Publications of Christina Schmidt
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See detailENIGMA-Sleep: Challenges, opportunities, and the road map
Tahmasian, Masoud; Aleman, André; Andreassen, Ole A. et al

in Journal of Sleep Research (2021), e13347

Neuroimaging and genetics studies have advanced our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and its disorders. However, individual studies usually have limitations to identifying consistent and ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging and genetics studies have advanced our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and its disorders. However, individual studies usually have limitations to identifying consistent and reproducible effects, including modest sample sizes, heterogeneous clinical characteristics and varied methodologies. These issues call for a large-scale multi-centre effort in sleep research, in order to increase the number of samples, and harmonize the methods of data collection, preprocessing and analysis using pre-registered well-established protocols. The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium provides a powerful collaborative framework for combining datasets across individual sites. Recently, we have launched the ENIGMA-Sleep working group with the collaboration of several institutes from 15 countries to perform large-scale worldwide neuroimaging and genetics studies for better understanding the neurobiology of impaired sleep quality in population-based healthy individuals, the neural consequences of sleep deprivation, pathophysiology of sleep disorders, as well as neural correlates of sleep disturbances across various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this introductory review, we describe the details of our currently available datasets and our ongoing projects in the ENIGMA-Sleep group, and discuss both the potential challenges and opportunities of a collaborative initiative in sleep medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in sleep timing and subjective sleep quality during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and Belgium: age, gender and working status as modulating factors
Cellini, Nicola; Conte, Francesca; De Rosa, Oreste et al

in Sleep Medicine (2021)

Italy and Belgium have been among the first western countries to face the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, imposing a total lockdown over the entire national territories. These limitations ... [more ▼]

Italy and Belgium have been among the first western countries to face the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, imposing a total lockdown over the entire national territories. These limitations have proven effective in slowing down the spread of the infection. However, the benefits obtained in public health have come with huge costs in terms of social, economic, and psychological well-being. In the current study, we aimed at investigating how the period of home confinement affected self-reported sleep characteristics in Italians and Belgians, with special regard to sleep timing and subjective quality. Using an online survey we collected data from 2272 participants, 1622 Italians (Mage=34.1±13.6 years, 1171 F), and 650 Belgian (Mage=43.0±16.8 years, 509 F). Participants reported their sleep pattern (e.g., bedtime, risetime) and perceived sleep quality during and, retrospectively, before the lockdown. During the lockdown, sleep timing was significantly delayed, time spent in bed increased, and sleep quality was markedly impaired in both Italians and Belgians. The most vulnerable individuals appeared to be women, subjects experiencing a more negative mood, and those perceiving the pandemic situation as highly stressful. However, the two samples differed in the subgroups most affected by the changes, possibly because of the different welfare systems of the two countries. In fact, in the Italian sample sleep quality and timing underwent significant modifications especially in unemployed participants, whereas in the Belgian sample this category was the one who suffered less from the restrictions. Considering that the novel coronavirus has spread across the whole globe, involving countries with different types of health and welfare systems, understanding which policy measures have the most effective protecting role on physical and mental health is of primary importance. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Effect of Cognitive Reserve on Episodic Memory, Executive and Attentional Functions Taking Into Account Amyloid-Beta, Tau, and Apolipoprotein E Status
Narbutas, Justinas ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege; Van Egroo, Maxime et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2021), 13

Studies exploring the simultaneous influence of several physiological and environmental factors on domain-specific cognition in late middle-age remain scarce. Therefore, our objective was to determine the ... [more ▼]

