developmental Language Disorders (DLD) are characterized by word learning difficulties (Sheng & McGregor, 2010). These difficulties are well described but the underlying mechanisms remain ... [more ▼]

Background : Developmental Language Disorders (DLD) are characterized by word learning difficulties (Sheng & McGregor, 2010). These difficulties are well described but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Bayesian theories of cognition offer an interesting approach to study this phenomenon (Xu & Tenebaum, 2007). They define inductive inferences as a core component of the learning processes resulting from the interaction between prior knowledge and environmental data (Perfors, Tenenbaum, Griffiths, & Xu, 2011). Furthermore, they account for abstract and hierarchized acquisitions (Tenenbaum, Griffiths, & Kemp, 2006) in line with the idea of a multi-level generalization (e.g. Perry, Samuelson, Malloy, & Schiffer, 2010). Methods: Our research aims at determining if children with DLD can learn and generalize classification rules, making inductive inferences at two levels of abstraction. We further assume that, along with a limitation of processing resources (Im-Bolter, Johnson, & Pascual-Leone, 2006), children with DLD will encounter difficulties specifically when the tasks become more complex. We exposed twenty children with DLD (6 to 12 year-old) and twenty age-matched typically developing (TD) children to a word-learning task (1st order generalization) in which they learn categories of insects. These categories are either perceptually or relationally defined. The learning is progressive, such as children learn one classification criteria at a time until they reach a maximum of three. In a generalization task (2nd order generalization), they learn unfamiliar categories using the previously acquired rule. Results and conclusion: Compared to TD children, children with DLD learned at a slower rate when learning one and two categorisation rules. They also perform less well in the generalization task. This study is in line with our previous work using similar methods, showing that older children with DLD (9 to 12 year-old) could acquire and generalize a classification rule based on one perceptual feature, while younger ones (6 to 8 year-old) needed more exemplars and could not generalize as well as their TD peers. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités du trouble développemental du langage
Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference (2021, June 07)

Dans cette intervention, nous développerons trois enjeux importants pour l’identification et la prise en charge des troubles développementaux du langage dans le monde francophone. Le premier d’entre eux ... [more ▼]

Dans cette intervention, nous développerons trois enjeux importants pour l’identification et la prise en charge des troubles développementaux du langage dans le monde francophone. Le premier d’entre eux concerne la visibilité du TDL. A partir du consensus international CATALISE, nous passerons en revue le parcours diagnostique permettant d’identifier un TDL chez l’enfant. Le deuxième enjeu traité se rapporte à l’hétérogénéité des profils regroupés sous l’appelation TDL. Nous aborderons la façon dont cette hétérogénéité a été prise en compte dans la littérature. Enfin, le troisième enjeu envisage des stratégies de prise en charge des TDL. [less ▲]

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See detailLa place du parent dans les approches centrées sur la personne
Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference (2021, June 04)

Dans le domaine des soins de santé, la façon dont les professionnels collaborent avec les parents et les familles a évolué significativement ces cinquante ans dernières années. L’approche médicale, centré ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine des soins de santé, la façon dont les professionnels collaborent avec les parents et les familles a évolué significativement ces cinquante ans dernières années. L’approche médicale, centré sur un thérapeute expert prenant seul les différentes décisions liées à la prise en charge, a progressivement été remplacée par une conception davantage centrée sur la personne qui accorde au patient une place importante dans le processus de décision clinique. Dans cet exposé, nous reviendrons sur cette évolution et nous nous intéresserons plus particulièrement à l’approche centrée sur la famille et au rôle des parents. [less ▲]

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See detailCategorization and word extension in children with Developmental Language Disorder
Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Bastings, Florence ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Poster (2021, June)

Background: Word learning difficulties are often part of the deficits presented by children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). Word learning is known to be an inference-based processed ... [more ▼]

