Publications of Pierre M Stassart
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See detailLes arrière plans normatifs de la transition agroécologique
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Scientific conference (2020)

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See detailWhat models of justice for the agroecological transition? The normative backdrops of the transition
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Dumont, Antoinette; Hecquet, Corentin ULiege et al

in Lamine, Claire; Magda, Danièle; Marsden, Terry (Eds.) et al Agroecological transition, between determinist and open-ended visions. (2020)

The chapter proposes to reflect on the axiological and normative foundations of the agroecological transition. Our approach to the agroecological transition is both open-ended and non-relativist. It ... [more ▼]

The chapter proposes to reflect on the axiological and normative foundations of the agroecological transition. Our approach to the agroecological transition is both open-ended and non-relativist. It consists of accepting the relative indeterminate nature of transition processes, all while promoting the existence of normative supports necessary for action. In our approach, these supports must allow actors to overcome the conflicts of values that can be present in their profession, without renouncing their deeper motivations for a just transition. Namely - and for the authors this consideration is essential - these supports are plural. We have identified three: ethics of compromise, ethics of capabilities, ethics of recognition: in each instance, different possibilities come to light, which have meaning solely in relation to the dilemmas encountered, the contexts of action, or the role that is played by the researcher-actor relationship throughout the process. We draw upon this approach to comparatively analyze three case studies: the practices of purchase-resale in the sale of agroecological vegetables in the Walloon Region of Belgium (Antoinette M. Dumont), an action-research with an organisation bringing together sheep farmers and veterinarians in the Millavois area of France (Camille Lacombe), and the management of global plant health by a network of artisanal vegetable seed producers (Stephanie Klaedtke). Each of these cases spurs the emergence of a normative support model that is available to actors for overcoming the dilemmas with which they are confronted. We show that the research process plays a pivotal role in the stabilisation of these different supports and the realisation of their transformative potential. We conclude on the contribution of this normative plurality towards an agroecological justice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe “lock-in” of the seed system and issues arising from its reappropriation
Hecquet, Corentin ULiege; Hermesse, Julie; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

in Études Rurales (2019), 2

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See detailQuels modèles de justice pour la transition agroécologique
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Dumont, Antoinette; Hecquet, Corentin ULiege et al

Conference (2019, November)

This paper proposes to reflect on the axiological and normative foundations of the agro-ecological transition. Combining a set of concrete cases with interdisciplinary theoretical work, it proposes an ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes to reflect on the axiological and normative foundations of the agro-ecological transition. Combining a set of concrete cases with interdisciplinary theoretical work, it proposes an open and non-relativist approach to the agro-ecological transition, consisting in assuming the relative indeterminacy of the transition processes, while promoting the existence of the normative supports necessary for action. In our approach, these supports must enable actors to overcome the value conflicts that affect their business, without giving up their deep motivations for a just transition. Above all - and this consideration is fundamental for us - these supports are plural. Compromise ethics, capability ethics, recognition ethics: each time, possibilities arise that only make sense in relation to the dilemmas encountered, the contexts of action, or the role played by the researcher-actor relationship in the whole process. At least this is the approach we have put in place to compare three concrete cases: purchase/resale practices in agro-ecological vegetable production in Wallonia (Antoinette Dumont), action research with an association of sheep farmers and veterinarians in the Millavois (Camille Lacombe), management of the overall health of plants through collaboration with a network of seed artisans producing and distributing vegetable seeds (Stephanie Klaedtke). In each case, we examine the dimensions at stake and, in particular, the normative supports available to actors to overcome the dilemmas they face. We show that the research process plays a key role in stabilizing these different media and uncovering their transformative potential. We conclude with the contribution of this normative plurality to the horizon of agroecological justice. [less ▲]

