Publications of Angélique Léonard
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailLife cycle assessment of rail freight transport in Belgium
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (2020)

The objective of this paper is to determine the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The study includes the assessment of diesel ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to determine the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The study includes the assessment of diesel trains, electric trains and rail freight transport considering the Belgian traction mix. Moreover, a comparison of the environmental impacts of electric trains using the electricity supply mix of diferent European countries has been performed. The rail freight transport system has been divided into three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail equipment and rail infrastructure. The system approach of the LCA methodology involves studying both the direct processes connected with the transport activity (e.g. energy consumption or direct emissions), as well as other necessary elements for rail transport such as energy production, rolling stock and railway infrastructure. A comprehensive study of the Belgian railway network has been performed, collecting country-specifc data on the construction, maintenance and disposal of infrastructure. Electric trains present a better environmental performance than diesel trains in Belgium. For example, the use of electric trains (using the Belgian electricity supply mix of 2012) rather than diesel trains represents a reduction of 26% of environmental impact on climate change. The electricity supply mix contributes signifcantly to the environmental performance of electric trains. As the use of electric trains increases in future, the energy split for the electricity generation will be more important in the environmental impacts of goods transport. The increased use of electric trains represents an opportunity to attain a more environmentally and energy-efcient rail freight transport system, especially when they are powered by sustainable electricity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDevelopment of SLL equilibrium speciation and data fitting tool and its application to P recovery process from sludge
Shariff, Zaheer Ahmed ULiege; Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege et al

Conference (2020, February 27)

A solid-liquid-liquid equilibrium (SLLE) speciation tool has been developed in MATLAB in order simulate species that would exist in the different phases as a function of pH. The SLLE modelling tool may be ... [more ▼]

A solid-liquid-liquid equilibrium (SLLE) speciation tool has been developed in MATLAB in order simulate species that would exist in the different phases as a function of pH. The SLLE modelling tool may be applied to processes such as leaching, precipitation and reactive extraction. This work is a part of research carried out under the Phos4You project to develop a new process for recovery of Phosphorus (P) from dried sewage sludge. The work carried out at the University of Liège is funded by the Interreg North West Europe Program and SPW (Région wallonne). The process being developed is the PULSE (Phosphorus ULiège Sludge Extraction). The concept of PULSE is adopted from the PASCH process that was previous developed by RWTH Aachen for extraction of P from ashes of incinerated sewage sludge. The PULSE process involves drying of sludge followed by acidic leaching to dissolve P. After leaching and separation of the solids, reactive extraction is used to separate the metals from the P-rich aqueous fraction. Finally P is precipitated as calcium phosphate. The knowledge of speciation, complex formation, and phase equilibria are essential for design and optimization of unit operations that are employed in PULSE process to gain deeper understanding and reduce the load of experimental work. The SLLE tool being developed can simulate the speciation and complex formation for both aqueous and organic phases as well the precipitation of solid phases. Due to non-ideality of the system and ionic interactions, activities are used for the computation instead of concentrations. The user can choose the activity model from a list of models. The input parameters required for the SLLE tool are the equilibrium constants, stoichiometric coefficients, and valence of the species along with the total input concentration of the components and the phase ratios of the different phases involved in the system under consideration. As the PULSE process deals with sewage sludge, which contains organics and bio solids, experimental results would significantly vary from modelling results that considers pure substances or phases. Also the thermodynamic data for reactive extraction using organic solvents is highly system specific and not available in many cases. In order to overcome these challenges, a data fitting algorithm is coupled with the SLLE speciation tool. The data fitting algorithm enables determination of the speciation modelling parameters based on experimental data such as equilibrium concentrations and degrees of extraction. Arbitrary complexes can be accounted for in the reactive extraction, which also allows describing synergistic effects, for which stoichiometry and equilibrium constants also will need to be fitted to experimental data. An example of the speciation and solid-liquid phase equilibria computed using the developed tool is shown below in figure 1. With regards to the PULSE process, the speciation information from the figure below helps us to identify the pH that should be reached during leaching in order to completely dissolve P from sludge or the pH at which calcium phosphate may be precipitated. The predominant specifies of various metals that are existing in different pH can identified from the speciation diagram as shown in the figure below, which is very critical in case of reactive extraction as depending on the type of solvent used only certain specific species or complexes are extracted. The SLLE tool is being continually improved and developed to include more features such as temperature dependency of the equilibrium constants. It will also be extended to interlink the unit operations- leaching, reactive extraction, and precipitation for application to PULSE process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailModeling, numerical simulation and validation of a convective dryer in steady conditions: case study of tropical woods
Simo-Tagne, Merlin; Bennamoun, Lyes; Léonard, Angélique ULiege et al