Background: Word learning difficulties are often part of the deficits presented by children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). Word learning is known to be an inference-based processed, constrained by categorization, which helps the extension of new words to unfamiliar entities. These processes appear integrated in Bayesian models of cognition, which offer an interesting approach to explore this phenomenon. Indeed, learning takes place thanks to an inductive inference process that recruits prior knowledge and principles of statistical learning (detection of regularities). Our study aims at (1) defining if children with DLD can draw inductive inferences in a word-learning context using categorization; (2) defining the impact of prior knowledge on categorization tasks, i.e. defining if the task is easier when prior knowledge is available vs not available and exploring the strategies used by children to categorize unfamiliar stimuli. Methods: Thirteen children with DLD (between 6;0 and 9;0) and fifteen age-matched controls were exposed to a word-learning task in which they faced with exemplars of objects associated with pseudo-words. Objects belong to three categories spreading across three hierarchical levels. For each item, children chose among a set of test objects from the same categories which one(s) could be labelled the same (word extension). Our design included two parts: familiar and unfamiliar categories. Results and conclusions: Our results replicated previous work on familiar categories, which showed similar performances for children with and without DLD in a word extension task. However, differences between groups appeared for unfamiliar categories, suggesting difficulty in category-based inference and word extension when prior knowledge is not available to support the inference process of children with DLD. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying inductive inference processes to understand word learning in children with developmental language disorder: What is preserved and what is not?
Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Conference (2021)

Background: Children with DLD present with word-learning deficits. When learning new words, mapping forms to meanings involves making inferences to identify the adequate referent. These inferences could ... [more ▼]

Background: Children with DLD present with word-learning deficits. When learning new words, mapping forms to meanings involves making inferences to identify the adequate referent. These inferences could be guided by prior knowledge, such as previously acquired categories, as well as by statistical learning mechanisms that allow the detection of regularities. Some evidence emerge regarding word learning in children with DLD, but very little attention is paid to the ability to draw inductive inferences and use prior knowledge for learning. Aims: Our studies aimed to assess the ability to draw inductive inferences in children with DLD by investigating two aspects: the use of prior knowledge for learning and the ability to detect regularities in order to extract categorisation rules. Methods: We proposed two studies to school-aged children with DLD in order to study inductive inference during word learning. The first one consisted in a word extension task in two contexts, familiar and unfamiliar. This study aimed to investigate how children with DLD were able to extend new words and how prior knowledge would influence their performance. The second one proposed a progressive learning task in which children had to learn and then to generalise categorisation rules based on one or two features, either perceptual or relational. Results: The first study revealed that children with DLD were able to extend new words when prior knowledge was available (i.e. in a familiar condition) but relied more heavily on perceptual features compared with their typically developing (TD) peers when this knowledge was lacking (i.e. in an unfamiliar condition). The second study revealed that children with DLD were able to learn categorisation rules, either perceptual or relational, but to a lesser extent than their TD peers. Conclusions: These results extended previous findings revealing that school-aged children with DLD (1) had preserved word extension abilities when support was provided and (2) were able to learn a categorisation rule based on one perceptual feature in a context in which visual complexity is reduced. They will be discussed regarding what is known about word learning in children with DLD and the variables affecting this learning. Some implications for practice will also be highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailApprentissage de règles de catégorisation dans le Trouble Développemental du Langage
Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

in Enfance: Psychologie, Pédagogie, Neuropsychiatrie, Sociologie (2021)

Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) show quantity and quality vocabulary limitations. These difficulties are associated with word learning difficulties that remain misunderstood. Our ... [more ▼]

Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) show quantity and quality vocabulary limitations. These difficulties are associated with word learning difficulties that remain misunderstood. Our research focuses on these children's ability to learn categorisation rules from a statistical learning perspective. An implicit categorisation task, in which a rule could be formulated, was proposed to 17 school-aged children with DLD and 17 typically developing children of the same age. This task was followed by a generalisation task, which measured the ability to apply the rule to new subcategories. The results showed globally preserved abilities for children with DLD. However, when a distinction was made between children under 9 and those aged 9 and over, differences emerged for the younger children. These results suggested preserved abilities in learning simple, perceptually based rules in older TDL children. However, it appeared that these abilities develop later than in the general population. [less ▲]

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See detailPreserved category-based inferences for word learning in school-aged children with Developmental Language Disorder
Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

in Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics (2021), 33(10-11),

Word learning difficulties are often found in children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Lexical patterns of difficulties appear to be well described in the context of DLD but very little ... [more ▼]

