Publications of Benoît Dardenne
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See detailThe Impact of Green Space Attendance on Social Orientation in Periods of Health Crisis
Noël, Tania ULiege; El Boujjoufi, Mohamed; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, June 04)

Human society has always been impacted by some sort of crisis from its very beginning onwards. This includes pandemics such as the COVID-19 crisis that we are currently facing. While pandemics have always ... [more ▼]

Human society has always been impacted by some sort of crisis from its very beginning onwards. This includes pandemics such as the COVID-19 crisis that we are currently facing. While pandemics have always existed, their number keeps increasing, and the explanation for this phenomenon partly lies in the environmental crisis we are currently experiencing. In this study, we highlight the potential of urban green spaces in the management of such societal crises. A lot of research shows the impact of nature exposure on pro-social attitudes and interpersonal relationships. An individual's social life is an essential factor when it comes to his resilience skills, especially in times of crisis. Feelings of awe and perceptions of beauty are two qualities of the natural environment that research documents to partially account for the effects of nature on human social behavior. However, we know that most people do not have access to “awe-inspiring” green spaces on a daily basis. Having access to the local urban park is often the only green space within walking distance for most individuals, especially in low-income districts. A survey was launched in April 2020 to better understand the characteristics of “daily urban green spaces” that can influence pro-social behaviour during a pandemic. This study examines the impact of green spaces attendance on social orientation according to the perceived beauty of these spaces and, considering the pandemic context, according to his attendance rate (if the place is sparsely or densely crowded). Indeed, it is legitimate to wonder if attending green spaces confers the same social benefits during a pandemic, when people are worried meeting and interacting with strangers given the increase infection risk this represents. We therefore suppose that there is a positive link between green areas and social orientation, but that this link only exists for places that are perceived as pleasant and little frequented. 1206 participants (972 female and 234 male, aged between 17 and 77 years, M = 28.74, SD = 12.87) were recruited through an online survey on social media. The survey started with a social orientation measure (the orientation slider measure - SVO; Murphy, Ackermann, & Handgraaf, 2011), asking participants to allocate points to themselves and to a hypothetical other. The real purpose of this measure was hidden from participants. Participants than answered measures to determine their perception of the most regularly visited green space during the lockdown. Different co-variates were also included. The results from this survey show that the more the use of green spaces increase, the more social orientation is also enhanced, but only in low crowded spaces (b = 0.059, t = 2.006, SE = 0.029, p = 0.045). Perceived beauty has no impact on the link between frequentation and social orientation. These results show the importance of multiplying green spaces in our cities in order to decongest the existing green areas, but also of thinking about their design and their location in the urban space, in order to reduce the feeling of overcrowding. This seems all the more important within underprivileged neighborhoods, which gather more vulnerable populations to the consequences of health, economic and social crises. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of familiarity, place attachment, distance and social capital on effective urban green space attendance
Noël, Tania ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, May 28)

The numerous benefits linked to the presence of natural spaces in an urban environment are no longer to be demonstrated. However, in order to take advantage of all these benefits, these spaces must be ... [more ▼]

The numerous benefits linked to the presence of natural spaces in an urban environment are no longer to be demonstrated. However, in order to take advantage of all these benefits, these spaces must be used. This study focuses on the different variables that can influence the effective use of urban green space by citizens. The study was conducted as part of a pilot project to fight urban poverty in Seraing, Belgium. In this pilot area, three parks were studied. In order to understand what might influence area residents to attend these green spaces, a theoretical model was developed and tested. Based on the literature, we assume that the more familiar an individual is with the urban green space, the more attached he or she will be to it, which will result in an effective increase in space attendance. However, we assume that the link between familiarity and attachment is influenced by the individual's active involvement in neighborhood life (number of local groups individuals belong to, how many times/month they participate in each of these groups and how involve they are in the decision-making processes). We also assume that the link between attachment and actual use is influenced by the distance between the home and the space. Hypotheses were tested using linear mixed models, given that a single participant could evaluate more than one park. Our results show that, indeed, the more participants (N = 231) are familiar with the evaluated green space, the more they are attached to it, which leads to an increased attendance. Being involved in neighbourhood’s life by local groups memberships positively impacts the familiarity-attachment link. [less ▲]

