Publications of Frédéric Billen
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See detailComparison of C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and aspiration bronchopneumonia
Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Menard, Maud; Maurey, Christelle et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2021)

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute-phase protein in dogs that may discriminate bacterial bronchopneumonia from other pulmonary conditions. Bronchopneumonia caused by Bordetella ... [more ▼]

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute-phase protein in dogs that may discriminate bacterial bronchopneumonia from other pulmonary conditions. Bronchopneumonia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) is common but the associated increase in CRP concentration in naturally infected dogs has not been fully explored. Objective: To compare CRP concentrations of dogs with Bb infection, with or without radiographic pulmonary lesions, to dogs with aspiration bronchopneumonia (ABP). [less ▲]

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See detailAspergillus qPCR testing on nasal swab: A useful tool for diagnosis and follow‐up of sinonasal aspergillosis in dogs?
Biénès, Tom ULiege; Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Vangrinsven, Emilie ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2020, October 17), 34(6), 3058-3166

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing either for Aspergillus.spp or for Aspergillus fumigatus is now available; however, the interest of such tests in the diagnosis of canine sinonasal aspergillosis ... [more ▼]

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing either for Aspergillus.spp or for Aspergillus fumigatus is now available; however, the interest of such tests in the diagnosis of canine sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungal material using qPCR targeting Aspergillus.spp (PanAsp) and A. fumigatus (Aspfum) in samples obtained from nasal cavities of dogs with various nasal diseases and healthy dogs. In SNA dogs, Aspfum and PanAsp were positive in 13/20 and 14/20 dogs with a mean cycle threshold (Ct) of 30.6 [range 23,2 ‐ 33,3] and 28.3 [24,3 ‐ 34,5], respectively. The PanAsp was also positive in 3 non‐SNA dogs: one with cured SNA, one with LPR and one with nasal tumor, but at very low load (Ct>33). Results between both qPCR were highly correlated (r = 0.8, P < 0.01). For Aspfum and PanAsp, the sensitivity was 65% and 70% and the specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Aspfum qPCR test on deep blinded nasal swabs appears highly specific but only moderately sensitive to diagnose canine SNA. In some dogs fungal plaques are exclusively found in the frontal sinus and are probably not reached by blinded sampling. Since A. fumigatus is the most common etiological agent of canine SNA (96.7% of isolates), Aspfum testing appears appropriate; however, PanAsp testing is a non‐negligible tool to detect the small percentage of SNA cases related to other Aspergillus species. Results also show that healthy predisposed dogs do not seem to be carriers and confirm that A. fumigatus does not appear to have a major role in LPR. The negative results found in cured SNA dogs show a good correlation with clinical and rhinoscopic findings. In conclusion, Aspfum and/or PanAsp (qPCR testing) on deep nasal blinded swabs can be useful for the detection of SNA at diagnosis and after cure. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical response to 2 protocols of aerosolized gentamicin in 46 dogs with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection (2012-2018)
Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Roels, Elodie ULiege; Menard, Maud et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2020), 34(5), 2078-2085

Background: Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) infection commonly causes respiratory disease in dogs. Gentamicin delivered by aerosol maximizes local drug delivery without systemic absorption but clinical ... [more ▼]

Background: Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) infection commonly causes respiratory disease in dogs. Gentamicin delivered by aerosol maximizes local drug delivery without systemic absorption but clinical response to protocols remains undetermined. Objectives: To compare the clinical response to 2 protocols of aerosolized delivery of gentamicin in bordetellosis. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the lung microbiota in dogs with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and correlation with culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2020), 51(46), 1-12

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a pathogen involved in canine infectious respiratory disease complex, can be confirmed using culture or qPCR. Studies about the canine lung microbiota (LM ... [more ▼]