Word learning difficulties are often found in children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Lexical patterns of difficulties appear to be well described in the context of DLD but very little research focuses on their underlying causes. Word learning is known to be an inference-based process, constrained by categorization, which helps the extension of new words to unfamiliar referents and situations. These processes appear integrated in Bayesian models of cognition, which supposes that learning relies on an inductive inference process that recruits prior knowledge and principles of statistical learning (detection of regularities). Taken together, these mechanisms remain underexplored in DLD. Our study aims to define whether children with DLD can draw inductive inferences in a word learning context using categorization. Twenty children with DLD (between 6;0 and 12;6), and 20 language-matched and 16 age-matched controls were exposed to a word learning task where they were given exemplars of objects associated with pseudo-words. The objects belonged to six categories spread across three hierarchical levels. For each item, the children chose which one(s), among a set of test objects from the same categories, could be labelled the same way (word extension). Results showed that school-aged children with DLD could extend new words to broader categories as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Nevertheless, none of the DLD or TD children showed a specification of their categorization of familiar instances that referred to more restricted instances. Our study suggests preserved abilities in using conceptual knowledge in order to learn new words, which could be used as a compensative strategy in the context of therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate this ability in more complex learning contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe generalisation of linguistic constructions in children with or without developmental language disorders.
Krzemien, Magali ULiege; Seret, Esther ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

in Journal of Child Language (2021), 48(2), 413-421

The generalisation of linguistic constructions is performed through analogical reasoning. Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) are impaired in analogical reasoning and in generalisation ... [more ▼]

The generalisation of linguistic constructions is performed through analogical reasoning. Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) are impaired in analogical reasoning and in generalisation. However, these processes are improved by an input involving variability and similarity. Here we investigated the performance of children with or without DLD in a construction generalisation task. We also compared their performance following training with an input involving progressive alignment (combining similarity and variability) or high variability. Progressive alignment improves construction generalisation in children with or without DLD, which could have implications for our understanding of language development and for interventions conducted with children with DLD. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do children with developmental language disorder extend novel nouns?
Krzemien, Magali ULiege; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Jemel, Boutheina et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2021), 202

In this study, we investigated the ability of children with developmental language disorder (DLD) to extend nouns referring to different categories of novel objects. In a word extension task, we used ... [more ▼]

In this study, we investigated the ability of children with developmental language disorder (DLD) to extend nouns referring to different categories of novel objects. In a word extension task, we used several types of object entities (solid, animate, non-solid, functional and spatial relations) for which children had to attend to diverse properties (either shape, or texture, or role, or spatial relation) to decide category membership. We compared 15 school-aged children with DLD to typically developing (TD) children matched on either age or vocabulary. Our results indicate that children with DLD were impaired extending novel words for non-solid substances and relational objects, whereas age-matched TD children performed well for all object classes. Similar to children with DLD, TD children matched on language had difficulty extending spatial relation categories. We also show that children with DLD needed more learning exemplars and relied more on shape-based information than TD children did, especially for spatial configuration objects. Overall, our findings suggest that children are able to learn regularities between object properties and category organization, and so to focus on diverse features according to the object presented when extending novel nouns. They also provide clear evidence linking DLD to deficits in novel name generalization and word learning. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en place d'un dispositif soutenant la réalisation d'un entretien anamnestique de qualité auprès d'étudiants en première année de master en orthophonie
Leroy, Sandrine ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

Poster (2020, October 24)

Contexte : Quotidiennement, les orthophonistes sont amenés à prendre des décisions cliniques importantes afin de proposer à leurs patients le traitement le plus efficace possible. En accord avec la ... [more ▼]