in International Journal of Modelling and Simulation (2020), 40(2), 143-161

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailUse of recycled concrete aggregates from precast block for the production of new building blocks: an industrial scale study
Zhao, Zengfeng ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege et al

in Resources, Conservation and Recycling (2020), 157(104786),

Large amounts of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated annually and will increase in the future. Until now, only a small fraction of concrete by-products is re-used as recycled concrete ... [more ▼]

Large amounts of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated annually and will increase in the future. Until now, only a small fraction of concrete by-products is re-used as recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) for the manufacture of concrete. In this paper, the feasibility of using RCA obtained from old precast concrete block was investigated for the industrial scale production of new blocks. Concrete building blocks with different substitution rates (0%, 30% and 100%) of natural aggregates (NA) by the same volume fraction of RCA were manufactured in a factory and the mechanical properties and durability of concrete blocks were monitored. The results show that incorporating RCA slightly decreases the compressive strength and impairs the durability of concrete blocks. However, the compressive strength of concrete blocks made with 100% RCA could reach 11.1 MPa after 28 days, which is within the requirement in Belgian codes for this type of block. The concrete blocks produced with 30% and 100% of RCA reached the strength, capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage and freeze-thaw resistance requirements for concrete blocks specified by Belgian codes. A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on both "classical" blocks with only NA and with substitution of NA by RCA. When considering the additional use of RCA from a nearby C&D waste recycling centre, the substitution of 30% or 100% of NA by RCA led to a reduction in the land use category, in addition to supporting the implementation of the circular economy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (12 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailCircular economy of buildings: Leroy Merlin case study
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2019, December 02)

INTRODUCTION From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, and its generation of solid waste is estimated to be 40% of the ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, and its generation of solid waste is estimated to be 40% of the total waste volume. At European level, construction and demolition waste is the largest waste stream representing one third of waste produced in EU. Therefore, the resource efficiency and management is crucial in building construction. A very significant part of the construction and demolition waste (CDW) is not recycled today. In addition, a very limited part is used as a recycled content in the construction and building products and materials. This lack is mainly due to heterogeneity and dispersion of waste flows, decreasing efficiency and economic viability of recycling. To address this issue, VALDEM project (funded by Interreg FWVL European Fund) aims to overcome barriers to increase up-cycling applications. The project focuses its activities in North of France, Flanders and Walloon regions (Belgium), and stands out from usual approaches by its cross-border view of circular economy. VALDEM aims, on the one hand, to optimize buildings end of life management by developing new deconstruction, sorting and recycling processes to produce uniform and accessible material flows. On the other hand, the project aims at increasing recycling and generating high quality secondary materials (concrete and other flows) to be used in future buildings within an up-cycling prospective. Finally, it aims at validating the solutions from technical, scientific, economic and environmental point of view. One of the VALDEM partners, Néo-Eco, was implied in a project of Leroy-Merlin Company. The concrete aggregates from the demolition of the former Leroy Merlin store in Douai were reused in the construction of the new store in Tourcoing/Neuville-en-Ferrain, for the new concrete slab. This recovery made it possible to give a second life to waste, instead of paying for its disposal. LCA team of Valdem took the opportunity to evaluate the environmental benefits of this approach. LCA OF THE VALORIZATION OF DEMOLITION WASTE FROM LEROY MERLIN STORE Leroy Merlin has adopted a circular economy approach by recycling a part of the demolition waste of the Douai store in the form of recycled aggregates (RA) integrated into the concrete slab of their new Tourcoing store (4-20 mm fraction). The remaining 4-20 mm aggregates are recovered and valorised in concrete for other sites by Eqiom, and in resin slabs for the fines (0-4 mm) by Recynov. The LCA compares the production and transport of natural and recycled aggregates, and their respective use in the production of concrete. If we consider the production of 1 m³ of concrete, with only natural aggregates (NA) or substituting 20% for recycled aggregates, the difference is not significant, however, since most of the impacts come from cement. The aggregates themselves represent only a small contribution to the overall impact, regardless of the impact category considered. Cement alone accounts for at least 60% of the effect, and up to 92.5% for Climate Change. On the other hand, if we focus on the aggregates, this recovery of the "waste" from the Douai demolition site as a substitute for natural aggregates allows an environmental gain compared to the use of natural aggregates alone. This benefit is all the more important as the location of their use is close to the demolition site, and is less than the supply distance for natural aggregates. For the Climate Change category (GWP100a), the gains range from 1 kg CO2 eq to 5.7 kg CO2 eq depending of the distance between the demolition and the valorization sites (from 4 km to 50 km). The use of the aggregates from the Douai demolition site as a substitute for natural aggregates can save 10400 kg eq CO2 if we consider the exploitation of all the aggregates (4-20 mm and 0-4 mm). The 4-20 mm fraction (1700 tonnes) can produce 8500 m³ of concrete, if we consider the integration of 20% RA (0.2 t/m³ in the present formulation). In conclusion, the recovery of demolition waste from the Leroy Merlin site in Douai provides a significant environmental gain compared to the use of natural aggregates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the Valdem project (Convention n° 1.1.57 of Interreg France – Wallonie - Vlaanderen 2014-2020) partly financed by the European Regional Development Funds, and the Walloon Region. Our gratefulness also goes to Mr Maxime Lahaye (Leroy Merlin), Mr Guillaume Crémoux (Eqiom), and Mrs Maurane Vermander (Neo-Eco) for their help and collaboration in the data collection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailEvaluation of the benefits of circular economy – Life Cycle Assessment of Derbigum recycling unit
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2019, November 26)