Studies exploring the simultaneous influence of several physiological and environmental factors on domain-specific cognition in late middle-age remain scarce. Therefore, our objective was to determine the respective contribution of modifiable risk/protective factors (cognitive reserve and allostatic load) on specific cognitive domains (episodic memory, executive functions, and attention), taking into account non-modifiable factors [sex, age, and genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD)] and AD-related biomarker amount (amyloid-beta and tau/neuroinflammation) in a healthy late-middle-aged population. One hundred and one healthy participants (59.4 ± 5 years; 68 women) were evaluated for episodic memory, executive and attentional functioning via neuropsychological test battery. Cognitive reserve was determined by the National Adult Reading Test. The allostatic load consisted of measures of lipid metabolism and sympathetic nervous system functioning. The amyloid-beta level was assessed using positron emission tomography in all participants, whereas tau/neuroinflammation positron emission tomography scans and apolipoprotein E genotype were available for 58 participants. Higher cognitive reserve was the main correlate of better cognitive performance across all domains. Moreover, age was negatively associated with attentional functioning, whereas sex was a significant predictor for episodic memory, with women having better performance than men. Finally, our results did not show clear significant associations between performance over any cognitive domain and apolipoprotein E genotype and AD biomarkers. This suggests that domain-specific cognition in late healthy midlife is mainly determined by a combination of modifiable (cognitive reserve) and non-modifiable factors (sex and age) rather than by AD biomarkers and genetic risk for AD. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between cognitive complaints, memory performance, mood and amyloid-β accumulation in healthy amyloid negative late-midlife individuals
Narbutas, Justinas ULiege; Van Egroo, Maxime; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (2021), 83

Background. Cognitive complaints are gaining more attention as they may represent an early marker of increased risk for AD in individuals without objective decline at standard neuropsychological ... [more ▼]

Background. Cognitive complaints are gaining more attention as they may represent an early marker of increased risk for AD in individuals without objective decline at standard neuropsychological examination. Objective. Our aim was to assess whether cognitive complaints in late middle-aged individuals not seeking medical help are related to objective cognitive outcomes known as early markers for AD risk, concomitant affective state, and amyloid-β (Aβ) burden. Methods. Eighty-seven community-based cognitively normal individuals aged 50-69 years underwent neuropsychological assessment for global cognition, using Preclinical Alzheimer’s Cognitive Composite 5 (PACC5) score, and a more specific episodic memory measure. Affective state was based on self-assessment questionnaires for depression and anxiety. Aβ PET burden was assessed via [18F]Flutemetamol (N=84) and [18F]Florbetapir (N=3) uptake. Cognitive complaints were evaluated using Cognitive Difficulties Scale. Results. Higher cognitive complaints were significantly associated with lower episodic memory performance and worse affective state. Moreover, higher level of cognitive complaints was related to higher (but still sub-clinical) global Aβ accumulation (at uncorrected significance level). Importantly, all three aspects remained significant when taken together in the same statistical model, indicating that they explained distinct parts of variance. Conclusion. In healthy Aβ negative late middle-aged individuals, a higher degree of cognitive complaints is associated with lower episodic memory efficiency, more anxiety and depression, as well as, potentially, with higher Aβ burden, suggesting that complaints might signal subtle decline. Future studies should untangle how cognitive complaints in healthy aging populations are related to longitudinal changes in objective cognition and AD biomarker correlates. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly brainstem [18F]THK5351 uptake is linked to cortical hyper-excitability in healthy aging
Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege; Narbutas, Justinas ULiege et al

in JCI Insight (2020), Online ahead of print

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See detailAssociation between sleep regulation and neuroimaging-derived myelin markers
Deantoni, Michele ULiege; Muto, Vincenzo ULiege; Hammad, Grégory ULiege et al

Conference (2020, September 22)

Introduction Sleep plays a crucial role in brain plasticity, and has been suggested to be involved in myelin organization. Here we assessed the association between sleep homeostatic responses and ... [more ▼]

