Publications of Valérie Van Grootel
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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailGJ 273: On the formation, dynamical evolution and habitability of a planetary system hosted by an M dwarf at 3.75 parsec
Pozuelos, Francisco J.; Suárez, Juan C.; de Elía, Gonzalo C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (in press)

Planets orbiting low-mass stars such as M dwarfs are now considered a cornerstone in the search for life-harbouring planets. GJ273 is a planetary system orbiting an M dwarf only 3.75 pc away, composed of ... [more ▼]

Planets orbiting low-mass stars such as M dwarfs are now considered a cornerstone in the search for life-harbouring planets. GJ273 is a planetary system orbiting an M dwarf only 3.75 pc away, composed of two confirmed planets, GJ273b and GJ273c, and two promising candidates, GJ273d and GJ273e. Planet GJ273b resides in the habitable zone. Currently, due to a lack of observed planetary transits, only the minimum masses of the planets are known.Despite being an interesting system, the GJ273 planetary system is still poorly studied. We aim at precisely determine the physical parameters of the individual planets, in particular to break the mass--inclination degeneracy to accurately determine the mass of the planets. Moreover, we present thorough characterisation of planet GJ273b in terms of its potential habitability. We explored the planetary formation and hydration phases of GJ273 during the first 100 Myr. Then, we analysed the stability of the system. We also searched for regions which may harbour minor bodies such as an asteroid belt and Kuiper belt analogues. We found that the four-planet configuration of the system allows us to break the mass-- inclination degeneracy with the following masses: $2.89\leq M_{\mathrm{b}}\leq3.03\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, $1.18\leq M_{\mathrm{c}}\leq1.24\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, $10.80\leq M_{\mathrm{d}}\leq11.35\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, and $9.30\leq M_{\mathrm{e}}\leq9.70\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$. That is an Earth-mass planet, a super-Earth and two mini-Neptunes. Moreover, GJ273b is found to be an efficient water captor and GJ273c likely a dry planet. Several stable regions are predicted where minor bodies might reside. We comprehensively discuss the habitability of GJ273b. [less ▲]

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See detailTRAPPIST-1: Global Results of the Spitzer Exploration Science Program {\it Red Worlds}
Ducrot, Elsa ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (in press)

With more than 1000 hours of observation from Feb 2016 to Oct 2019, the Spitzer Exploration Program Red Worlds (ID: 13067, 13175 and 14223) exclusively targeted TRAPPIST-1, a nearby (12pc) ultracool dwarf ... [more ▼]

With more than 1000 hours of observation from Feb 2016 to Oct 2019, the Spitzer Exploration Program Red Worlds (ID: 13067, 13175 and 14223) exclusively targeted TRAPPIST-1, a nearby (12pc) ultracool dwarf star orbited by seven transiting Earth-sized planets, all well-suited for a detailed atmospheric characterization with the upcoming JWST. In this paper, we present the global results of the project. We analyzed 88 new transits and combined them with 100 previously analyzed transits, for a total of 188 transits observed at 3.6 or 4.5 $\mu$m. We also analyzed 29 occultations (secondary eclipses) of planet b and eight occultations of planet c observed at 4.5 $\mu$m to constrain the brightness temperatures of their daysides. We identify several orphan transit-like structures in our Spitzer photometry, but all of them are of low significance. We do not confirm any new transiting planets. We estimate for TRAPPIST-1 transit depth measurements mean noise floors of $\sim$35 and 25 ppm in channels 1 and 2 of Spitzer/IRAC, respectively. most of this noise floor is of instrumental origins and due to the large inter-pixel inhomogeneity of IRAC InSb arrays, and that the much better interpixel homogeneity of JWST instruments should result in noise floors as low as 10ppm, which is low enough to enable the atmospheric characterization of the planets by transit transmission spectroscopy. We construct updated broadband transmission spectra for all seven planets which show consistent transit depths between the two Spitzer channels. We identify and model five distinct high energy flares in the whole dataset, and discuss our results in the context of habitability. Finally, we fail to detect occultation signals of planets b and c at 4.5 $\mu$m, and can only set 3$\sigma$ upper limits on their dayside brightness temperatures (611K for b 586K for c). [less ▲]