Contexte : Quotidiennement, les orthophonistes sont amenés à prendre des décisions cliniques importantes afin de proposer à leurs patients le traitement le plus efficace possible. En accord avec la perspective de l’evidence-based practice, cette prise de décisions constitue un processus complexe qui nécessite de combiner différentes variables dont les connaissances quant aux préférences du patient (Dollaghan, 2007). Ainsi, les valeurs, choix et attentes de ce dernier interviennent largement dans les prises de décisions cliniques. L’entretien anamnestique constitue un moment privilégié pour aborder ces différents éléments avec le patient. Il est donc important que tous les étudiants soient spécifiquement entraînés à une démarche centrée sur le patient. Objectif : L’objectif consiste à proposer un dispositif permettant aux étudiants inscrits en première année de master en orthophonie de développer une démarche réflexive leur permettant de mener un entretien anamnestique de qualité, au cours duquel le patient est placé au centre, l’impact fonctionnel du trouble est pris en considération et menant à une prise de décision partagée. Méthodologie : Les trente-deux étudiants de Master 1 inscrits en orthophonie à l’Université de Liège (année 2019-2020) ont participé à ce dispositif. Celui-ci s’est déroulé en différentes étapes : (1) une étape pré-dispositif ; (2) 4 étapes appartenant au dispositif en tant que tel, allant de l’analyse de la vidéo d’un professionnel à l’analyse de sa propre pratique avec un parent fictif ; et (3) une étape post-dispositif. Les mesures pré- et post-dispositif sont prises suite à la réalisation d’un jeu de rôle mené par les étudiants en binôme, l’un jouant le patient, l’autre l’orthophoniste. La vignette clinique proposée lors des deux étapes est identique. Les performances des étudiants sont analysées et mesurées à l’aide d’une adaptation française du « Calgary-Cambridge Guide to communication : Process skills » (Kurtz, Silverman & Draper,1998). Résultats et discussion : Les données sont en train d’être récoltées et seront discutées. Une étude préliminaire prometteuse, menée auprès de 6 étudiants, a déjà montré des différences significatives. Nous nous attendons à ce que les étudiants améliorent leurs performances et qu’ils soient capables de mettre le patient au centre de l’entretien anamnestique [less ▲]

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See detailInsérer un « Massive Open Online Course » (MOOC) dans un cursus pédagogique : quel(s) modèle(s) pédagogique(s) privilégier en fonction des objectifs poursuivis ?
Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Martinez Perez, Trecy ULiege; Durieux, Nancy ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October 23)

Depuis plusieurs années, le développement de dispositif pédagogique de type « Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) » fait émerger de nouvelles façons d’apprendre et d’enseigner. L’intégration de contenus ... [more ▼]

Depuis plusieurs années, le développement de dispositif pédagogique de type « Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) » fait émerger de nouvelles façons d’apprendre et d’enseigner. L’intégration de contenus pédagogiques en ligne et à un cursus en présentiel a ouvert le champ des possibles au niveau pédagogique. Ainsi, les « classes inversées » exploitent en présentiel des informations dont les apprenants ont préalablement pris connaissance en ligne ou, dans d’autres cas, les dispositifs en ligne illustrent des concepts introduits en présentiel. Dans un article récent, Defaweux et al. (2019) distinguaient trois modèles pédagogiques liant MOOC et séance en présentiel. Le premier d’entre eux, appelé « le pendule », consiste en une alternance régulière de séances en présentiel (P) et de sessions du MOOC (M). Chaque session « MOOC » est suivie par une session en présentiel pour clarifier, consolider et approfondir les notions développées en ligne (M/P/M/P/M/P/M/P/M/P/M/P). Un deuxième modèle pédagogique, « le sandwich », comprend des séances en présentiel suivies de l’ensemble des sessions du MOOC, suivies elles-mêmes par des séances en présentiel (PPP MMMM PPP). Enfin, un troisième modèle, « le tetris » est recommandé lorsque plusieurs enseignants utilisent le MOOC dans des cours différents, chacun en prenant certaines parties (ex. MMMPPP dans le cours 1 et MMMPPP dans le cours 2). Cette analyse sera appliquée à un nouveau MOOC sur l’Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) élaboré à l’Université de Liège pour les cursus d’orthophonie et de psychologie qui ont choisi des modèles pédagogiques différents. En orthophonie, une variante du modèle « tetris » a été proposée de la 1ère à la 5ème année, permettant une récurrence des contenus matière visés. En psychologie, le cours s’organise sur un format « sandwich » en troisième année. Les avantages et inconvénients de ces choix pédagogiques seront analysés et discutés. [less ▲]

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See detailLa généralisation chez les enfants avec un trouble développemental du langage : s'intéresser au niveau lexico-sémantique
Krzemien, Magali ULiege; Dauvister, Estelle ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

in ANAE: Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2020), 166

Children with developmental language disorders have difficulty in generalizing morphosyntactic structures. Generalization is also required for lexical-semantic acquisitions, but this has not been ... [more ▼]

Children with developmental language disorders have difficulty in generalizing morphosyntactic structures. Generalization is also required for lexical-semantic acquisitions, but this has not been investigated much in these children. We are therefore interested in the generalization of novel words and in the variables that can facilitate it, with the aim of considering this mechanism in children with developmental language disorders. [less ▲]

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