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a pathogen involved in canine infectious respiratory disease complex, can be confirmed using culture or qPCR. Studies about the canine lung microbiota (LM) are recent, sparse, and only one paper has been published in canine lung infection. In this study, we aimed to compare the LM between Bb infected and healthy dogs, and to correlate sequencing with culture and qPCR results. Twenty Bb infected dogs diagnosed either by qPCR and/or culture and 4 healthy dogs were included. qPCR for Mycoplasma cynos (Mc) were also available in 18 diseased and all healthy dogs. Sequencing results, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after DNA extraction, PCR targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing, showed the presence of Bbin all diseased dogs, about half being co‑infected with Mc. In diseased compared with healthy dogs, the β‑diversity changed (P=0.0024); bacterial richness and α‑diversity were lower (P=0.012 and 0.0061), and bacterial load higher (P= 0.004). Bb qPCR classes and culture results correlated with the abundance of Bb (r = 0.71, P < 0.001 and r = 0.70, P= 0.0022). Mc qPCR classes also correlated with the abundance of Mc (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Bb infection induced lung dysbiosis, characterized by high bacterial load, low richness and diversity and increased abundance of Bb, compared with healthy dogs. Sequencing results highly correlate with qPCR and culture results showing that sequencing can be reliable to identify microorganisms involved in lung infectious diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the lung microbiota in dogs with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and correlation with culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2019, November 08)

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) can be confirmed using bacterial culture or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The lung microbiota (LM), which has been described in healthy ... [more ▼]

Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) can be confirmed using bacterial culture or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The lung microbiota (LM), which has been described in healthy experimental dogs, has not yet been studied in dogs with lower respiratory infection. In the present study we aimed to analyze the LM in dogs with Bb infection compared with healthy dogs, and to correlate the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing results with culture and qPCR results. Twenty dogs with a diagnosis of Bb infection obtained either by qPCR and/or culture and 4 healthy dogs were included. 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from naïve bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after DNA extraction, PCR targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing. Sequencing results showed the presence of Bb in all diseased dogs. About half of the dogs were co-infected, the majority with M. cynos. In diseased dogs, a shift in the β-diversity of the LM was observed (P=0.002); the richness and the α-diversity were significantly lower (P=0.012 and 0.006) and the bacterial load higher (P=0.004) compared with healthy dogs. Bb qPCR level and culture results were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bb species after sequencing (r= 0.56, P=0.028 and r=0.70, P=0.002). Bb induced a major dysbiosis of the LM, characterized by high bacterial load, low richness and diversity and increased abundance of Bb, in comparison with healthy dogs. Results of the LM analysis highly correlate with results obtained by qPCR and culture and show that results of LM can be reliable for identification of potentially causal bacterial microorganism involved in lung infectious diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailPyocolpos in a spayed queen with imperforate hymen: a case report
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Shimizu, Naomi ULiege; Anne-Archard, Nicolas ULiege et al

Poster (2018, October 26)

A 1-y-old sterilized queen was presented for dysuria. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled ... [more ▼]

A 1-y-old sterilized queen was presented for dysuria. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled abdominal structure extending into the pelvic cavity, displacing the colon dorsally and the urethra ventrally. Retrograde vagino-urethrography showed contrast in the vestibule, urethra and urinary bladder. Imperforate membrane at the vestibulo-vaginal junction with secondary vaginal distension was highly suspected. During surgery, a distended by purulent content vagina was observed, sub-total vaginectomy was performed. Bacterial culture showed Enterobacter cloacae. Definitive diagnosis of imperforate hymen is usually achieved by vaginoscopy. Retrograde vagino-urethrography can be used in some cases. This is the first report of imperforate hymen in the queen and also is the first case of pyocolpos. Origin of infection remains unclear. Contamination during neutering or via partial perforation of the hymen may be suspected. Enterobacter cloacae is a Gram - opportunistic pathogen of the urogenital tract of humans and animals. It is involved in multidrug-resistance spreading but its prevalence and clinical impact in veterinary medicine is unknown. In conclusion, this first report of persistent hymen in the queen highlights vagino-urethrography usefulness for diagnosing imperforate hymen in small patients, as well as the inclusion of congenital abnormality in the differential diagnosis of dysuria and the feasibility of sub-total vaginectomy by abdominal approach. Finally, it raises the question of Enterobacter cloacae’s implication in nosocomial infection in veterinary medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of two minimally invasive enilconazole perendoscopic infusion protocols for the treatment of canine sinonasal aspergillosis.
Vangrinsven, Emilie ULiege; Girod, Maud ULiege; Goossens, Damien et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (2018), 59(12), 777-782