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See detail$\textit{Gaia}$ white dwarfs within 40 pc I: spectroscopic observations of new candidates
Tremblay, P.-E.; Hollands, M. A.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (in press)

We present a spectroscopic survey of 230 white dwarf candidates within 40 pc of the Sun from the William Herschel Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. All candidates were selected from $\textit{Gaia ... [more ▼]

We present a spectroscopic survey of 230 white dwarf candidates within 40 pc of the Sun from the William Herschel Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. All candidates were selected from $\textit{Gaia}$ Data Release 2 (DR2) and in almost all cases had no prior spectroscopic classifications. We find a total of 191 confirmed white dwarfs and 39 main-sequence star contaminants. The majority of stellar remnants in the sample are relatively cool ($\langle T_{\rm eff} \rangle$ = 6200 K), showing either hydrogen Balmer lines or a featureless spectrum, corresponding to 89 DA and 76 DC white dwarfs, respectively. We also recover two DBA white dwarfs and 9--10 magnetic remnants. We find two carbon-bearing DQ stars and 14 new metal-rich white dwarfs. This includes the possible detection of the first ultra-cool white dwarf with metal lines. We describe three DZ stars for which we find at least four different metal species, including one which is strongly Fe- and Ni- rich, indicative of the accretion of a planetesimal with core-Earth composition. We find one extremely massive (1.31 $\pm$ 0.01 M$_{\odot}$) DA white dwarf showing weak Balmer lines, possibly indicating stellar magnetism. Another white dwarf shows strong Balmer line emission but no infrared excess, suggesting a low-mass sub-stellar companion. High spectroscopic completeness ($>$99%) has now been reached for $\textit{Gaia}$ DR2 sources within 40 pc sample, in the northern hemisphere ($\delta >$ 0 deg) and located on the white dwarf cooling track in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. A statistical study of the full northern sample is presented in a companion paper. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Eclipsing Substellar Binary in a Young Triple System discovered by SPECULOOS
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege et al

in Nature Astronomy (2020), 43

Mass, radius, and age are three of the most fundamental parameters for celestial objects, enabling studies of the evolution and internal physics of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. Brown dwarfs are ... [more ▼]

Mass, radius, and age are three of the most fundamental parameters for celestial objects, enabling studies of the evolution and internal physics of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. Brown dwarfs are hydrogen- rich objects that are unable to sustain core fusion reactions but are supported from collapse by electron degeneracy pressure. As they age, brown dwarfs cool, reducing their radius and luminosity. Young exoplanets follow a similar behaviour. Brown dwarf evolutionary models are relied upon to infer the masses, radii and ages of these objects. Similar models are used to infer the mass and radius of directly imaged exoplanets. Unfortunately, only sparse empirical mass, radius and age measurements are currently available, and the models remain mostly unvalidated. Double-line eclipsing binaries provide the most direct route for the absolute determination of the masses and radii of stars. Here, we report the SPECULOOS discovery of 2M1510A, a nearby, eclipsing, double-line brown dwarf binary, with a widely-separated tertiary brown dwarf companion. We also find that the system is a member of the $45\pm5$ Myr-old moving group, Argus. The system's age matches those of currently known directly-imaged exoplanets. 2M1510A provides an opportunity to benchmark evolutionary models of brown dwarfs and young planets. We find that widely-used evolutionary models do reproduce the mass, radius and age of the binary components remarkably well, but overestimate the luminosity by up to 0.65 magnitudes, which could result in underestimated photometric masses for directly-imaged exoplanets and young field brown dwarfs by 20 to 35%. [less ▲]

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See detailMitigating flicker noise in high-precision photometry. I. Characterization of the noise structure, impact on the inferred transit parameters, and predictions for CHEOPS observations
Sulis, S.; Lendl, M.; Hofmeister, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 636

Context. In photometry, the short-timescale stellar variability ("flicker"), such as that caused by granulation and solar-like oscillations, can reach amplitudes comparable to the transit depth of Earth ... [more ▼]