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See detailFace Perception: How many Dimensions are there?
Puttaert, Ninon ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, May 28)

How many dimensions are there in face perception? Traditionally, both cognitive and social psychology have considered 3 dimensions: warmth, competence, and dominance. Other dimensions have received so far ... [more ▼]

How many dimensions are there in face perception? Traditionally, both cognitive and social psychology have considered 3 dimensions: warmth, competence, and dominance. Other dimensions have received so far few if any consideration but appeared important in other areas of social judgment: trustworthiness, morality, openness, and neuroticism. We presented randomly a total of 80 faces to 323 participants. They were asked to rate a subset of faces on 21 items (three per dimension) on a 7-point Likert scale. A total of 323 participants * 10 faces * 7 dimensions * 3 items = 68880 ratings was collected. The results of an exploratory factor analysis based on parallel selection suggested a 7 factors structure explaining 61% of the variance. Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity gave a p-value < 0.001. The normed χ2 of this model was 4.83. An EFA enforcing a 7-factor structure (minimum residual extraction and promax rotation) revealed that all items loaded on their expected dimension. Only the traditional 3 dimensions and trustworthiness had a sum-of-square loadings > 2, altogether explaining 40% of the variance. In order to test this 7-factor structure, we performed a CFA. The normed χ2 was 16.90. Parsimony of the model was reasonable (RMSEA = .07 with 90%CI [.068:.072]), reasonably different from a null model (CFI = .92), and the overall difference between the observed and predicted correlations was also satisfactory (SRMR = .07). Are the 3 traditional dimensions enough or should there be more? If so, how many? This question should be addressed in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique : quels sont les facteurs influençant son acceptation auprès des cliniciens ?
Marchal, Sylvie; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2018), XXII(3), 22-24

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est ... [more ▼]

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est étudiée et soulignée depuis une vingtaine d’années. Néanmoins, actuellement, une minorité de cliniciens l’ont intégrée dans leur pratique. Le but de cette étude consiste donc à identifier les facteurs ayant un rôle déterminant dans le choix de ces professionnels d’utiliser cette technologie. Notre récolte de données s’est effectuée sur un échantillon de psychologues, neuropsychologues et logopèdes. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique Quels sont les facteurs influençant son acceptation auprès des cliniciens ?
Marchal, Sylvie; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, November 18)

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est ... [more ▼]

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est étudiée et soulignée depuis une vingtaine d’années (Malbos et al., 2013). Néanmoins, actuellement, une minorité de cliniciens l’ont intégrée dans leur pratique (Gicquel, 2016). Le but de cette étude est d’identifier les facteurs ayant un rôle déterminant dans le choix des cliniciens d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle. Pour ce faire, nous avons effectué notre travail en deux étapes : l’élaboration d’un modèle conceptuel et l’élaboration d’un questionnaire visant à éprouver la pertinence du modèle proposé. Le modèle a donc été construit sur base de la littérature concernant l’acceptation d’une technologie (Azjen, 1985 ; Davis, 1989 ; Taylor et Todd, 1995 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Il soutient l’idée que l’intention de réaliser un comportement dépendrait de l’utilité perçue, de l’attitude, des normes subjectives et de la perception de contrôle comportemental. Ce modèle a ensuite guidé l’élaboration des items de notre questionnaire en adaptant ceux régulièrement proposés au sein de la littérature (Davis, 1989 ; Glegg, 2013 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Au niveau méthodologique, la diffusion du questionnaire s’est faite par internet au travers des réseaux sociaux et professionnels francophones. La participation se réalisait sur base volontaire. Ainsi, 98 personnes ont participé à notre étude (80 femmes, 18 hommes). Cet échantillon était composé de 71 psychologues (72,4%), 15 neuropsychologues (15,3%) et 12 logopèdes (12,2%). Parmi eux, 84 répondants (85,7%) n’avait jamais utilisé la réalité virtuelle dans un contexte clinique et plus de la moitié de l’échantillon s’estimait peu familier avec cette technologie ou les recherches sur son efficacité en clinique. En accord avec nos hypothèses, nos résultats indiquent que les cliniciens tendent principalement à se référer à la norme subjective, à leur perception de contrôle sur l’utilisation de l’outil ainsi qu’à leur attitude propre envers la technologie pour former leur intention d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle dans leur pratique clinique. Par contre, l’absence de significativité de l’utilité perçue est en désaccord avec notre hypothèse. Ceci pourrait potentiellement s’expliquer par la non-familiarité des répondants avec l’utilisation de l’outil virtuel. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic Stereotypes
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions
Van Assche, Jasper; Bostyn, Dries; De keersmaecker, Jonas et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(3), 132-155

Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium). By ... [more ▼]

Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium). By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies), and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions), we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish (N = 310) and one Walloon (N = 365) undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation) and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(2),

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide ... [more ▼]

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision- making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape malefemale relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. [less ▲]

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See detail"OK, C'est pas bien, mais que peut-on y faire?" Propositions de stratégies pour contrer les effets néfastes des stéréotypes paternalistes sur la performance motrice
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle (Eds.) Évolutions sociales, innovations et politiques: Nouvelles questions et nouveaux enjeux pour la psychologie de la santé, Actes du Congrès de l’AFPSA, tome 2 (2016)

Introduction : Au fil de trois études, nous tentons d’appliquer trois types de stratégies basées sur la régulation émo-tionnelle dans le but de réduire l’impact négatif des stéréotypes paternalistes sur ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Au fil de trois études, nous tentons d’appliquer trois types de stratégies basées sur la régulation émo-tionnelle dans le but de réduire l’impact négatif des stéréotypes paternalistes sur la performance mo-trice. Les personnes cibles de stéréotypes paternalistes sont explicitement perçues comme chaleu-reuses et gentilles, mais, plus subtilement, comme incompétentes. Méthodologie : Dans une première étude, nous appliquons les stratégies de réévaluation et de suppression de l’anxiété, pour diminuer les effets néfastes du paternalisme sur la performance motrice. Dans une seconde étude, nous proposons non plus une régulation d’une émotion spécifique, mais plutôt une régulation sur la valence des émotions. Nous envisageons une stratégie de diminution des émotions négatives, en comparaison à une stratégie d’augmentation des émotions positives. Enfin, dans une troisième étude, nous nous intéressons à une régulation totalement libre, non dirigée vers les émo-tions. Nous appliquons la pratique de la pleine conscience comme outils pour restaurer la perfor-mance motrice impactée négativement par l’exposition à du paternalisme. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que les stratégies de régulation dirigée vers l’anxiété n’ont pas d’impact sur la performance (étude 1), que diminuer ses émotions négatives amène à une moins bonne performance que d’augmenter ses émotions positives (étude 2), et enfin, qu’introduire un exercice de pleine conscience après une induction de paternalisme permet de restaurer la performance (étude 3). Conclusion : Il semblerait que moins la stratégie est dirigée vers une émotion spécifique, plus elle semble être efficace pour diminuer, voire éliminer, les effets négatifs sur la performance motrice. [less ▲]

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See detailSimilarities between the target and the intruder in naturally occurring repeated person naming errors
Brédart, Serge ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(art 1474),

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See detailEffect of “diagnosis threat” in clinical setting
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

Poster (2014, November 14)

Objective. When reminded of their neurological history, mild traumatic brain injured (TBI) students underperform on neuropsychological tests (Suhr & Gunstad, 2002). To date, this “diagnosis threat” (DT ... [more ▼]