Introduction Sleep plays a crucial role in brain plasticity, and has been suggested to be involved in myelin organization. Here we assessed the association between sleep homeostatic responses and quantitative MRI-derived myelin content in a sample of healthy young men. Methods: 238 male participants (age: 22.12.7) underwent an in-lab protocol to assess homeostatic responses in slow wave and REM sleep through a modulation of prior wakefulness and sleep duration. The protocol encompassed four conditions: a baseline night (BAS, duration adjusted on participant’s sleep-wake schedule), a 12h sleep extension night (EXT) followed by a 4-h nap and an 8-h sleep opportunity night (sleep saturation; SAT) and a 12h recovery night (REC) following 40-hours sleep deprivation. For each night, four sleep parameters were extracted: sleep slow wave activity at the beginning of the night (SWA0), its overnight exponential dissipation rate (tau), and overnight mean theta and beta power per REM epoch. Participants underwent a multiparameter brain MRI protocol at 3T to extract quantitative maps sensitive to different myelin biomarkers. F-contrasts were calculated to assess whether the modularity of sleep parameters across sleep conditions explains variance in myelin biomarkers. Reported statistics are family-wise-error corrected over the entire brain volume (pFWE <.05). Results: Slow wave sleep duration and SWA0 were modulated across all sleep conditions (REC>BAS>EXT>SAT; all p < 0.001), while REM sleep percentage significantly differed only between SAT and the other sleep contexts (F(3,1257)= 13.676743, p<.001). The modulation of NREM SWA0 was associated with myelin content in the medio-temporal lobe, encompassing the bilateral hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (grey and white matter), while the modulation of REM beta power was associated to myelin content in diffuse thalamocortical tracts and overhead cortices. Discussion: Spectral power in sleep-specific frequency bands across sleep homeostasis contexts is associated with myelin content in the hippocampus and surrounding cortices as well as thalamocortical fibers. The hippocampus has been proposed as a key player for temporal coupling of brain oscillations, while thalamocortical fibers myelination may facilitate the cortical response to sleep-dependent diencephalic activity. As myelin stands for conduction velocity, it could facilitate the modulation of brain electrical oscillations, and putatively also the homeostatic response of sleep. [less ▲]

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See detailpyActigraphy, an open-source python package for actigraphy data visualisation and analysis
Hammad, Grégory ULiege; Reyt, Mathilde ULiege; Beliy, Nikita ULiege et al

Poster (2020, September)

The pyActigraphy toolbox, an open-source python package for actigraphy data visualisation and analysis, offers functionalities to automatise data pre-processing, read large file batches and implement ... [more ▼]

The pyActigraphy toolbox, an open-source python package for actigraphy data visualisation and analysis, offers functionalities to automatise data pre-processing, read large file batches and implement various metrics and techniques for actigraphy data analysis. By developing the pyActigraphy package, we not only hope to facilitate data analysis but also foster research using actimetry and drive a community effort to improve this open-source package and develop new variables and algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailFractal regulation of human motor activity and its manifestation at circadian and ultradian time scales
Hammad, Grégory ULiege; Reyt, Mathilde ULiege; Baillet, Marion ULiege et al

Poster (2020, September)

Human activity exhibits a fractal behaviour, characterised by scale-invariant patterns over time scales ranging from minutes to 24 hours. This suggests the existence of a control mechanism with feedback ... [more ▼]

Human activity exhibits a fractal behaviour, characterised by scale-invariant patterns over time scales ranging from minutes to 24 hours. This suggests the existence of a control mechanism with feedback interactions. Aging and Alzheimer’s disease, both marked by an alteration of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the circadian pacemaker, have been associated with a reduced scale-invariant correlation. However, the impact of this reduction on ultradian or circadian activity dynamics and its comparison with in-lab circadian measures, remains unclear. Our results link fractal indices, measured with actigraphy, to in-lab circadian markers. Interestingly, fractal scaling in the circadian regime is associated with both daytime rest, interpreted as a fragmentation of sustained daytime activity, and shorter ultradian daytime activity fragmentation. These results also highlight the link between LIDS oscillations at night and scale-invariance at ultradian time scales. Overall, our analysis suggests that previously reported indices of activity dynamics occurring at various time scales might be associated with a common underlying regulation mechanism, involving the SCN. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep,rest-activity fragmentation and structural brain changes related to the ageing process
Baillet, Marion ULiege; Schmidt, Christina ULiege

in Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (2020), 33

Increasing evidence suggests an association between typical age-related changes in sleep and brain structure. Here we review studies exploring the association between human histo-pathological and in vivo ... [more ▼]