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See detailUne Agora citoyenne pour Saint-Michel-Freyr : comment co-construire un modèle participatif pour la gestion de la forêt ?
Breda, Charlotte ULiege; Denayer, Dorothée ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege et al

in Forêt.Nature (2019), (150), 42-52

Dans le cadre du projet de gestion différenciée de la forêt de Saint-Michel-Freyr, une Agora citoyenne sera mise en place. Sa mission sera de proposer des orientations et des actions (partenariats ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre du projet de gestion différenciée de la forêt de Saint-Michel-Freyr, une Agora citoyenne sera mise en place. Sa mission sera de proposer des orientations et des actions (partenariats, événements, aménagements…) et d’intégrer la participation citoyenne dans les trois axes du Master Plan qui guidera la gestion à venir du territoire. Quelle forme donner à cette Agora ? Qui participera et à quels aspects ? Quel sera le pouvoir d’une telle instance ? Qu’en est-il des autres acteurs du territoire, ceux qui sont historiquement présents et actifs et ceux qui voudraient s’y investir ? Pour répondre à ces questions et dépasser la participation de façade, l’équipe de projet de Saint-Michel-Freyr collabore avec une équipe de chercheurs en sciences sociales de l’Université de Liège, spécialistes des questions d’environnement et de sciences citoyennes. La méthode inédite de participation et ses enjeux qui vont au-delà du projet ardennais sont présentés en détails dans cet article. [less ▲]

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See detailPréface de "Des maraichers dans la ville, dix parcours d'installation en Région bruxelloise (J. Hermesse)"
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

in Hermesse, Julie (Ed.) Des maraichers dans la ville, dix parcours d'installation en Région bruxelloise (2019)

Dix maraîcher(e)s se lancent dans l’aventure folle d’une relocalisation de la production alimentaire bruxelloise. NIMAculteurs (non issus du milieu agricole), ils ont opéré une lente ou plus rapide ... [more ▼]

Dix maraîcher(e)s se lancent dans l’aventure folle d’une relocalisation de la production alimentaire bruxelloise. NIMAculteurs (non issus du milieu agricole), ils ont opéré une lente ou plus rapide reconversion. Ils ont fait le choix de travailler à proximité de la ville car ils croient fondamentalement en la nécessité de nourrir les urbains par des filières courtes. Ils travaillent de manière bio-intensive, sur de très petites surfaces, avec peu ou pas de motorisation. Ils sont à l’affût d’innovations sociales et de nouvelles techniques. Aux portes de Bruxelles, ces maraîchers pionniers inventent de nouvelles agricultures. Ce livre est le fruit de trois années de rencontres ethnographiques avec eux. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich justice models for the agro-ecological transitions?
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Dumont, Antoinette; Hecquet, Corentin ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2019)

There is no simple model of agroecological transition, and this is not only because it is located, complex, uncertain and undetermined pathways. Actors and their collectives, have different normative ... [more ▼]

There is no simple model of agroecological transition, and this is not only because it is located, complex, uncertain and undetermined pathways. Actors and their collectives, have different normative backgrounds to deal with the dilemma that agroecological transition rise. We seek to position ourselves from a theoretical point of view in a middle ground between a lack of normative framework and a deterministic approach where the transition possibilities of the actors are determined in a structuralist context. We problematize the normative frames of agroecology transitions by mobilizing the works of Mathieu de Nanteuil on “Justice at Work” and the different ethical model that he describes. Than we discuss three case study that illustrate three ethical dilemmas: compromise, capacity and recognition. The specificity of those case studies relies on their interdisciplinarity and transformative potential as well as their institutional setting (Belgium, France , Europe). From these three cases we underline that we cannot philosophically decide between these normative models, on the contrary, we must start pragmatically from the point of view of the actors. From this perspective, it is not so much the necessary presentation of the model that counts, but rather the resources it constitutes and from which actors will draw to achieve their agroecological transitions. What matters is to understand how actors struggle to establish their models. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom variety selection practices to ecological justice
Hecquet, Corentin ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Conference (2018, December)

Via the « Distinction Uniformity Stability - DUS » criteria, the legislative framework of the European Union imposes a norm of standardisation for the registration of plant varieties in the catalogue ... [more ▼]