Objective. When reminded of their neurological history, mild traumatic brain injured (TBI) students underperform on neuropsychological tests (Suhr & Gunstad, 2002). To date, this “diagnosis threat” (DT) phenomenon has mainly been studied with a non-clinical and high-functioning population (university students). The aim of this study was twofold: to study this phenomenon with neurological patients and to examine the mechanisms responsible for underperformance. Method. Patients (18-55 years-old) who had sustained a TBI or a stroke were recruited from ambulatory and hospitalized cares, and then assigned to one of three conditions : Patients attention was drawn on (1) their neurological disease and the neuropsychological components of the upcoming tasks (DT group) ; (2) their intact sensory capacities and the sensorial components of the tasks (Neutral group); or (3) their better cognitive abilities compared to Alzheimer disease patients (Stereotype boost group). After these instructions, patients carried out cognitive tasks and completed questionnaires. Results. Preliminary analyses (n=18) showed that, on the z-score of executive functioning, the DT group performed worse than both the neutral group (p=.03) and the stereotype boost group (p=.05), but did not differ for the attentional and memory scores. Instructions also had an impact on cognitive self-efficacy, with the neutral group demonstrating greater score than the negative one (p=.08). Furthermore, the self-efficacy score tended to correlate with the score of executive functioning (r=.37). Conclusions. Results show that the DT phenomenon has an impact on cognitive performances in clinical setting, at least on executive functions, which are usually demonstrated to be the most sensitive to stereotype effects. [less ▲]

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See detailYou’re not my dad, you’re my coach! When Paternalism Impairs Agility Performance
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2012, August 21)

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test ... [more ▼]

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test) would be diminished. Design: We used a 2 (paternalism: presence vs. absence) X 2 (valence: positive vs. negative) design to create four types of motivational speech. Methods: 60 participants read a description of an invented collective sport, followed by the coach’s motivational speech. After reading those texts, they were asked to do a motor agility test. They also had to complete an emotional measure on a 7-point Likert scale. We used linear regression as well double mediation macros in order to test the impacts of the coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on agility performance. Results: The results revealed direct effects of paternalism and valence on two measures of agility performance. Agility performance was worse when the speech was paternalistic (vs. no paternalistic) as well as when the speech was negative (vs. positive). When we compared negative paternalistic speech with the 3 others, we found that the direct effect of negative paternalism on performance is serially mediated, first by anxiety and, second by feeling of (in)competence. Conclusions: Acting in a fatherlike attitude might look like a good idea to motivate a sport team, using a little bit of father authority. But by doing so, in a negative way, the risk is that the team might perform badly instead. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccéder en Contexte Postcolonial Africain: l'ambigüité chiffrée au travers de l'exemple camerounais
Bomda, Joseph ULiege; Fonkeng Epah, George; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Revue Européenne de l'Action Publique (2012)

En matière culturelle, l’Africain postcolonial est partagé entre les normes traditionnelles (ou ancestrales) et modernes (ou héritées du colon). Si la description de cette dualité abonde dans la ... [more ▼]

En matière culturelle, l’Africain postcolonial est partagé entre les normes traditionnelles (ou ancestrales) et modernes (ou héritées du colon). Si la description de cette dualité abonde dans la littérature, la question du taux de connaissance de cette dualité, de son acceptation et de sa défense préoccupe très peu. Pourtant, elle devrait permettre de connaitre l’étendue de l’ambigüité qui anime les populations. Cet article répond à ce déficit et présente un état des lieux auprès de 1013 victimes du choc de normes successorales (tradition vs. modernité) en contexte postcolonial camerounais. Au préalable, les 6 points d’opposition entre les deux normes sont présentés. L’historique de la dualité juridique à l’origine de ces contrastes et le fondement psycho-anthropologique des visions du monde fondatrices de l’une et l’autre norme permettent de cerner l’irréductibilité des oppositions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Emotional Side of Paternalism: Do People Share What They Feel?
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2012, January 28)

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a ... [more ▼]

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a paternalist, hostile or factual version of the welcome speech of their new boss. They then were asked to write a text about how this day was going (social sharing measure). The results revealed that being the target of paternalism or hostility is an emotional episode which leads to social sharing of emotion. Hostility is a clearly negative episode, leading to negative social sharing. Paternalism is more ambiguous. Participants felt positive emotions (except for distrust) but they shared both positive and negative ones. Paternalism can be perceived as positive but seems to lead to negative outcomes. Our further step would be to test its negative effects on performance (reading span test). [less ▲]