Increasing evidence suggests an association between typical age-related changes in sleep and brain structure. Here we review studies exploring the association between human histo-pathological and in vivo neuroimaging markers of brain structure and sleep-wake parameters in healthy older adults. Evidence from both large-scale epidemiological studies and in-lab quantification of specific sleep signatures are reviewed and advantages and pitfalls highlighted. Overall, the results point to an association between sleep-wake disruption and both local and diffuse changes in brain structure. The associative strength largely varies between studies and seems to partially depend on the sleep trait under investigation. The role of specific sleep-wake regulating mechanisms on human cognitive and brain fitness and more particularly their causal relationship remains to be disentangled. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring scoring methods for research studies: Accuracy and variability of visual and automated sleep scoring
Berthomier, Christian; Muto, Vincenzo ULiege; Schmidt, Christina ULiege et al

in Journal of Sleep Research (2020)

Sleep studies face new challenges in terms of data, objectives and metrics. This requires reappraising the adequacy of existing analysis methods, including scoring methods. Visual and automatic sleep ... [more ▼]

Sleep studies face new challenges in terms of data, objectives and metrics. This requires reappraising the adequacy of existing analysis methods, including scoring methods. Visual and automatic sleep scoring of healthy individuals were compared in terms of reliability (i.e., accuracy and stability) to find a scoring method capable of giving access to the actual data variability without adding exogenous variability. A first dataset (DS1, four recordings) scored by six experts plus an autoscoring al-gorithm was used to characterize inter-scoring variability. A second dataset (DS2, 88 recordings) scored a few weeks later was used to explore intra-expert variabil-ity. Percentage agreements and Conger's kappa were derived from epoch-by-epoch comparisons on pairwise and consensus scorings. On DS1 the number of epochs of agreement decreased when the number of experts increased, ranging from 86% (pairwise) to 69% (all experts). Adding autoscoring to visual scorings changed the kappa value from 0.81 to 0.79. Agreement between expert consensus and autoscor-ing was 93%. On DS2 the hypothesis of intra-expert variability was supported by a systematic decrease in kappa scores between autoscoring used as reference and each single expert between datasets (.75–.70). Although visual scoring induces inter- and intra-expert variability, autoscoring methods can cope with intra-scorer variabil-ity, making them a sensible option to reduce exogenous variability and give access to the endogenous variability in the data. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence That Homeostatic Sleep Regulation Depends on Ambient Lighting Conditions during Wakefulness
Cajochen, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Maire, Micheline et al

in Clocks and Sleep (2019)

We examined whether ambient lighting conditions during extended wakefulness modulate the homeostatic response to sleep loss as indexed by. slow wave sleep (SWS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave ... [more ▼]

We examined whether ambient lighting conditions during extended wakefulness modulate the homeostatic response to sleep loss as indexed by. slow wave sleep (SWS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) in healthy young and older volunteers. Thirty-eight young and older participants underwent 40 hours of extended wakefulness [i.e., sleep deprivation (SD)] once under dim light (DL: 8 lux, 2800 K), and once under either white light (WL: 250 lux, 2800 K) or blue-enriched white light (BL: 250 lux, 9000 K) exposure. Subjective sleepiness was assessed hourly and polysomnography was quantified during the baseline night prior to the 40-h SD and during the subsequent recovery night. Both the young and older participants responded with a higher homeostatic sleep response to 40-h SD after WL and BL than after DL. This was indexed by a significantly faster intra-night accumulation of SWS and a significantly higher response in relative EEG SWA during the recovery night after WL and BL than after DL for both age groups. No significant di erences were observed between the WL and BL condition for these two particular SWS and SWA measures. Subjective sleepiness ratings during the 40-h SD were significantly reduced under both WL and BL compared to DL, but were not significantly associated with markers of sleep homeostasis in both age groups. Our data indicate that not only the duration of prior wakefulness, but also the experienced illuminance during wakefulness a ects homeostatic sleep regulation in humans. Thus, working extended hours under low illuminance may negatively impact subsequent sleep intensity in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthor Correction: Human brain patterns underlying vigilant attention: impact of sleep debt, circadian phase and attentional engagement (Scientific Reports, (2018), 8, 1, (970), 10.1038/s41598-017-17022-9)
Maire, M.; Reichert, C. F.; Gabel, V. et al

in Scientific Reports (2019), 9(12379),

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. © 2019, The Author(s).