Context. In photometry, the short-timescale stellar variability ("flicker"), such as that caused by granulation and solar-like oscillations, can reach amplitudes comparable to the transit depth of Earth-sized planets and is correlated over the typical transit timescales. It can introduce systematic errors on the inferred planetary parameters when a small number of transits are observed. <BR /> Aims: The objective of this paper is to characterize the statistical properties of the flicker noise and quantify its impact on the inferred transit parameters. <BR /> Methods: We used the extensive solar observations obtained with SoHO/VIRGO to characterize flicker noise. We simulated realistic transits across the solar disk using SDO/HMI data and used these to obtain transit light curves, which we used to estimate the errors made on the transit parameters due to the presence of real solar noise. We make these light curves publicly available. To extend the study to a wider parameter range, we derived the properties of flicker noise using Kepler observations and studied their dependence on stellar parameters. Finally, we predicted the limiting stellar apparent magnitude for which the properties of the flicker noise can be extracted using high-precision CHEOPS and PLATO observations. <BR /> Results: Stellar granulation is a stochastic colored noise, and is stationary with respect to the stellar magnetic cycle. Both the flicker correlation timescales and amplitudes increase with the stellar mass and radius. If these correlations are not taken into account when fitting for the parameters of transiting exoplanets, this can bias the inferred parameters. In particular, we find errors of up to 10% on the ratio between the planetary and stellar radius (R[SUB]p[/SUB]/R[SUB]s[/SUB]) for an Earth-sized planet orbiting a Sun-like star. <BR /> Conclusions: Flicker will significantly affect the inferred parameters of transits observed at high precision with CHEOPS and PLATO for F and G stars. Dedicated modeling strategies need to be developed to accurately characterize both the star and the transiting exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailTESS first look at evolved compact pulsators. Discovery and asteroseismic probing of the g-mode hot B subdwarf pulsator EC 21494-7018
Charpinet, Stéphane; Brassard, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 632

Context. The TESS satellite was launched in 2018 to perform high- precision photometry from space over almost the whole sky in a search for exoplanets orbiting bright stars. This instrument has opened new ... [more ▼]

Context. The TESS satellite was launched in 2018 to perform high- precision photometry from space over almost the whole sky in a search for exoplanets orbiting bright stars. This instrument has opened new opportunities to study variable hot subdwarfs, white dwarfs, and related compact objects. Targets of interest include white dwarf and hot subdwarf pulsators, both carrying high potential for asteroseismology. <BR /> Aims: We present the discovery and detailed asteroseismic analysis of a new g-mode hot B subdwarf (sdB) pulsator, EC 21494-7018 (TIC 278659026), monitored in TESS first sector using 120-s cadence. <BR /> Methods: The TESS light curve was analyzed with standard prewhitening techniques, followed by forward modeling using our latest generation of sdB models developed for asteroseismic investigations. By simultaneously best-matching all the observed frequencies with those computed from models, we identified the pulsation modes detected and, more importantly, we determined the global parameters and structural configuration of the star. <BR /> Results: The light curve analysis reveals that EC 21494-7018 is a sdB pulsator counting up to 20 frequencies associated with independent g-modes. The seismic analysis singles out an optimal model solution in full agreement with independent measurements provided by spectroscopy (atmospheric parameters derived from model atmospheres) and astrometry (distance evaluated from Gaia DR2 trigonometric parallax). Several key parameters of the star are derived. Its mass (0.391 ± 0.009 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]) is significantly lower than the typical mass of sdB stars and suggests that its progenitor has not undergone the He-core flash; therefore this progenitor could originate from a massive (≳2 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]) red giant, which is an alternative channel for the formation of sdBs. Other derived parameters include the H-rich envelope mass (0.0037 ± 0.0010 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]), radius (0.1694 ± 0.0081 R[SUB]☉[/SUB]), and luminosity (8.2 ± 1.1 L[SUB]☉[/SUB]). The optimal model fit has a double-layered He+H composition profile, which we interpret as an incomplete but ongoing process of gravitational settling of helium at the bottom of a thick H-rich envelope. Moreover, the derived properties of the core indicate that EC 21494-7018 has burnt ̃43% (in mass) of its central helium and possesses a relatively large mixed core (M[SUB]core[/SUB] = 0.198 ± 0.010 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]), in line with trends already uncovered from other g-mode sdB pulsators analyzed with asteroseismology. Finally, we obtain for the first time an estimate of the amount of oxygen (in mass; X(O)[SUB]core[/SUB] = 0.16[SUP]+0.13[/SUP][SUB]-0.05[/SUB]) produced at this stage of evolution by an helium-burning core. This result, along with the core- size estimate, is an interesting constraint that may help to narrow down the still uncertain [SUP]12[/SUP]C(α, γ)[SUP]16[/SUP]O nuclear reaction rate. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of hot subdwarf and white dwarf stars
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege

Conference (2019, August 19)

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See detailTesting Seismic Models of Hot B Subdwarfs with Gaia Data
Fontaine, Gilles; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, Pierre et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2019), 880

We report the results of a study designed to test further the basic validity of the seismic models of hot pulsating B subdwarfs that have been developed over the last two decades. Given estimates of the ... [more ▼]

We report the results of a study designed to test further the basic validity of the seismic models of hot pulsating B subdwarfs that have been developed over the last two decades. Given estimates of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and mass as obtained from a seismic analysis, and given an estimate of the He/H ratio as available from independent spectroscopy, it is possible to compute a “seismic distance” that is suitably corrected for interstellar reddening from a model atmosphere calculation in conjunction with two-band photometry. The test consists of comparing such a distance with that obtained directly from the high-accuracy Gaia parallax measurements that have become available through Data Release 2. Using observed magnitudes in the Gaia G [SUB]BP[/SUB], G [SUB]RP[/SUB] bandpasses as well as ground- based photometry in the Johnson B, V, Strömgren b, y, and SDSS g, r filters, we find that all of our seismic estimates fall within 1σ of their parallax counterparts. In addition, the derived reddening for our target stars is shown to be generally consistent with Galactic dust reddening and extinction maps. These results apply to a sample of 14 pulsating hot B subdwarfs for which seismic models were published in the past. We also derive useful constraints on the distances to two more pulsators that belong to unresolved binary systems. The excellent agreement found between seismic and parallax distances for the bulk of the sample adds further credibility to the seismic models that have been calculated for pulsators of this type. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based follow-up observations of TRAPPIST-1 transits in the near-infrared
Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Lederer, S. M.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 487

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is a favourable target for the atmospheric characterization of temperate earth-sized exoplanets by means of transmission spectroscopy with the forthcoming James Webb Space ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is a favourable target for the atmospheric characterization of temperate earth-sized exoplanets by means of transmission spectroscopy with the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). A possible obstacle to this technique could come from the photospheric heterogeneity of the host star that could affect planetary signatures in the transit transmission spectra. To constrain further this possibility, we gathered an extensive photometric data set of 25 TRAPPIST-1 transits observed in the near-IR J band (1.2 μm) with the UKIRT and the AAT, and in the NB2090 band (2.1 μm) with the VLT during the period 2015-18. In our analysis of these data, we used a special strategy aiming to ensure uniformity in our measurements and robustness in our conclusions. We reach a photometric precision of 0.003 (RMS of the residuals), and we detect no significant temporal variations of transit depths of TRAPPIST-1 b, c, e, and g over the period of 3 yr. The few transit depths measured for planets d and f hint towards some level of variability, but more measurements will be required for confirmation. Our depth measurements for planets b and c disagree with the stellar contamination spectra originating from the possible existence of bright spots of temperature 4500 K. We report updated transmission spectra for the six inner planets of the system which are globally flat for planets b and g and some structures are seen for planets c, d, e, and f. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary models for ultracool dwarfs
Silva Fernandes, Catarina ULiege; Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2019), 879(2),

Ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) have emerged as key targets for searches of transiting exoplanets. Precise estimates of the host parameters (including mass, age, and radius) are fundamental to constraining the ... [more ▼]

Ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) have emerged as key targets for searches of transiting exoplanets. Precise estimates of the host parameters (including mass, age, and radius) are fundamental to constraining the physical properties of orbiting exoplanets. We have extended our evolutionary code Code Liégeois d'Evolution Stellaire to the UCD regime. We include relevant equations of state (EOSs) for H, He, as well as C and O elements to cover the temperature–density regime of UCD interiors. For various metallicities, we couple the interior models to two sets of model atmospheres as surface boundary conditions. We show that including C and O in the EOS has a significant effect close to the H-burning limit mass. The typical systematic error associated with uncertainties in input physics in evolutionary models is ~0.0005 M⊙. We test model results against observations for objects whose parameters have been determined from independent techniques. We are able to reproduce dynamical mass measurements of LSPM J1314+1320AB within 1σ with the condition of varying the metallicity (determined from calibrations) up to 2.5σ. For GJ 65AB, a 2σ agreement is obtained between individual masses from differential astrometry and those from evolutionary models. We provide tables of UCD models for various masses and metallicities that can be used as reference when estimating parameters for ultracool objects. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary models for ultracool dwarfs : implications for the Trappist-1 star
Silva Fernandes, Catarina ULiege; Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2019, June)

