Publications of Valeria Busoni
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See detailLow field magnetic resonance imaging of the equine distal interphalangeal joint: comparison between weight-bearing conditions
Evrard, Laurence ULiege; Audigié, Fabrice; Bertoni, Lélia et al

in PLoS ONE (2019)

This descriptive study aimed to compare the magnetic resonance appearance of the distal interphalangeal joint articular cartilage between standing weight-bearing and non-weightbearing conditions. Ten ... [more ▼]

This descriptive study aimed to compare the magnetic resonance appearance of the distal interphalangeal joint articular cartilage between standing weight-bearing and non-weightbearing conditions. Ten forefeet of live horses were scanned in a standing low-field magnetic resonance system (0.27 T). After euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the study, the non-weight-bearing isolated feet were scanned in a vertical positioning reproducing limb orientation in live horses. The same acquisition settings as during the weight-bearing examination were used. Thickness and cross-sectional area of the distal interphalangeal articular cartilage and joint space were measured on tridimensional T1-weighted gradient echo high resolution frontal and sagittal images at predetermined landmarks in both conditions and were compared using a linear mixed-effects model. Frontal images were randomized and submitted to 9 blinded readers with 3 different experience levels for identification of weightbearing versus non-weight-bearing acquisitions based on cartilage appearance. Weightbearing limbs had significantly thinner distal interphalangeal cartilage (p = 0.0001) than nonweight-bearing limbs. This change was greater in the distal phalanx cartilage than that of the middle phalanx. Blinded readers correctly identified 83% (range 65 to 95%) of the images as weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing acquisitions, with significantly different results observed among the different readers (p < 0.001) and groups (p < 0.001). These results indicate that distal interphalangeal articular cartilage and particularly cartilage of the distal phalanx thins when weight-bearing compared to the non-weight-bearing standing postmortem conditions and suggest that cartilage abnormalities may be more difficult to identify on weight-bearing standing magnetic resonance imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailGastrointestinal effects of general anaesthesia in horses undergoing non abdominal surgery: focus on the clinical parameters and ultrasonographic images
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Gougnard, Alexandra; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2019), 124

The ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses can be influenced by fasting and sedation but the proper effect of general anaesthesia (GA) on them has not been determined yet. This ... [more ▼]

The ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses can be influenced by fasting and sedation but the proper effect of general anaesthesia (GA) on them has not been determined yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GA on ultrasonographic images of the gastrointestinal tract in horses and to compare these effects with a clinical evaluation. Twenty horses undergoing non-abdominal surgeries were evaluated by ultrasonography before and 4 times within 24 h after GA. Each ultrasonographic exam focused on the stomach, the duodenum and on 5 locations on the jejunum. The four-quadrant auscultation and the postoperative faecal output were also recorded. Pre and post anaesthetic values were compared using linear mixed effects models. None of the horses presented colic signs or reduced faecal output. During the first 2 post anaesthetic evaluations, the gut sounds were significantly decreased and, when taking all jejunal locations together, the jejunal diameter and visualisation frequency significantly increased. No intestinal loop appeared thickened and most of their diameters remained within the normal range. Our results suggest that the effects of GA on the ultrasonographic images of the small intestine are mild and of short duration and can therefore be differentiated from a pathological process. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to look - Purpose and design of an awareness-raising online course in veterinary sciences
Tasnier, Sophie ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege; Hanzen, Christian ULiege et al

in Prilla, M; Ullmann, T; Kravcik, M (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning (2015, September 15)

This paper reports on a work in progress: an online self-instruction course created to stimulate students’ awareness processes when dealing with pictures. Using non-clinical material, the “Learning to ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a work in progress: an online self-instruction course created to stimulate students’ awareness processes when dealing with pictures. Using non-clinical material, the “Learning to Look” course was de-signed as a preliminary training to the observation of histological sections, radi-ological graphs, and other specialized visual material. Following a presentation of the project, salient results of a feedback questionnaire completed by 382 stu-dents about their experience of the course are provided. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the normal suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULiege; Antoine, Nadine ULiege; Piret, Joëlle ULiege et al

Poster (2013, July)

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in ... [more ▼]

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in sound horses. Right limbs from 11 horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the SL were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues allowing the use of an image analysis programme. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the SL of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the body and the branches of the normal third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament) in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULiege; Antoine, Nadine ULiege; Piret, Joëlle ULiege et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2013)

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the ... [more ▼]

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and morphometric analyses of the suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULiege; Antoine, Nadine ULiege; Piret, Joëlle ULiege et al

Poster (2012, October)

Ultrasound techniques allow examination of some parts of the suspensory ligament (SL) but "anomalies" are regularly observed. Their significance is not known. Few studies have described the relationship ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound techniques allow examination of some parts of the suspensory ligament (SL) but "anomalies" are regularly observed. Their significance is not known. Few studies have described the relationship between ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting, staining, and showing the variation in the tissue composition within the SL. The SLs from the right limbs of 11 horses were collected. Samples were taken from cross-sections at six levels of the SL and they were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. By using the cryosection technique, some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared. Therefore, a technique of freezing with cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin-phloxine-saffron gives a good contrast of colors between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis program. The percentage of each tissue within the SL for each section and for six levels of the ligament was calculated. Results were analyzed by SAS software. The muscle tissue (PMT) and adipose tissue (PAT) decreased significantly (p < 0.0001), whereas the connective tissue (PCT) increased significantly (p < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The PMT was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in females than males, while the PCT was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in males than females. The PAT was significantly higher (p = 0.0278) in hindlimbs than in forelimbs. [less ▲]

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See detailIMAGING FINDINGS IN HORSES WITH PHARYNGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege; Evrard, Laurence ULiege; Bolen, Géraldine ULiege et al

Poster (2012)

Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been occasionally reported in the equine pharyngeal region1-3. The aim of this poster is to describe imaging findings in 4 cases of pharyngeal SCC. Material ... [more ▼]

Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been occasionally reported in the equine pharyngeal region1-3. The aim of this poster is to describe imaging findings in 4 cases of pharyngeal SCC. Material and methods Four old horses, mean age 19.5, 2 females and 2 geldings, were referred for dyspnea (3/4) and/or dysphagia (3/4). Because of dyspnea radiographs were realized prior to endoscopy. Ultrasound (US) was performed in all cases by ventral and lateral approach using a linear 7,5MHz transducer. A post-mortem computed tomography (CT) of the head was performed in one case (16 slices CT, Somatom 16, Siemens). Results Radiographic opacity of the pharyngeal region was increased in all cases. A soft tissue mass was also visible in the caudal maxillary sinus in 1 horse. The epiglottis was either not recognized or difficult to see with an abnormal shape. Pharyngoepiglottic distance and nasopharyngeal diameter were reduced in all cases. The soft palate was either thick or impossible to be outlined, with an irregular surface. In 1 case it was dorsally displaced. The dorsal pharyngeal wall looked unevenly thickened or impossible to be outlined ventrally due to border effacement. No bony damage was identified on radiographs. A hypoechoic heterogeneous mass was visualized at US in 2 cases and an enlargement of the mandibular lymph nodes was observed in 3 cases. Lymphnodes had also heterogeneous echogenicity and increased doppler signal in 1 case. Oral and pharyngeal endoscopic examination confirmed a pharyngeal mass in 2 cases but was unsuccessful or incomplete because of passage impairment in 2. CT revealed maxillary bone lysis in the horse with a mass in the maxillary sinus. Histopathological examination of local biopsies or necropsy revealed pharyngeal SCC invading epiglottis, pharyngeal wall and soft palate in the 4 horses and the maxillary sinus in one. Discussion/Conclusion Because endoscopy can be impaired by the size of the mass, radiology is helpful in estimating the extent and invasiveness of the process and US to confirm lymphadenopathy. However because of its relatively low sensitivity and the local increased opacity, radiographic examination may underestimate bone lysis. [less ▲]

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See detailA study of the caeco-colic vessels and lymph nodes at equine transabdominal ultrasonography
Evrard, Laurence ULiege; Esmans, Maya; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2012)

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See detailReversal of acepromazine-induced hemodynamic alterations by norepinephrine in standing horses
pequito, Manuel; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Peters, Fabrice et al

Poster (2011, March 18)

Acepromazine (ACP) is a phenothiazine commonly used to sedate horses. Additionally, ACP exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects, which might have a therapeutic potential in horses suffering from systemic ... [more ▼]

Acepromazine (ACP) is a phenothiazine commonly used to sedate horses. Additionally, ACP exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects, which might have a therapeutic potential in horses suffering from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, the ACP-induced vasodilation precludes its use in horses with SIRS-related cardiovascular compromise. The objective of this study was to test if the hemodynamic effects of the administration of 0,1 mg/kg of ACP could be counteracted by an intravenous infusion of norepinephrine (NOR) at 1ug/kg/min in healthy horses. In 5 healthy adult horses, a 15 minutes NOR IV infusion was administered 45 minutes after an injection of 0,1 mg/kg of ACP IV. The systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) was non-invasively measured by Doppler sphingometry at the tail. Hemodynamics of the median artery of the left forelimb were studied using Doppler ultrasonography, through calculation of the vessel’s surface (SURF), diameter (DIAM), circumference (CIRC), and peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), volumetric flow (VF) and resistivity index (RI) of the flow. Both SAP and Doppler parameters were determined at regular intervals during the entire study. ACP induced a hypotension and a vasodilatation, that were evidenced by a significant rise of the SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV and VF and reduction of the SAP and RI. During NOR infusion, all these ACP-induced hemodynamic changes were reversed. These findings suggest that a continuous IV NOR infusion at 1ug/kg/min is able to revert ACP-induced hypotension and vasodilation in healthy adult horses. [less ▲]

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See detailULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE CISTERNA CHYLI IN THE DOG
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege; Cavrenne, Romain ULiege; Garcia et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction/Aims The cisterna chyli (CC) is a dilated and bipartite portion of the lymphatic channels coursing intimately along the abdominal aorta in the retroperitoneal space.1 The appearance of the CC ... [more ▼]

Introduction/Aims The cisterna chyli (CC) is a dilated and bipartite portion of the lymphatic channels coursing intimately along the abdominal aorta in the retroperitoneal space.1 The appearance of the CC of the dog has been described on magnetic resonance imaging.2 The aim of this poster is to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the CC in 2 dogs with chylous ascitis and in 2 healthy dogs. Methods Abdominal ultrasonography was realised with a 7.5MHz microconvex transducer. A right or left lateral dorsal approach was used. The aorta (together with the cranial mesenteric artery in normal dogs) was used as the main landmark to localize the CC. The dogs with chylous ascites were a 4 year old female american cocker spaniel, with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia and a 1 year old, spayed female whippet with recurrent pancreatitis. The 2 healthy dogs were a 7 year old Beagle and a 9 year old Jack Russell. The abdominal ultrasonography was realised within 2 hours after the meal in the healthy dogs. Results The CC was seen as a hypoechoic structure, without detectable flow, dorsal and to the right of the aorta. The CC was easily visible in the 2 dogs with chyloabdomen while it was more difficult to localize in the healthy dogs. The CC was tubular on the longitudinal images. On transverse images, the CC is elliptic or semilunar and may partially surround the aorta. The maximal width of the CC measured on transverse images varied from 2-3mm in the 2 healthy dogs to 4-8mm in the 2 dogs with chyloabdomen. In 3 patients some efferent/afferent lymphatic vessels were seen as thin hypoechoic tubes converging on the CC. Shape and size of the CC in the same animal were seen varying during the same ultrasonography or between different exams. Discussion/Conclusion The CC is visible by ultrasonography in dogs. Its visibility depends on different conditions like disease of the lymphatic system3, quality and distance of the meal. [less ▲]

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See detailClou de rue chez le cheval
Gabriel, Annick ULiege; Verwilghen, Denis ULiege; Hontoir, F et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2011), 155

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULiege; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULiege et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic resonance signal changes during time in equine limbs refrigerated at 4 degrees C.
Bolen, Géraldine ULiege; Haye, Dimitri; Dondelinger, Robert ULiege et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2010), 51(1), 19-24

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR ... [more ▼]

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR changes during time in the anatomic structures of the equine digit on eight cadaver limbs stored at 4 degrees C. The digits were imaged within 12 h after death and then after 1, 2, 7, and 14 days of refrigeration. After the last examination, four feet were warmed at room temperature for 24 h and reimaged. Sequences used were turbo spin echo (TSE) T1, TSE T2, short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and double-echo steady state (DESS). Images obtained were compared subjectively side by side for image quality and signal changes. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured and compared between examinations. There were no subjective changes in image quality. A mild size reduction of the synovial recesses was detected subjectively. No signal change was seen subjectively except for bone marrow that appeared slightly hyperintense in STIR and slightly hypointense in TSE T2 sequence after refrigeration compared with day 0. Using quantitative analysis, significant SNR changes in bone marrow of refrigerated limbs compared with day 0 were detected in STIR and TSE T2 sequences. Warming at room temperature for 24 h produced a reverse effect on SNR compared with refrigeration with a significant increase in SNR in TSE T2 images. After 14 days of refrigeration a statistically significant decrease of SNR was found in bone marrow in TSE T2 and DESS sequences. The SNR in the deep digital flexor tendon was not characterized by significant change in SNR. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULiege; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULiege et al

Poster (2010)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tendinopathies et desmopathies de la région métacarpienne et –tarsienne: une revue des thérapies actuelles. Première partie : la structure, les lésions du tendon et le diagnostic.
Verwilghen, Denis ULiege; Gabriel, Annick ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 3(153), 145-155

Lesions to the horse’s tendon are very frequent and are a non negligible reason for early retirement of sport and leisure horses. For decades man has been searching for “the” treatment but unfortunately ... [more ▼]

Lesions to the horse’s tendon are very frequent and are a non negligible reason for early retirement of sport and leisure horses. For decades man has been searching for “the” treatment but unfortunately most of the known treatments have empiric bases and very few have actually proven their real efficiency. Better knowledge of tendon anatomy and pathophysiology of tendonitis together with evolutions in diagnostic techniques like ultrasonography allows us to better evaluate the improvements made in tendonitis therapies today. The first part of this article gives a review on tendon structure, tendon healing and ultrasonographic evaluation of the tendon. In the second part an overview of therapeutic options for tendonitis will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailExamen échographique transcunéen post mortem de l'appareil podotrochléaire équin à l'aide des sondes linéaires et sectorielles
Schneider, Nicole ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152

Ultrasound has become more common in the investigation of the podotrochlear apparatus in the horse and the use of more sensible scanheads improved the quality of the images. This study shows six examples ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound has become more common in the investigation of the podotrochlear apparatus in the horse and the use of more sensible scanheads improved the quality of the images. This study shows six examples of the ultrasound anatomy of the distal podotrochlear apparatus in the transcuneal view performed with three different scanheads. The presented transcuneal scans of the podotrochlear apparatus of an 18 months old warmblood foal have been established post mortem on isolated feet. Modus of registration was real-timemotion, linear- and sectorscanheads working at 7.5 (linear) and 7.5 (microconvex) and 3.5 (convex) MHz were used. The echoanatomic structures of the soft tissue and bony surfaces in the distal podotrochlear region are compared by six images. The combination of the different scanheads permits an improved complete visualisation in this area. Therefore these ultrasound pictures show that ultrasonography is an useful complementary investigation method that enables to precise the diagnosis [less ▲]

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See detailSonographic anatomy of the palmarodistal aspect of the equine digit
Bolen, Géraldine ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege; Jacqmot, Olivier ULiege et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2007), 48(3), 270-275

Although ultrasonography is widely used in equine orthopedics, its use in the distal portion of the digit is still limited. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the normal ... [more ▼]

Although ultrasonography is widely used in equine orthopedics, its use in the distal portion of the digit is still limited. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the palmarodistal aspect of the digital area imaged between the bulbs of the heels. Ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 7.5 MHz microconvex transducer in 10 fresh equine cadaver forelimbs and five sound horses. Sagittal, parasagittal, and transverse images were obtained from the proximal aspect of the middle phalanx to the distal sesamoid bone. Anatomic sections were obtained from five cadaver specimens to correlate the sonographic appearance with the anatomic findings. The remaining cadaver limbs were dissected to confirm normalcy. Ultrasonographic examinations were possible on all digits but distal images were more difficult to obtain in digits with long heels. Bony structures (palmar surface of the middle phalanx and proximal border of the distal sesamoid bone) and soft tissue structures (deep digital flexor tendon, digital tendon sheath, proximal palmar recess of the distal interphalangeal joint, proximal recess of the podotrochlear bursa, collateral sesamoidean ligaments) identified on the anatomic slices were seen on the matched sonographic images. Ultrasonography provides good anatomic details of the palmarodistal aspect of the digit. The images of this study will serve as a reference for clinical studies on ultrasonography of the palmarodistal aspect of the digit. [less ▲]

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