In Belgium, construction and demolition waste represent each year about 20% of the total waste. Since in the future, the amount of waste and the consumption of raw materials will only increase, their ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, construction and demolition waste represent each year about 20% of the total waste. Since in the future, the amount of waste and the consumption of raw materials will only increase, their recycling is a real challenge for the construction sector. Among its activities, Derbigum produces bituminous membranes for roof waterproofing applications. In a sustainable and ecological perspective, Derbigum has developed a unique recycling process for roofing clippings and roofing waste, coming from the production, the installation or the deconstruction of buildings. For the latter, Derbigum ensures the required level of quality through the establishment of trustworthy relationships with various targeted collectors/reclaimers. Roofers can deposit free of charge their roofing clippings at selected dealers of building materials and roofing specialists. Doing this, they can economize 15% on the dumping costs. At the end of the recycling process, part of the material thus obtained is incorporated into the formulation of the membranes, making it possible to reduce the use of primary resources (Figure 1). Figure 1: Circular process for bituminous membranes at Derbigum In order to objectify the environmental gain associated with the incorporation of recycled material into membranes, Derbigum has wish to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of its recycling unit. The study is made in the cut-off perspective, and the border of the system stops at the factory gate. The functional unit is 1 kg of secondary raw material that can directly be included in the production process, called Gumix (for gum mix). All the data for the recycling process are primary data transmitted by Derbigum. The evaluation is done with CML-IA method (http://cml.leiden.edu/software/data-cmlia.html), in Simapro software (PRé-Consultants BV, NL), with Ecoinvent 3.4 (Wermet et al., 2016) database for the generic data. The results show that the collection and recycling of waste from their bituminous membranes by Derbigum in order to produce reusable components to replace bitumen in their formulations allows environmental benefits in all the impact categories considered (CML-IA method, toxicity categories not included). The energy requirements for waste treatment are largely offset by the saving of raw materials and their transport to the Perwez production site. CO2 emission are five times lower for the production of 1 kg of Gumix than for 1 kg of bitumen. Fossil fuel consumption is more than twenty times lower. The substitution of 25% of virgin bitumen by the same amount of Gumix in a binder formulation leads to a decrease of 13% of the impacts in the Global warming potential category. The life cycle assessment of the Derbigum recycling unit has highlighted not only the environmental benefits of the recycling process, but also revealed some "hot spots" in the process that can be optimized or improved. Acknowledgement The authors want to acknoledge Imperbel-Derbigum company and the Walloon Region. References Wernet, G., Bauer, C., Steubing, B., Reinhard, J., Moreno-Ruiz, E., and Weidema, B., 2016. The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, [online] 21(9), pp.1218–1230. Available at: <http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8> [Accessed March 2017] [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailVALORIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE, A ROUTE TO CIRCULAR ECONOMY: THE VALDEM PROJECT
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2019, November 07)