Via the « Distinction Uniformity Stability - DUS » criteria, the legislative framework of the European Union imposes a norm of standardisation for the registration of plant varieties in the catalogue allowing for the marketing of respective seeds. As practitionners of “crop biodiversity”, very few farmers register their crop varieties, despite the existing derogation system. Starting from a set of four case studies – Semailles (Belgium), Kokopelli (France), Kaol Kozh (France) and Conaterra (Brazil)– we demonstrate that these crop diversity farmers develop numerous strategies to enable the circulation of their seed (sometimes kept invisible), but also, at the same time, to render visible their public demands (Dewey 1927) (Zask 2008)(Zask 2003). Behind these heterogenous strategies, we identify a common claim for ecological justice (Bosselmann 2008; Schlosberg 2016), which is composed of the right to existence, to recognition and to participation in the redefenition of the criteria for seed marketing (Coolsaet 2016), as well as the inclusion of the “non-human” in the debate. [less ▲]

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See detailLes artisans semenciers, les harricots et leurs agents pathogènes, la biodiversité cultivée et la santé des plantes au coeur d'une identité professionnelle
Klaedtke, Stéphanie ULiege; Melard, François ULiege; Chable, Véronique et al

in Études Rurales (2018), 202(Juillet-Décembre), 36-55

By exploring the case of an association of artisanal seed producers, Les Cro- queurs de Carottes, this paper sheds light on how these stakeholders intercon- nect management of crop biodiversity and ... [more ▼]

By exploring the case of an association of artisanal seed producers, Les Cro- queurs de Carottes, this paper sheds light on how these stakeholders intercon- nect management of crop biodiversity and governance of plant health. Faced with European phytosanitary regulations that prohibit the sale of bean seeds carrying “quarantine pests”, these artisanal seed producers defend their prac- tices, which consist of “living with” diseases by regarding them as an integral part of the production process. Through their efforts to gain recognition for their methods and acceptance of plant diseases, they are not only promoting their management practices, but are also building and asserting their profes- sional identity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe generative potential of tensions within belgium agroecology
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Crivits, Maarten; Hermesse, Julie et al

in Sustainability (2018)

Food crises and ecologization have given rise to a Belgian dynamic that does not behave according to the conventional tripod of agroecology: practitioners, social movement, and scientists. Instead of ... [more ▼]

Food crises and ecologization have given rise to a Belgian dynamic that does not behave according to the conventional tripod of agroecology: practitioners, social movement, and scientists. Instead of simply recounting the history of Belgian agroecology, the authors trace the history and dynamics in Belgium), a journey along six strands that weave themselves into a Belgian tapestry: Genetically modified crop commandos, a scientific paradigm shift, hybrid expertise opening the Northern route that intersects with a Southern political route, an original non-institutional dynamic in the French-speaking part of Belgium and an institutional initiative that led to a rift in Flanders. In the following section, we identify, emerging from those six strands, four tensions that create a space of innovations, namely, politically differentiated discourses, land access, fair price, and epistemic tensions. We discuss then the generative potential of the 4 tensions and describe the potential of reconfigurations generated by boundaries organizations, food justice and transdisciplinarity. We conclude that the concept of agroecology continues to have transformative potential in Belgium today. However, no one can predict the course of such a largely non-institutional dynamic. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition , éléments de cadrage
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

Elément de cadrage théoriques, 10 ans de recherche sur les questions de transition

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See detailApprentissage social et transition agroécologique
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

La transition agroécologique nécessite donc de sortir d’une vision diffusionniste et top-down de la recherche pour valoriser les savoir des agriculteurs et les capacités d’innovation et d’organisation des ... [more ▼]

La transition agroécologique nécessite donc de sortir d’une vision diffusionniste et top-down de la recherche pour valoriser les savoir des agriculteurs et les capacités d’innovation et d’organisation des acteurs locaux. La complexité des agroécosystèmes, leur coté indéterminé et l'incertitude quant à la durabilité sociale des trajectoires envisagées implique d'investir davantage les recherches transformative. Une recherche transformative comprend une dimension réflexive dont les condition d'émergence dépendent de fonctionalités. Parmi celle-ci la question des arrières plans normatif est une question clef ainsi que celle des manières avec lesquelles les acteurs apprennent à apprendre. [less ▲]

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See detailThe myth of the Knight of the Round Table : transformative transdisciplinary research
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

Social sciences in the transformation of AFS: critic, transdisciplinary, participation Social sciences have play a central role in the critic of society and this is valid also for agri-food systems. This ... [more ▼]