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See detailLe sexisme bienveillant comme processus de maintien des inégalités sociales entre les genres
Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Année Psychologique (2012), 112

L’idée que le sexisme puisse s’exprimer sous forme de bienveillance peut paraître surprenante. En effet, la représentation que nous avons habituellement d’une personne sexiste est celle d’un homme aux ... [more ▼]

L’idée que le sexisme puisse s’exprimer sous forme de bienveillance peut paraître surprenante. En effet, la représentation que nous avons habituellement d’une personne sexiste est celle d’un homme aux attitudes clairement hostiles à l’égard des femmes. Le but de cette revue de littérature est de mettre en évidence une forme plus subtile de sexisme, le sexisme bienveillant, qui renvoie à des attitudes sexistes subjectivement positives, teintées de galanterie et de condescendance. Plus précisément, ce travail insiste sur la nécessité de prendre en compte cette forme insidieuse de sexisme dans la compréhension des relations entre les genres et de la considérer comme un véritable processus de maintien des inégalités sociales entre les hommes et les femmes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrescription of protective paternalism for men in romantic and work contexts
Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Dumont muriel; Delacollette Nathalie et al

in Psychology of Women Quarterly (2012), 36

Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and ... [more ▼]

Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic than in a work context. In Study 3, male participants prescribed the same level of protective paternalistic behavior as female participants did. Conversely, more gender egalitarianism was prescribed for men in a work than in a romantic context (Studies 1–3). In Study 4, the same protective paternalistic behavior was labeled as intimacy in a romantic context but was identified to the same extent as intimacy and as sexism in a work context. In Study 5, female participants’ benevolent sexist beliefs predicted their prescription of protective paternalistic behavior for men in both contexts. These studies demonstrated that prescription of protective paternalism for men is a complex phenomenon because it depends on contextual as well as individual variables. These findings need to be added to the list of factors explaining how this particular form of sexism is maintained within gender relationships and how it contributes to women’s subordination. [less ▲]

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See detailMood and positive testing in social interaction
Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Dumont, Muriel ULiege; Sarlet, Marie ULiege et al

in European Journal of Social Psychology (2011), 41

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See detailStéréotypes prescriptifs et avantages des groupes dominants
Delacollette, Nathalie ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Dumont, Muriel ULiege

in Année Psychologique (2010), 110

The prescriptive component of stereotypes is defined as a set of beliefs about the characteristics group members should possess. It has mainly been studied regarding gender stereotypes. We believe that ... [more ▼]

The prescriptive component of stereotypes is defined as a set of beliefs about the characteristics group members should possess. It has mainly been studied regarding gender stereotypes. We believe that the main function of this prescriptive component is to allow dominant group members to maintain subordinate group members in an advantageous position for themselves. To illustrate our proposal, we present several theoretical and empirical papers, showing that the relative status of social groups is a determinant of which characteristics are prescribed to the members of these groups; that subordinates who fail to conform to the prescription are sanctioned; and that dominants prescribe to subordinates characteristics they see as beneficial to their own group. [less ▲]

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See detailBe Too Kind to a Woman, She’ll Feel Incompetent: Benevolent Sexism Shifts Self-construal and Autobiographical Memories Toward Incompetence
Dumont, Muriel ULiege; Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Sex Roles (2010), 62

The present study investigated how benevolent (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memory. Belgian undergraduates (only women, N=45, mean age=21.8) were ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated how benevolent (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memory. Belgian undergraduates (only women, N=45, mean age=21.8) were confronted either by BS, HS or neutral comments in the context of a job interview. After performing a cognitive task, participants reported the intrusive thoughts that came to their mind during the task. Later, autobiographical memory for self-incompetence was assessed. Performance response latencies were slower after BS than HS. Also, BS generated more disturbing mental intrusions related to the idea of being incompetent than HS. Autobiographical memory similarly indicated greater access for incompetence after BS. Although HS was more aggressive in tone, it did not shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memories toward incompetence. [less ▲]

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