INTRODUCTION From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, and its generation of solid waste is estimated to be 40% of the ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, and its generation of solid waste is estimated to be 40% of the total waste volume. At European level, construction and demolition waste is the largest waste stream representing one third of waste produced in EU. Therefore, the resource efficiency and management is crucial in building construction. A very significant part of the construction and demolition waste (CDW) is not recycled today. In addition, a very limited part is used as a recycled content in the construction and building products and materials. This lack is mainly due to heterogeneity and dispersion of waste flows, decreasing efficiency and economic viability of recycling. To address this issue, VALDEM project (funded by Interreg FWVL European Fund) aims to overcome barriers to increase up-cycling applications. The project focuses its activities in North of France, Flanders and Walloon regions (Belgium), and stands out from usual approaches by its cross-border view of circular economy. VALDEM aims, on the one hand, to optimize buildings end of life management by developing new deconstruction, sorting and recycling processes to produce uniform and accessible material flows. On the other hand, the project aims at increasing recycling and generating high quality secondary materials (concrete and other flows) to be used in future buildings within an up-cycling prospective. Finally, it aims at validating the solutions from technical, scientific, economic and environmental point of view. One of the VALDEM partners, Néo-Eco, was implied in a project of Leroy-Merlin Company. The concrete aggregates from the demolition of the former Leroy Merlin store in Douai were reused in the construction of the new store in Tourcoing/Neuville-en-Ferrain, for the new concrete slab. This recovery made it possible to give a second life to waste, instead of paying for its disposal. LCA team of Valdem took the opportunity to evaluate the environmental benefits of this approach. LCA OF THE VALORIZATION OF DEMOLITION WASTE FROM LEROY MERLIN STORE Leroy Merlin has adopted a circular economy approach by recycling a part of the demolition waste of the Douai store in the form of recycled aggregates (RA) integrated into the concrete slab of their new Tourcoing store (4-20 mm fraction). The remaining 4-20 mm aggregates are recovered and valorised in concrete for other sites by Eqiom, and in resin slabs for the fines (0-4 mm) by Recynov. The LCA compares the production and transport of natural and recycled aggregates, and their respective use in the production of concrete. If we consider the production of 1 m³ of concrete, with only natural aggregates (NA) or substituting 20% for recycled aggregates, the difference is not significant, however, since most of the impacts come from cement. The aggregates themselves represent only a small contribution to the overall impact, regardless of the impact category considered. Cement alone accounts for at least 60% of the effect, and up to 92.5% for Climate Change. On the other hand, if we focus on the aggregates, this recovery of the "waste" from the Douai demolition site as a substitute for natural aggregates allows an environmental gain compared to the use of natural aggregates alone. This benefit is all the more important as the location of their use is close to the demolition site, and is less than the supply distance for natural aggregates. For the Climate Change category (GWP100a), the gains range from 1 kg CO2 eq to 5.7 kg CO2 eq depending of the distance between the demolition and the valorization sites (from 4 km to 50 km). The use of the aggregates from the Douai demolition site as a substitute for natural aggregates can save 10400 kg eq CO2 if we consider the exploitation of all the aggregates (4-20 mm and 0-4 mm). The 4-20 mm fraction (1700 tonnes) can produce 8500 m³ of concrete, if we consider the integration of 20% RA (0.2 t/m³ in the present formulation). In conclusion, the recovery of demolition waste from the Leroy Merlin site in Douai provides a significant environmental gain compared to the use of natural aggregates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the Valdem project (Convention n° 1.1.57 of Interreg France – Wallonie - Vlaanderen 2014-2020) partly financed by the European Regional Development Funds, and the Walloon Region. Our gratefulness also goes to Mr Maxime Lahaye (Leroy Merlin), Mr Guillaume Crémoux (Eqiom), and Mrs Maurane Vermander (Neo-Eco) for their help and collaboration in the data collection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailPULSE PROCESS: RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SLUDGE AND ITS PRODUCT QUALITY ASSESSMENT
Shariff, Zaheer Ahmed ULiege; Bogdan, Aleksandra; Fraikin, Laurent ULiege et al

Poster (2019, October 08)