Social sciences in the transformation of AFS: critic, transdisciplinary, participation Social sciences have play a central role in the critic of society and this is valid also for agri-food systems. This critical stance has sometimes made difficult the collaboration with other disciplines and actors of the practice. On the other hand, the same criticism has facilitated the collaboration with “activists” in specific configurations. Transdisciplinary and participative approach offer a third way of engaging with social change. On this basis, what can we say about the role of social sciences in the transformation of agri-food systems and what strategies can we apply to enhance the contribution of social science to agri-food/agri-environmental research and action. [less ▲]

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See detailThe diplomacy of practitioners: for an ecology of practices about the problem of the coexistence of wind farms and red kites
Melard, François ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

in Environmental Education Research (2018), 24(9), 1359-1370

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an ... [more ▼]

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an increasingly widely- distributed necessity and practice, including within civil society. We propose to give rst-hand information – as practitioners and members of a citizens’ wind energy co-operative in Belgium – about the problematic and highly controversial coexistence between wind farms and red kite (Milvus milvus). Will be reported the implementation of a community-based management scheme involving active, original practices of collaboration between citizens with local knowledge and skills and experts or scientists in order to produce research and intervention questions, methods, and results that are claimed to be more sustainable. The sustainability challenges are to design and set up in context a local space for collaboration and learning that departs from traditional public regulatory procedures (i.e. impact studies, public information meetings, etc.). However, the outcomes of this collaborative approach remain fragile. We shall argue in this regard that both the Transdisciplinary Environmental Research and the art of diplomacy may be central to the emergence of re exive governance within transition processes that strive to be sustainable. [less ▲]

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See detailLa agroecología en Bélgica: sus tensiones y su potencial transformador
Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Hermesse, Julie

Conference (2018)

Food crises and ecologisation have given rise to a Belgian dynamic that spills over and escapes, in places, the conventional tripod of agroecology, i.e., practitioners, social movement, and scientists ... [more ▼]

Food crises and ecologisation have given rise to a Belgian dynamic that spills over and escapes, in places, the conventional tripod of agroecology, i.e., practitioners, social movement, and scientists. The authors do more than trace its history. Rather, they propose a journey along eight strands that interweave to form this complex fabric: GM crop commandos, scientific paradigm shift, UN spokesperson, NGO relays, and La Via Campessina lead to the development of an original non-institutional dynamic called “Agroecology in Action” in the French-speaking part of the country and an institutional initiative that led to a rift in Flanders. This weaving reveals four productive tensions around the political positioning of the discourse on agroecology, access to the land, issues of fair prices and social justice, and epistemic tensions. The latter raise the question of the connections between discourse, knowledge, and intermediation. [less ▲]

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See detailVerrouillage du système semencier et enjeux de sa réappropriation
Hermesse, Julie; Hecquet, Corentin ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

in Études Rurales (2018), 202

La sélection et la multiplication des semences fait l’objet d’activités expérientielles et expérimentales depuis des siècles. Paysans, aristocrates, moines, chamans, prêtres et, plus tard, scientifiques ... [more ▼]

La sélection et la multiplication des semences fait l’objet d’activités expérientielles et expérimentales depuis des siècles. Paysans, aristocrates, moines, chamans, prêtres et, plus tard, scientifiques et entreprises semencières, s’y sont attelés. La sortie de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale marque, pour une large proportion du système agricole mondial, le passage de l’agriculture domestique à la modernisation agricole aux visées productivistes [Bonneuil and Thomas 2009]. Les semences deviennent un bien marchand, un produit dont les paramètres sont garantis, prédéfinis et circonscrits (entre autres afin de limiter les risques de fraudes des agriculteurs). Dès le 19e siècle déjà, afin de cerner et de définir les variables d’une semence, les sélectionneurs et scientifiques développent la notion de « variété ». Pour y parvenir, au sein de leur laboratoire, ils analysent, classent, sélectionnent ce que produisent leurs champs expérimentaux et créent des banques de semences. Toutefois, cette approche ex situ fait souvent fi des connaissances paysannes au sujet des semences. [less ▲]

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