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See detailBilateral laryngeal paralysis secondary to traumatic nerve damage in two dogs
Hamon, Martin ULiege; Picavet, Pierre ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege et al

Poster (2018, August)

Cervical traumas are common in dogs as a consequence of bite injuries, road traffic accidents, choke chains, and gunshot injuries.1 Penetrating wounds of the cervical region may be a disaster given the ... [more ▼]

Cervical traumas are common in dogs as a consequence of bite injuries, road traffic accidents, choke chains, and gunshot injuries.1 Penetrating wounds of the cervical region may be a disaster given the number of vital structures present in the area. Laryngeal paralysis is the inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages. Traumatic damage to the vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerve is identified as a possible cause of acquired laryngeal paralysis.2 However, its occurrence remains rare. [less ▲]

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See detailPyocolpos in a spayed queen with imperforate hymen: a case report
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Shimizu, Naomi ULiege; Anne-Archard, Nicolas ULiege et al

Poster (2018, June)

A 1-year-old queen was presented for dysuria, strangurya and abdominal discomfort. She had been ovariectomized or potentially ovariohysterectomized at 6 months of age. Abdominal palpation elicited pain ... [more ▼]

A 1-year-old queen was presented for dysuria, strangurya and abdominal discomfort. She had been ovariectomized or potentially ovariohysterectomized at 6 months of age. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. No vulvar discharge was observed and the rest of the clinical examination was unremarkable. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled abdominal structure (5cm X 2.5cm) extending into the pelvic cavity, displacing the colon dorsally and the urethra ventrally. No ovarian remnant could be found. Vaginoscopy was not performed due to unavailable small diameter size endoscope. Retrograde vagino-urethrography showed contrast in the vestibule, urethra and urinary bladder, while no contrast could be observed in the vagina. At that stage, an imperforate membrane at the vestibulo-vaginal junction with secondary vaginal distension was highly suspected. During surgery, complete ovariohysterectomy, including removal of the uterine body, was confirmed and a distended, but otherwise normal looking, vagina was observed. Total vaginectomy was performed and the purulent content was swabbed for bacteriology. Post-operative treatment included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20mg/kg PO BID), meloxicam for a week (0,1mg/kg PO SID). Enterobacter cloacae was isolated and antibiotherapy was changed into a marbofloxacin administration for 2 weeks (5mg/kg PO SID), according to culture sensitivity. The queen recovered without any major complication. Definitive diagnosis of imperforate hymen is usually achieved by vaginoscopy, which is the most common complementary exam that can be performed either with an endoscope or a speculum. Due to technical limitation such as scope size, retrograde vagino-urethrography can be used to confirm a suspected blind vestibule. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an imperforate hymen in the queen and the first case of pyocolpos in that species. Cases of imperforate hymen have been described in young girls, cows, buffaloes and bitches. A complete persistent hymen is one of the many congenital abnormalities of the vestibulo-vaginal junction or the vestibular area. The hymen is formed by the fusion of the Müllerian ducts with the urogenital sinus during embryo development and usually disappears before birth. In our case, the origin of the bacterial infection remains unclear. Contamination during neutering may be suspected. However, the 6-month delay before clinical onset makes it rather unlikely. Alternatively, an ascending contamination via partial perforation of the hymen, that somehow re-sealed afterwards, seems more likely as it has already been speculated in the bitch. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram-negative commensal flora of the digestive system of humans and animals was identified. It is an opportunistic pathogen of the urogenital tract and has been involved in multidrug-resistance spreading. It over-expresses chromosomic cephalosporinases leading to resistance to third generation cephalosporins. It may also carry genes for extended-spectrum -lactamase or even carbapenemase. They are naturally resistant to aminopenicillins, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, first and second generation cephalosporins. They are naturally sensitive to aminosids, quinolones, tetracyclins and trimethoprime-sulfonamides. In the present case, it was resistant to cefovecin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfonamide, sensitive to gentamicin and marbofloxacin but intermediate to enrofloxacin. Enterobacter cloacae has been isolated from intra-venous catheters in human hospitals and reported as responsible for nosocomial epidemics. As far as we know, a similar role in veterinary medicine has not yet been reported. Actually, little is known about Enterobacter cloacae’s prevalence and clinical impact in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine. Epidemiological surveys should be conducted to answer these interrogations. In conclusion, this first report of a persistent hymen in the queen highlights vagino-urethrography usefulness for diagnosing imperforate hymen in small patients, as well as the inclusion of congenital abnormality in the differential diagnosis of dysuria. Finally, it raises the question of Enterobacter cloacae’s implication in nosocomial infection in veterinary medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailAngiostrongylosis in dogs with negative fecal and in-clinic rapid serological tests: 7 Cases (2013-2017)
Canonne, A. M.; Billen, Frédéric ULiege; Losson, Bertrand ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2018), 32(3), 951-955