Ultra-cool dwarfs are excellent targets when searching for eclipsing earth-like exoplanets. The signature of a transit carries the information about the system dynamics and the physical properties of the ... [more ▼]

Ultra-cool dwarfs are excellent targets when searching for eclipsing earth-like exoplanets. The signature of a transit carries the information about the system dynamics and the physical properties of the exoplanet with respect with its host-star. Therefore, it becomes relevant to address the star itself. From observations, we can estimate the stellar luminosity and from the transit the stellar density, but for single-stars we can't account for its mass and radius. At the university of Liège, we have adapted our stellar evolutionary model (CLES) to account for the ultra-cool dwarf regime down to effective temperatures of approximately 2000K, and have constructed a set of grids spanning across different metallicities to study the physical properties and evolution for these objects. We tested our models for various ultra-cool dwarf objects and study the implications for characterizing the TRAPPIST-1 star. [less ▲]

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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Pulsating hot B subdwarf (sdB) stars, which are core-He burning objects, are one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarf (sdB) stars, which are core-He burning objects, are one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass. There are on the contrary very few hotter sdO pulsators, which are in a more advanced evolutionary stage. Some of them are identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), but they are extremely rare in the field. Recently, it was suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC pulsators. We present here new very high-quality spectroscopy of PB8783 as well as an asteroseismic analysis of the pulsator and answer the question: is PB 8783 the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling? [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental Physics with Brown Dwarfs: The Mass-Radius Relation
Burgasser, Adam; Baraffe, Isabelle; Browning, Matthew et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2019), 51

The lowest-mass stars, brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets span a minimum in the mass-radius relationship that probes the fundamental physics of extreme states of matter, magnetism, and fusion. This White ... [more ▼]

The lowest-mass stars, brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets span a minimum in the mass-radius relationship that probes the fundamental physics of extreme states of matter, magnetism, and fusion. This White Paper outlines scientific opportunities and the necessary resources for modeling and measuring the mass- radius relationship in this regime. <P /> [less ▲]

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See detailThe EBLM Project. V. Physical properties of ten fully convective, very-low-mass stars
von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 625

Measurements of the physical properties of stars at the lower end of the main sequence are scarce. In this context we report masses, radii and surface gravities of ten very-low-mass stars in eclipsing ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the physical properties of stars at the lower end of the main sequence are scarce. In this context we report masses, radii and surface gravities of ten very-low-mass stars in eclipsing binary systems, with orbital periods of the order of several days. The objects probe the stellar mass-radius relation in the fully convective regime, M[SUB]⋆[/SUB] ≲ 0.35 M[SUB]☉[/SUB], down to the hydrogen burning mass- limit, M[SUB]HB[/SUB] ̃ 0.07 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]. The stars were detected by the WASP survey for transiting extra-solar planets, as low-mass, eclipsing companions orbiting more massive, F- and G-type host stars. We use eclipse observations of the host stars, performed with the TRAPPIST, Leonhard Euler and SPECULOOS telescopes, and radial velocities of the host stars obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph, to determine the physical properties of the low-mass companions. Surface gravities of the low-mass companions are derived from the eclipse and orbital parameters of each system. Spectroscopic measurements of the host star effective temperature and metallicity are used to infer the host star mass and age from stellar evolution models for solar-type stars. Masses and radii of the low-mass companions are then derived from the eclipse and orbital parameters of the binary systems. The objects are compared to stellar evolution models for low-mass stars, to test for an effect of the stellar metallicity and orbital period on the radius of low-mass stars in close binary systems. Measurements are found to be in good agreement with stellar evolution models; a systematic inflation of the radius of low-mass stars with respect to model predictions is limited to 1.6 ± 1.2%, in the fully convective low-mass regime. The sample of ten objects indicates a scaling of the radius of low-mass stars with the host star metallicity. No correlation between stellar radii and the orbital periods of the binary systems is determined. A combined analysis with thirteen comparable objects from the literature is consistent with this result. The eclipse and radial velocity data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A150">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A150</A> [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismic potential of CHEOPS
Moya, A.; Barceló Forteza, S.; Bonfanti, Andrea ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 620