In the framework of the Phos4You (P4Y) project funded by Interreg North West (NW) Europe 6 different Phosphorous(P)-recovery technologies will be demonstrated. The University of Liège is developing one of ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the Phos4You (P4Y) project funded by Interreg North West (NW) Europe 6 different Phosphorous(P)-recovery technologies will be demonstrated. The University of Liège is developing one of the processes, called PULSE (Phosphorus ULiège Sludge Extraction) process, to recover P from fully or partially dried sewage sludge. The PULSE process is a modification of the PASCH process developed at RWTH Aachen to extract P from sewage sludge ashes [1]. In the PULSE process P is recovered from partially or fully dried sludge using acidic leaching. Purification of the leach liquor will be carried out by reactive extraction to separate P and other nutrients from co-leached metals. Finally, depending on the leaching and extraction approach used above, the final product of the PULSE process can either be obtained as phosphate salt or phosphoric acid. Nevertheless, production of novel P products requires a novel standardized methodology for its quality assessment and valorisation on the market. In the first part of the research, the experiments for the unit operations of the PULSE process are conducted at lab-scale and metals, P and other macronutrient content in each step of the process sequence is monitored and benchmarked against the legislative limits. Comparison of the standardized sludge digestion method with nitric acid and/or aqua regia with modified sulphuric and hydrochloric acid will be conducted in order to establish a standard for sludge characterization especially for heavy metals determination. The data obtained for the different process options of each unit operation are evaluated using the methodology of ‘Cascaded Option Trees’ [2] to select the most feasible and optimum option. A solid-liquid equilibrium speciation model developed in MATLAB is further used for optimizing process parameters. In the second step, the PULSE process will be demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at 4 different locations in NW Europe. The novel P product will be thoroughly analysed using quality methods selected by project partners responsible for quality assessment in the P4Y project for P availability and inorganic characterization, which provides feedback to the technology producer for improvement. In the presentation, the concept of the PULSE process will be explained along with the results from the lab experiments and evaluation of process options. The concept of solid-liquid equilibrium speciation model and its application to optimize the PULSE process operation will also be presented. The relation between the quality of the P source and P product will be showcased. Further comparison of the quality of PULSE product with the regional and EU regulations on P fertilizers will also be presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAssessing soil crack dynamics during dryings from reduced tillage and conventional tillage fields
Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka Andriamanantena ULiege; Degré, Aurore ULiege; Mercatoris, Benoît ULiege et al

Poster (2019, September 02)

Crack formation and development has been a general concern in the agricultural science. Cracks contribute to the soil aeration, aggregate formation, and easy root penetration. However, cracks accelerated ... [more ▼]

Crack formation and development has been a general concern in the agricultural science. Cracks contribute to the soil aeration, aggregate formation, and easy root penetration. However, cracks accelerated the soil desiccation, allowed deep infiltration of pesticides/pollutants through preferential flow, and polluted the shallow water-table in Belgium. Cracks were mostly studied on pure clay or on high clay content soil (Vertisol). Yet in Wallonia, cracks were present even on silt-loam soil (Luvisol). This study tried to cover this gap by analysing crack dynamics and evaporation process, during drying kinetics of the Luvisol found in Gembloux. Soils were collected right from the agricultural field and processed on a small drying chamber in which evaporation test was taking place. Ceramic-IR-emitter heated the chamber while sensors (DHT22) measured the temperature and relative humidity. Digital camera took photos of the soil surface at 30min interval. Balance and tensiometer were linked to datalogger (CR800) and recorded the soil hydraulic properties (evaporation, water retention, etc.). Cracks were assessed from small samples (~5cm x 1cm thick) and big samples (~20cm size x 1.6 cm thick). Three treatments were considered including: disturbed soil, conventional tillage and reduced tillage. For big samples, results showed higher cracks formation on disturbed soil > reduced-tillage > conventional-tillage due to loose of soil cohesion, soil organic content, soil aggregation, biological activities, and soil porosity. The soil evaporation rate was also greater in disturbed soil > reduced-tillage > conventional tillage. Cracks opening exposed profound-soil-water to the atmosphere without passing through the soil matrix. For small samples, the repetitive drying experiments increased cracks length/width, especially for the dense samples. Future study is needed to assess the presence of pre-(micro)-cracks in soil using X-ray microtomography. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailExperimental and Numerical Investigation of the Drying of an Agricultural Soil
Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka Andriamanantena ULiege; Tran, Duc Kien ULiege; Degré, Aurore ULiege et al

in EUNSAT (2019)