Background: Angiostrongylosis is considered as emerging disease in dogs in Belgium. Detection of first-stage larvae in feces using the Baermann method has an imperfect sensitivity. Objectives ... [more ▼]

Background: Angiostrongylosis is considered as emerging disease in dogs in Belgium. Detection of first-stage larvae in feces using the Baermann method has an imperfect sensitivity. Objectives: Investigation of efficacy of noninvasive blood and fecal diagnostic tests in comparison with PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) material in a small series of coughing or dyspnoeic dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum. Animals: Seven dogs with angiostrongylosis. Methods: Retrospective study. Dogs with cough, exercise intolerance and dyspnea of 2- to 8-week duration. Diagnostic methods used included Baermann analysis, AngioDetect rapid assay, ELISAs for detection of circulating antigen and specific antibodies and qPCR on BAL material. Results: Baermann analysis, AngioDetect rapid assay, antigen ELISA, antibody ELISA, and qPCR on BAL material were positive in 3/7, 2/7, 3/6, 6/6, and 7/7 dogs, respectively. ELISA for antibodies or qPCR on BAL material were essential for definitive diagnosis in 3 dogs. Relative sensitivities of AngioDetect rapid assay, Baermann analysis, and ELISA for antigen detection were lower than 50% compared with ELISA for antibodies or qPCR on BAL material. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: In this small clinical series, Baermann analysis and AngioDetect rapid assay failed to confirm the diagnosis in some dogs. Therefore, ELISA for antibody detection and qPCR on BAL material should strongly be considered in clinically suspected dogs when antigen detection methods (AngioDetect or ELISA) and Baermann analysis are negative. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the coagulation system in canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Roels, Elodie ULiege; Bauer, N.; LECUT, Christelle ULiege et al

Poster (2016, September)

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See detailQuantitative PCR and Cytology of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Dogs with Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection
Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Billen, Frédéric ULiege; Tual, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016), 30(4), 1204-1209

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See detailEndoscopic investigation of the gastroesophageal junction dynamics in dogs with brachycephalic syndrome.
Vangrinsven, Emilie ULiege; Broux, Olivier ULiege; Claeys, Stéphanie ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016), 30

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See detailComparison of 4 point-of-care blood gas analyzers for arterial blood gas analysis in healthy dogs and dogs with cardiopulmonary disease
Roels, Elodie ULiege; Gommeren, Kris ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (2016), 00(0), 1-8

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See detailComparison of two non-invasive 2% enilconazole infusion protocols for treatment of canine sinonasal aspergillosis and importance of debridement for treatment efficacy.
Girod, Maud ULiege; Goosens, Damien; Volpe, Rosario ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016), 30(1), 378

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See detailDetection of Angiostrongylus vasorum by quantitative PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Belgian dogs
Canonne-Guibert, Morgane ULiege; Roels, Elodie ULiege; Caron, Yannick ULiege et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (2016), 57(3), 130-134

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See detailTracheal diameter in puppies
Rizza, Maïlis ULiege; Liotta, Annalisa Pia ULiege; Billen, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (3 ULiège)