Context. Asteroseismology has been impressively boosted during the last decade mainly thanks to space missions such as Kepler/K2 and CoRoT. This has a large impact, in particular, in exoplanetary sciences ... [more ▼]

Context. Asteroseismology has been impressively boosted during the last decade mainly thanks to space missions such as Kepler/K2 and CoRoT. This has a large impact, in particular, in exoplanetary sciences since the accurate characterization of the exoplanets is convoluted in most cases with the characterization of their hosting star. In the decade before the expected launch of the ESA mission PLATO 2.0, only two important missions will provide short-cadence high-precision photometric time-series: NASA–TESS and ESA–CHEOPS missions, both having high capabilities for exoplanetary sciences. Aims. In this work we want to explore the asteroseismic potential of CHEOPS time-series. Methods. Following the works estimating the asteroseismic potential of Kepler and TESS, we have analysed the probability of detecting solar-like pulsations using CHEOPS light-curves. Since CHEOPS will collect runs with observational times from hours up to a few days, we have analysed the accuracy and precision we can obtain for the estimation of νmax. This is the only asteroseismic observable we can recover using CHEOPS observations. Finally, we have analysed the impact of knowing νmax in the characterization of exoplanet host stars. Results. Using CHEOPS light-curves with the expected observational times we can determine νmax for massive G and F-type stars from late main sequence (MS) on, and for F, G, and K-type stars from post-main sequence on with an uncertainty lower than a 5%. For magnitudes V <  12 and observational times from eight hours up to two days, the HR zone of potential detectability changes. The determination of νmax leads to an internal age uncertainty reduction in the characterization of exoplContext. Asteroseismology has been impressively boosted during the last decade mainly thanks to space missions such as Kepler/K2 and CoRoT. This has a large impact, in particular, in exoplanetary sciences since the accurate characterization of the exoplanets is convoluted in most cases with the characterization of their hosting star. In the decade before the expected launch of the ESA mission PLATO 2.0, only two important missions will provide short-cadence high-precision photometric time-series: NASA–TESS and ESA–CHEOPS missions, both having high capabilities for exoplanetary sciences. Aims. In this work we want to explore the asteroseismic potential of CHEOPS time-series. Methods. Following the works estimating the asteroseismic potential of Kepler and TESS, we have analysed the probability of detecting solar-like pulsations using CHEOPS light-curves. Since CHEOPS will collect runs with observational times from hours up to a few days, we have analysed the accuracy and precision we can obtain for the estimation of νmax. This is the only asteroseismic observable we can recover using CHEOPS observations. Finally, we have analysed the impact of knowing νmax in the characterization of exoplanet host stars. Results. Using CHEOPS light-curves with the expected observational times we can determine νmax for massive G and F-type stars from late main sequence (MS) on, and for F, G, and K-type stars from post-main sequence on with an uncertainty lower than a 5%. For magnitudes V <  12 and observational times from eight hours up to two days, the HR zone of potential detectability changes. The determination of νmax leads to an internal age uncertainty reduction in the characterization of exoplanet host stars from 52% to 38%; mass uncertainty reduction from 2.1% to 1.8%; radius uncertainty reduction from 1.8% to 1.6%; density uncertainty reduction from 5.6% to 4.7%, in our best scenarios.anet host stars from 52% to 38%; mass uncertainty reduction from 2.1% to 1.8%; radius uncertainty reduction from 1.8% to 1.6%; density uncertainty reduction from 5.6% to 4.7%, in our best scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 0.8-4.5 μm broadband transmission spectra of TRAPPIST-1 planets
Ducrot, Elsa ULiege; Sestovic, M.; Morris, B. M. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2018), 156

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system represents an exceptional opportunity for the atmospheric characterization of temperate terrestrial exoplanets with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system represents an exceptional opportunity for the atmospheric characterization of temperate terrestrial exoplanets with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Assessing the potential impact of stellar contamination on the planets' transit transmission spectra is an essential precursor step to this characterization. Planetary transits themselves can be used to scan the stellar photosphere and to constrain its heterogeneity through transit depth variations in time and wavelength. In this context, we present our analysis of 169 transits observed in the optical from space with K2 and from the ground with the SPECULOOS and Liverpool telescopes. Combining our measured transit depths with literature results gathered in the mid/near-IR with Spitzer/IRAC and HST/WFC3, we construct the broadband transmission spectra of the TRAPPIST-1 planets over the 0.8-4.5 $\mu$m spectral range. While planets b, d, and f spectra show some structures at the 200-300ppm level, the four others are globally flat. Even if we cannot discard their instrumental origins, two scenarios seem to be favored by the data: a stellar photosphere dominated by a few high-latitude giant (cold) spots, or, alternatively, by a few small and hot (3500-4000K) faculae. In both cases, the stellar contamination of the transit transmission spectra is expected to be less dramatic than predicted in recent papers. Nevertheless, based on our results, stellar contamination can still be of comparable or greater order than planetary atmospheric signals at certain wavelengths. Understanding and correcting the effects of stellar heterogeneity therefore appears essential to prepare the exploration of TRAPPIST-1's with JWST. [less ▲]

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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

Conference (2018, September)

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailRotation in sdB stars as revealed by stellar oscillations
Charpinet, Stéphane; Giammichele, N.; Zong, Weikai et al

in Open Astronomy (2018, March), 27(1), 112-119

An interesting opportunity offered by the detection of stellar oscillations is the possibility to infer the internal rotation rate of a star through the so-called rotational splittings. Such seismic ... [more ▼]

An interesting opportunity offered by the detection of stellar oscillations is the possibility to infer the internal rotation rate of a star through the so-called rotational splittings. Such seismic measurements remained rather scarce for hot B subdwarf (sdB) stars until the advent of space observations with the Kepler spacecraft. Nowadays, however, a number of rotation measurements have become available, offering a glimpse on the global rotational properties of sdB stars. Here, we briefly discuss what asteroseismology starts to reveal on the rotation rate of these stars. We also make connections with the internal rotation of red-giant and white-dwarf stars. In particular, we show that the very slow rotation rates derived for single sdB stars, and their similarities with the dynamical properties of the cores of red-clump stars, strongly suggest that they evolved from red-giants rather than merger events. We also point out that no more angular momentum seems to be lost by stellar cores throughout the helium burning phase until the cooling white-dwarf stage, indicating that all the braking occurs before, most likely during red-giant branch evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailNew observations and asteroseismic analysis of the subdwarf B pulsator PG 1219+534
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Peters, Marie-Julie; Green, Elizabeth M. et al

in Open Astronomy (2018, March), 27

We present a new asteroseismic modeling of the hot B subdwarf (sdB) pulsator PG 1219+534, based on a 3-month campaign with the Mont4K/Kuiper combination at Mt Bigelow (Arizona) and on updated atmospheric ... [more ▼]

We present a new asteroseismic modeling of the hot B subdwarf (sdB) pulsator PG 1219+534, based on a 3-month campaign with the Mont4K/Kuiper combination at Mt Bigelow (Arizona) and on updated atmospheric parameters from high S/N low and medium resolution spectroscopy. On the basis of the nine independent pulsation periods extracted from the photometric light curve, we carried out an astroseismic analysis by applying the forward modeling approach using our latest (third and fourth generation) sdB models. Atmospheric parameters (Teff = 34 258±170 K, log g = 5.838±0.030) were used as independent constraints, as well as partial mode identification based on observed multiplet structures we ascribed to stellar rotation. The optimal model found is remarkably consistent between various analyses with third and fourth generation of sdB models, and also with previously published analysis with second generation sdB models. It corresponds to a sdB with a canonical mass (0.46 ± 0.02 M⊙), rather thin H-He envelope (log q(envl)= −3.75 ± 0.12), and close to He-burning exhaustion (Xcore(C + O) = 0.86 ± 0.05). We also investigate the internal rotation of the star. We find that PG 1219+534 rotates very slowly (Prot=34.91 ± 0.84 days) and that solid-body rotation is reached at least down to ∼60% of the radius. [less ▲]

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