Due to climate change, soil desiccating became a serious concern in the agricultural area of Belgium. Knowing soil evaporation kinetic can help to elucidate and predict: the soil moisture regime, soil ... [more ▼]

Due to climate change, soil desiccating became a serious concern in the agricultural area of Belgium. Knowing soil evaporation kinetic can help to elucidate and predict: the soil moisture regime, soil water retention and soil water content. Those parameters are vital for water use efficiency and sustainable agriculture. This research analysed the mechanism of soil evaporation both under laboratory experiment and numerical modelling. Soil samples (Luvisol) were collected from the agricultural field in Gembloux-Belgium, and processed in a small drying chamber. Sensors measured the chamber temperature and humidity, while digital camera monitored the soil surface throughout the experiment. HYPROP device recorded the water change, soil suction, and soil water retention curve. During three evaporation experiments, four periods were observed rather than three according to the common theory. The modelling considered thermo-hydro-mechanical framework for predicting the drying process of Luvisol. The model used the finite element code LAGAMINE created at the University of Liege. The Software aims at assessing the mechanism of water transport between soil and atmosphere. The results of the simulation showed major domination of Darcean flow during desiccating, while some short vapour diffusion occurred only after the soil surface began to de-saturate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLCA of a fuel cell using gold for the bipolar plates
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Romano, Anne-Pascale; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULiege et al

Conference (2019, September)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental impact of a fuel cell that uses gold for bipolar plates with a special focus on gold origin: could the use of secondary gold reduce the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental impact of a fuel cell that uses gold for bipolar plates with a special focus on gold origin: could the use of secondary gold reduce the environmental impact of the fuel cell? The inventory data for the fuel cell production are coming from a Walloon Project called HYLIFE that aims to optimize the lifetime of efficient materials for fuel cells. During this entire project, LCA has been used to help in the materials selection. The ReCiPe 2008 midpoint method has been used and the most relevant categories have been selected. The LCA is done in Simapro using ecoinvent v3.0 database. The materials selected by the project have been used to build a fuel cell prototype that is understudied here. It is composed of two bipolar plates covered with gold, a Nafion membrane, two diffusion layers (GDL). Platinum catalyst is used at anode and a platinum/cobalt catalyst is used at the cathode. The first results underline the large contribution of gold in ecotoxicity categories, in toxicity and in freshwater eutrophication. The other categories are mostly linked to the platinum used in catalysts, except the ozone depletion that is mostly related to the Nafion membrane due to CFC emissions. A normalization is applied and underlines that the most impacting categories are those where gold has most of the impact. Therefore, two cases have been studied: an optimization of the amount of gold used by a reduction of lost during plates impregnation and the use of recycled gold from electronic materials using ecoinvent data. The first case, of course, leads to a diminution of the environmental impact in all the categories, especially those where gold contribution is high. The use of recycled gold, however, allows a reduction of the impact in some categories but also leads to an increase in some others. Indeed, even if gold is more concentrated in electronic scarps, its recovery is more difficult than in primary ores, due among others to the presence of other components such as fire retardant. Nevertheless, the use of recycled gold allows a reduction in all the categories where the gold is the major contributor in the case of the studied fuel cell, leading to an important gain for the environment with a reduction of the freshwater eutrophication and human toxicity of 60 %. The reduction in ecotoxicity categories is 50 % for freshwater and 30 % for terrestrial, therefore too small to be significant due to the large uncertainties in these categories. The largest increase is for terrestrial acidification with an increase of 15 % of the overall impact. To conclude, the use of recovery gold allows a reduction of the environmental impact of the fuel cell, especially in the categories where the gold is significant. Nevertheless, the question of secondary gold availability is not assessed by this study. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailINFLUENCE OF SLUDGE CONDITIONING AND DEWATERING ON CONVECTIVE DRYING AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE
Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Wuidar, Pierre; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2019, July 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDetermination of sorption isotherm of mortar and modeling of water diffusivity
Kahlerras, Loubna ULiege; Belhamri, Azeddine; Fraikin, Laurent ULiege et al