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See detailpyActigraphy
Hammad, Grégory ULiege; Reyt, Mathilde ULiege; Schmidt, Christina ULiege

Software (2019)

Open-source python package for actigraphy data analysis. This package is meant to provide a comprehensive set of tools to: read actigraphy raw data files with various formats calculate typical wake/sleep ... [more ▼]

Open-source python package for actigraphy data analysis. This package is meant to provide a comprehensive set of tools to: read actigraphy raw data files with various formats calculate typical wake/sleep cycle-related variables (ex: IS, IV, …) perform complex analyses (ex: FDA, SSA, HMM, …) [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive efficiency in late midlife is linked to lifestyle characteristics and allostatic load
Narbutas, Justinas ULiege; Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege et al

in Aging (2019), 11

We investigated whether cognitive fitness in late midlife is associated with physiological and psychological factors linked to increased risk of age-related cognitive decline. Eighty-one healthy late ... [more ▼]

We investigated whether cognitive fitness in late midlife is associated with physiological and psychological factors linked to increased risk of age-related cognitive decline. Eighty-one healthy late middle-aged participants (mean age: 59.4 y; range: 50-69 y) were included. Cognitive fitness consisted of a composite score known to be sensitive to early subtle cognitive change. Lifestyle factors (referenced below as cognitive reserve factors; CRF) and affective state were determined through questionnaires, and sleep-wake quality was also assessed through actimetry. Allostatic load (AL) was determined through a large range of objective health measures. Generalized linear mixed models, controlling for sex and age, revealed that higher cognitive reserve and lower allostatic load are related to better cognitive efficiency. Crystallized intelligence, sympathetic nervous system functioning and lipid metabolism were the only sub-fields of CRF and AL to be significantly associated with cognition. These results show that previous lifestyle characteristics and current physiological status are simultaneously explaining variability in cognitive abilities in late midlife. Results further encourage early multimodal prevention programs acting on both of these modifiable factors to preserve cognition during the aging process. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Visual Comfort and Mental Effort under Different Light Conditions for Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Additional Blue-Filtering Intraocular Lenses for Cataract Surgery
Steinemann, Alexandra; Bromundt, Vivien; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi et al

in Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde (2019), 236(4), 398-404

Patients and Methods Patients with an ultraviolet blocking lens (UV) (n = 5) or blue filter lens (BB) (n = 8) after intraocular lens (IOL) replacement for cataract and age-adjusted controls (AACs) (n = 16 ... [more ▼]

Patients and Methods Patients with an ultraviolet blocking lens (UV) (n = 5) or blue filter lens (BB) (n = 8) after intraocular lens (IOL) replacement for cataract and age-adjusted controls (AACs) (n = 16) underwent a balanced crossover within-subject design. After 1.5 h of dark adaptation, they were exposed to polychromatic light at 6500 K (blue-enriched) and 2500 K and 3000 K (non-blue-enriched) for 2 hours in the evening. Visual comfort and mental effort were repeatedly assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (0-100) and the Visual Comfort and Mental Effort Rating Scale (0-100) for each light condition. The results were compared using mixed model analysis. Results The mean (± SD) age for AAC and patients with UV or BB was 69.8 ± 6.2 y, 70.8 ± 4 y, and 63.6 ± 5.6 y, respectively. Irrespective of the light condition, patients with UV and BB felt mentally more tired during the experiments compared to AACs (F = 6.15, p = 0.003). However, patients with BB were mentally more motivated to perform the exercises compared to patients with UV and AACs (F = 8.1, p < 0.001). Patients with BB perceived ambient light as less glary (F = 4.71, p = 0.01) than patients with UV. Blue ambient light was felt less intensely in patients with BB (F = 2.51, p = 0.042) compared to those with UV and the AACs. Conclusion Lens replacement in older cataract patients may increase visual comfort and minimize mental effort. While subtle, the magnitude of these effects may depend on the type of intraocular lens. BB intraocular lenses may have potential benefits, as ambient light is perceived as having less glare and less visual tension. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of Intraocular Cataract Lens Replacement with Circadian Rhythms, Cognitive Function, and Sleep in Older Adults
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Bromundt, Vivien; Frey, Sylvia et al

in JAMA Ophthalmology (2019)

Importance: Cataract is associated with a progressive decline in light transmission due to the clouding and yellowing of the natural crystalline lens. While the downstream effects of aging lenses include ... [more ▼]

Importance: Cataract is associated with a progressive decline in light transmission due to the clouding and yellowing of the natural crystalline lens. While the downstream effects of aging lenses include long-term disruption of circadian rhythms, cognitive function, and sleep regulation, it remains unknown whether there is an association of intraocular cataract lens (IOLs) replacement with circadian rhythms, cognition, and sleep. Objective: To test whether IOL replacement (blue blocking [BB] or ultraviolet [UV] only blocking) in older patients with previous cataract is associated with the beneficial light effects on the circadian system, cognition, and sleep regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study at the Centre for Chronobiology, University of Basel in Switzerland from February 2012 to April 2014, analyzed between June 2012 and September 2018. Sixteen healthy older controls and 13 patients with previous cataract and IOL replacement participated without medication and no medical and sleep comorbidities. Exposures: Three and a half hours of prior light control (dim-dark adaptation), followed by 2 hours of evening blue-enriched (6500 K) or non-blue-enriched light exposure (3000 K and 2500 K), 30 minutes in dim post-light exposure, 8 hours of sleep opportunity, and 2 hours of morning dim light following sleep. Main Outcomes and Measures: Salivary melatonin, cognitive tests, and sleep structure and electroencephalographic activity to test the association of IOLs with markers of circadian rhythmicity, cognitive performance, and sleep regulation, respectively. Results: The participants included 16 healthy older controls with a mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) of 63.6 (5.6) years; 8 women and 13 patients with previous cataract (mean [SEM] age, 69.9 [5.2] years; 10 women); 5 patients had UV IOLs and 8 had BB IOLs. Patients with previous cataract and IOLs had an attenuated increase in melatonin levels during light exposure (mean [SEM] increase in the BB group: 23.3% [2.6%] and in the UV lens group: 19.1% [2.1%]) than controls (mean [SEM] increase, 48.8% [5.2%]) (difference between means, 27.7; 95% CI, 15.4%-41.7%; P <.001). Cognitive function, indexed by sustained attention performance, was improved in patients with UV lens (mean [SEM], 276.9 [11.1] milliseconds) compared with patients with BB lens (mean [SEM], 348.3 [17.8] milliseconds) (difference between means, 71.4; 95% CI, 29.5%-113.1%; P =.002) during light exposure and in the morning after sleep. Patients with UV lens had increased slow-wave sleep (mean [SEM] increase, 13% [3.4%]) compared with controls (mean [SEM] increase, 5.2% [0.8%]) (percentage of total sleep time; difference between means, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.4%-13.4%; P =.02) and frontal non-rapid eye movement slow-wave activity (0.75-4.5 Hz) during the first sleep cycle (mean [SEM], 79.9 [13.6] μV2/Hz) compared with patients with BB lens (mean [SEM], 53.2 [10.7] μV2/Hz) (difference between means, 26.7; 95% CI, 9.2-48.9; P =.03). Conclusions and Relevance: These in-laboratory empirical findings suggest that optimizing the spectral lens transmission in patients with previous cataract may minimize the adverse age-related effects on circadian rhythms, cognition, and sleep. © 2019 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-related decrease in cortical excitability circadian variations during sleep loss and its links with cognition
Gaggioni, Giulia ULiege; Ly, Julien; Muto, Vincenzo ULiege et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2019), 78

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