Poster (2019, July 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailWater footprint and regionalization: the case study of Walloon corn
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Van Stappen, Florence; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2019, May 28)

Corn is an important cereal with a lot of applications in the feed and food industries (e.g. starch production). To evaluate properly the environmental impact of its applications, for example in the ... [more ▼]

Corn is an important cereal with a lot of applications in the feed and food industries (e.g. starch production). To evaluate properly the environmental impact of its applications, for example in the growing context of biobased products, a better understanding of the impact of its production is needed, using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). The studied system is the production of corn in Wallonia (South of Belgium), whose the primary data are taken from Van Stappen et al (2018. Sensitive parameters in local agricultural life cycle assessments: the illustrative case of cereal production in Wallonia, Belgium. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23 2: 225–250). The functional unit is 1 hectare of corn crop in Wallonia. The LCI data are based on actual agricultural practices recorded in farms’ accounting data. The system has been modelled in GaBi 8 using GaBi datasets. The ILCD recommended method has been used. To have a better understanding of water depletion, some other methodologies have been tests for this specific impact categorie such as ReCiPe and the AWARE model. The part of water resources depletion using ILCD recommended method that is not due to the fertilizers (20 %) production is mostly related to the electricity used for maize drying and storage (70 %), especially associated with nuclear electricity (cooling needs). This is not the case if another method is used for assess the water depletion, if AWARE method is used, most of the impact is coming from fertilizers production and from mechanization (due to the use of on unspecified flow for water consumption), whereas, using ReCiPe, most of the impact is from fertilizers production only. A study of the water origin has been realized using AWARE and ILCD recommended method and underline the large variety of results. The share of nuclear electricity in water depletion is really high when using ILCD recommended method, therefore special attention has been put on this process.: we have compared the GaBi dataset with the Ecoinvent dataset. For the Ecoinvent dataset the calculation have been realized in GaBi but also in Simapro. This comparison is realized for the three method investigate there and underlines large differences between software. Therefore, this contribution allows to underline the difference between method for water depletion calculation but also the differences induced by regionalized or not regionalized datasets and also underline the problem of results that are dependant of the softawre. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailATISOL C2C - Ecodesign of a "vapour and air barrier membrane" made of renewable materials
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2019, May 20)

The European directive on the energy efficiency of buildings requires the members to put on the market solutions for insulation of buildings that are simple, effective and last-ing, but also respectful of ... [more ▼]

The European directive on the energy efficiency of buildings requires the members to put on the market solutions for insulation of buildings that are simple, effective and last-ing, but also respectful of the environment and of the users. To reduce energy losses and to guarantee the durability of the thermal insulation, it is necessary to have a vapor and air barrier on the warm side of the building, situated be-tween the thermal insulation and the inside. Hence, the passage of moisture from the building is reduced, preventing condensation problems on the insulating material. Cur-rently, the implementation of an insulation system combined with a vapor barrier presents three major problems: an important time for placing, a random durability in time (stability of tapes of junction, adherence to the existing walls, punching resistance), and finally a low disassembly and re-use level. The ATISOL C2C project aims to develop a renewable vapor barrier, with the lowest environmental impact on its whole life cycle. The solution can be used in both new con-struction or during renovation. Compared to the state of the art, the solution that is developed is unique and innova-tive by its simplicity in terms of materials by integration of a vegetal self-adhesive binder to the spunbond reinforcement of the membrane, the latter being also mainly constituted of renewable resources. The material is appropriate for application on the different wall coverings that can be found in a building. Due to the self-adhesive characteristics, the implementation is made easier in both common surfaces (walls, roofs and ceilings) and to the level of detail such as corners and junctions. The constructive system can be dismantled at the end-of-life of the building and the various elements are recovered and valued in a cradle-to-cradle perspective. A first step is already carried out, the Derbiskin©. The preliminary life cycle assess-ment (LCA) results have supported the technical partners along the whole development and evolution of the membrane by pointing out the hotspots of the system. It helped to the choice of the components of the vegetal binder and of the spunbond reinforcement and it lead to the elimination of an acrylic coating by the modification of the reinforcing layer manufacturing. After a first phase of Industrial Research, the project is entering its Experimental De-velopment phase. The LCA can now integrate the production steps and give a global es-timation of the environmental impact of the membrane. This project is supported by the GreenWin Competition Clusters and subsidized by the Walloon Region (BE). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULiège)