Publications of Benoît Dardenne
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See detailPsychologie du sexisme: Des stéréotypes de genre au harcèlement sexuel
Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Book published by De Boeck supérieur (2021)

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See detailThe Impact of Green Space Attendance on Social Orientation in Periods of Health Crisis
Noël, Tania ULiege; El Boujjoufi, Mohamed; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, June 04)

Human society has always been impacted by some sort of crisis from its very beginning onwards. This includes pandemics such as the COVID-19 crisis that we are currently facing. While pandemics have always ... [more ▼]

Human society has always been impacted by some sort of crisis from its very beginning onwards. This includes pandemics such as the COVID-19 crisis that we are currently facing. While pandemics have always existed, their number keeps increasing, and the explanation for this phenomenon partly lies in the environmental crisis we are currently experiencing. In this study, we highlight the potential of urban green spaces in the management of such societal crises. A lot of research shows the impact of nature exposure on pro-social attitudes and interpersonal relationships. An individual's social life is an essential factor when it comes to his resilience skills, especially in times of crisis. Feelings of awe and perceptions of beauty are two qualities of the natural environment that research documents to partially account for the effects of nature on human social behavior. However, we know that most people do not have access to “awe-inspiring” green spaces on a daily basis. Having access to the local urban park is often the only green space within walking distance for most individuals, especially in low-income districts. A survey was launched in April 2020 to better understand the characteristics of “daily urban green spaces” that can influence pro-social behaviour during a pandemic. This study examines the impact of green spaces attendance on social orientation according to the perceived beauty of these spaces and, considering the pandemic context, according to his attendance rate (if the place is sparsely or densely crowded). Indeed, it is legitimate to wonder if attending green spaces confers the same social benefits during a pandemic, when people are worried meeting and interacting with strangers given the increase infection risk this represents. We therefore suppose that there is a positive link between green areas and social orientation, but that this link only exists for places that are perceived as pleasant and little frequented. 1206 participants (972 female and 234 male, aged between 17 and 77 years, M = 28.74, SD = 12.87) were recruited through an online survey on social media. The survey started with a social orientation measure (the orientation slider measure - SVO; Murphy, Ackermann, & Handgraaf, 2011), asking participants to allocate points to themselves and to a hypothetical other. The real purpose of this measure was hidden from participants. Participants than answered measures to determine their perception of the most regularly visited green space during the lockdown. Different co-variates were also included. The results from this survey show that the more the use of green spaces increase, the more social orientation is also enhanced, but only in low crowded spaces (b = 0.059, t = 2.006, SE = 0.029, p = 0.045). Perceived beauty has no impact on the link between frequentation and social orientation. These results show the importance of multiplying green spaces in our cities in order to decongest the existing green areas, but also of thinking about their design and their location in the urban space, in order to reduce the feeling of overcrowding. This seems all the more important within underprivileged neighborhoods, which gather more vulnerable populations to the consequences of health, economic and social crises. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of familiarity, place attachment, distance and social capital on effective urban green space attendance
Noël, Tania ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, May 28)

The numerous benefits linked to the presence of natural spaces in an urban environment are no longer to be demonstrated. However, in order to take advantage of all these benefits, these spaces must be ... [more ▼]

The numerous benefits linked to the presence of natural spaces in an urban environment are no longer to be demonstrated. However, in order to take advantage of all these benefits, these spaces must be used. This study focuses on the different variables that can influence the effective use of urban green space by citizens. The study was conducted as part of a pilot project to fight urban poverty in Seraing, Belgium. In this pilot area, three parks were studied. In order to understand what might influence area residents to attend these green spaces, a theoretical model was developed and tested. Based on the literature, we assume that the more familiar an individual is with the urban green space, the more attached he or she will be to it, which will result in an effective increase in space attendance. However, we assume that the link between familiarity and attachment is influenced by the individual's active involvement in neighborhood life (number of local groups individuals belong to, how many times/month they participate in each of these groups and how involve they are in the decision-making processes). We also assume that the link between attachment and actual use is influenced by the distance between the home and the space. Hypotheses were tested using linear mixed models, given that a single participant could evaluate more than one park. Our results show that, indeed, the more participants (N = 231) are familiar with the evaluated green space, the more they are attached to it, which leads to an increased attendance. Being involved in neighbourhood’s life by local groups memberships positively impacts the familiarity-attachment link. [less ▲]

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See detailFace Perception: How many Dimensions are there?
Puttaert, Ninon ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2021, May 28)

How many dimensions are there in face perception? Traditionally, both cognitive and social psychology have considered 3 dimensions: warmth, competence, and dominance. Other dimensions have received so far ... [more ▼]

How many dimensions are there in face perception? Traditionally, both cognitive and social psychology have considered 3 dimensions: warmth, competence, and dominance. Other dimensions have received so far few if any consideration but appeared important in other areas of social judgment: trustworthiness, morality, openness, and neuroticism. We presented randomly a total of 80 faces to 323 participants. They were asked to rate a subset of faces on 21 items (three per dimension) on a 7-point Likert scale. A total of 323 participants * 10 faces * 7 dimensions * 3 items = 68880 ratings was collected. The results of an exploratory factor analysis based on parallel selection suggested a 7 factors structure explaining 61% of the variance. Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity gave a p-value < 0.001. The normed χ2 of this model was 4.83. An EFA enforcing a 7-factor structure (minimum residual extraction and promax rotation) revealed that all items loaded on their expected dimension. Only the traditional 3 dimensions and trustworthiness had a sum-of-square loadings > 2, altogether explaining 40% of the variance. In order to test this 7-factor structure, we performed a CFA. The normed χ2 was 16.90. Parsimony of the model was reasonable (RMSEA = .07 with 90%CI [.068:.072]), reasonably different from a null model (CFI = .92), and the overall difference between the observed and predicted correlations was also satisfactory (SRMR = .07). Are the 3 traditional dimensions enough or should there be more? If so, how many? This question should be addressed in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes empathy predict decision-making in everyday Trolley-like Problems?
Nasello, Julian ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Blavier, Adelaïde ULiege et al

in Current Psychology (2021)

Two ecological and social versions of the Trolley-like Problem (a direct-impact [DI]and a no-direct-impact [NDI] scenario) were created to investigate decision-making and determine whether age, gender ... [more ▼]

Two ecological and social versions of the Trolley-like Problem (a direct-impact [DI]and a no-direct-impact [NDI] scenario) were created to investigate decision-making and determine whether age, gender, and empathy significantly predicted people’s choices. Two hundred and fifty-five participants were recruited in this study. We found that men and women made more Utilitarian Choices (UC) in the NDI scenario. In this scenario, the attribution of penalties was low (6%). In the DI scenario, we found that the UC rate was significantly reduced compared to the NDI scenario, and, surprisingly, women made more UC than men. We found that UC decreased as a function of men’s affective empathy in the NDI scenario. In the DI one, lower affective empathy levels predicted UC differently for men and women. Lastly, the attribution of penalties tripled. In conclusion, this study highlighted the role played by scenarios, gender, and empathy in predicting UC in Trolley-like Problems. [less ▲]

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See detailLes redoublants, victimes de stéréotypes dévalorisants?
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Crahay, Marcel (Ed.) Peut-on lutter contre l'échec scolaire? (2019)

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See detailInteractions between stereotype threat, subjective aging, and memory in older adults
Marquet, Manon ULiege; Missotten, Pierre ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2019), 26(1), 121-143

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a ... [more ▼]

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under high threat perceived more threat than people under low threat. This could be explained by an effect of age stereotypes in the high-threat group: the more positive age stereotypes held by participants, the more they perceived threat, which in turn decreased their memory performance and made them feel mentally older. We hypothesized that age group identity is stronger in people with more positive age stereotypes, which increase perceived threat. [less ▲]

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See detailOverdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2019), 8(3), 231-245

There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological ... [more ▼]

There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child?s cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a ?boy,? a ?girl,? or a ?child? on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child?s behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys? performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis threat and underperformance: The threat must be relevant and implicit
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2018)

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See detailSexisme positif: bienveillance et chaleur
Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Silvestre, Aude ULiege

in Faniko, Kléa; Bourguignon, David; Sarrasin, Oriane (Eds.) et al Psychologie de la discrimination et des préjugés: de la théorie à la pratique (2018)

The suggestion that sexism can be positive is not an oxymoron. If sexism, as other forms of stereotyping, has been primarily studied from the explicitly hostile angle, current research on paternalism and ... [more ▼]

The suggestion that sexism can be positive is not an oxymoron. If sexism, as other forms of stereotyping, has been primarily studied from the explicitly hostile angle, current research on paternalism and benevolence reveal negative consequences of an apparent positive sexism. A negative attitude is certainly concealed behind this positive appearance. We offer to align this duality to a more general model of social perception two-dimensionality. Then, we will review research demonstrating that this positive sexist attitude indeed leads to deleterious consequences, both at an individual and interpersonal level. We will attempt to point out diverse explanations for the existence, and sometimes even support from its target, of this attitude. We will finally propose that sexism is an efficient tool of gender inequality's maintenance. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique : quels sont les facteurs influençant son acceptation auprès des cliniciens ?
Marchal, Sylvie; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2018), XXII(3), 22-24

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est ... [more ▼]

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est étudiée et soulignée depuis une vingtaine d’années. Néanmoins, actuellement, une minorité de cliniciens l’ont intégrée dans leur pratique. Le but de cette étude consiste donc à identifier les facteurs ayant un rôle déterminant dans le choix de ces professionnels d’utiliser cette technologie. Notre récolte de données s’est effectuée sur un échantillon de psychologues, neuropsychologues et logopèdes. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique Quels sont les facteurs influençant son acceptation auprès des cliniciens ?
Marchal, Sylvie; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, November 18)

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est ... [more ▼]

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est étudiée et soulignée depuis une vingtaine d’années (Malbos et al., 2013). Néanmoins, actuellement, une minorité de cliniciens l’ont intégrée dans leur pratique (Gicquel, 2016). Le but de cette étude est d’identifier les facteurs ayant un rôle déterminant dans le choix des cliniciens d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle. Pour ce faire, nous avons effectué notre travail en deux étapes : l’élaboration d’un modèle conceptuel et l’élaboration d’un questionnaire visant à éprouver la pertinence du modèle proposé. Le modèle a donc été construit sur base de la littérature concernant l’acceptation d’une technologie (Azjen, 1985 ; Davis, 1989 ; Taylor et Todd, 1995 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Il soutient l’idée que l’intention de réaliser un comportement dépendrait de l’utilité perçue, de l’attitude, des normes subjectives et de la perception de contrôle comportemental. Ce modèle a ensuite guidé l’élaboration des items de notre questionnaire en adaptant ceux régulièrement proposés au sein de la littérature (Davis, 1989 ; Glegg, 2013 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Au niveau méthodologique, la diffusion du questionnaire s’est faite par internet au travers des réseaux sociaux et professionnels francophones. La participation se réalisait sur base volontaire. Ainsi, 98 personnes ont participé à notre étude (80 femmes, 18 hommes). Cet échantillon était composé de 71 psychologues (72,4%), 15 neuropsychologues (15,3%) et 12 logopèdes (12,2%). Parmi eux, 84 répondants (85,7%) n’avait jamais utilisé la réalité virtuelle dans un contexte clinique et plus de la moitié de l’échantillon s’estimait peu familier avec cette technologie ou les recherches sur son efficacité en clinique. En accord avec nos hypothèses, nos résultats indiquent que les cliniciens tendent principalement à se référer à la norme subjective, à leur perception de contrôle sur l’utilisation de l’outil ainsi qu’à leur attitude propre envers la technologie pour former leur intention d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle dans leur pratique clinique. Par contre, l’absence de significativité de l’utilité perçue est en désaccord avec notre hypothèse. Ceci pourrait potentiellement s’expliquer par la non-familiarité des répondants avec l’utilisation de l’outil virtuel. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic Stereotypes
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]

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See detailThe link between self-perceptions of aging, cancer view and physical and mental health of older people with cancer: A cross-sectional study
Schroyen, Sarah ULiege; Marquet, Manon ULiege; Jerusalem, Guy ULiege et al

in Journal of Geriatric Oncology (2017), 8(1), 64-68

Objectives Older people may suffer from stigmas linked to cancer and aging. Although some studies suggested that a negative view of cancer may increase the level of depression, such an association has ... [more ▼]

Objectives Older people may suffer from stigmas linked to cancer and aging. Although some studies suggested that a negative view of cancer may increase the level of depression, such an association has never been studied in the elderly population. Similarly, even though it is established that a negative self-perception of aging has deleterious consequences on mental and physical health in normal aging, the influence in pathological contexts, such as oncology, has not been studied. The main aim of this study is thus to analyze the effect of these two stigmas on the health of elderly oncology patients. Materials and Methods 101 patients suffering from a cancer (breast, gynecological, lung or hematological) were seen as soon as possible after their diagnosis. Their self-perception of age, cancer view and health (physical and mental) was assessed. Results Multiple regressions showed that patients with a more negative self-perception of aging and/or more negative cancer view reported poorer global health. We also observed that negative self-perception of aging was associated with worse physical and mental health, whereas negative cancer views were only linked to worse mental health. No interaction was observed between these two stigmas, suggesting that their action is independent. Conclusion Older patients with cancer face double stigmatization, due to negative self-perception of aging and cancer, and these stigmas have impacts on global and mental health. Self-perception of aging is also linked to physical health. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to analyze the direction of the association between this double stigmatization and health. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of parental anxiety sensitivity and learning experiences in children's anxiety sensitivity.
Stassart, Céline ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2017)

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and the children’s emotional intelligence (EI). The samplecomprised 200 non-clinical children, aged 9–13 years, and their parents (mothers andfathers). Results revealed that the effect of parental AS on children’s AS is moderated bythe children’s EI for maternal AS and by their femininity traits for paternal AS. Learningexperiences following somatic sensations influenced the children’s level of AS. Morespecifically, special attention by parents following a child’s somatic sensations (reinforce-ment and transmission of information) was associated with high AS in children. Parentalreactions of fear following a parent’s somatic sensations (modelling) seem to predicthigher scores for AS when the link is moderated by the child’s femininity orientation. Theimplications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2017), 39(9), 913-930

Introduction: Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects.Method: Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players (?control? group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects.Results: As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group?s performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat.Conclusions: Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher performance under diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition because of their feeling of control over their cognitive performance. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype Content of People with Acquired Brain Injury: Warm but Incompetent
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Journal of Applied Social Psychology (2017), 47(10), 539-552

Since stereotypes about people with acquired brain injury (ABI) can lead to prejudice, studying these stereotypes is highly important. In two studies, we examined these stereotypes both on idiosyncratic ... [more ▼]

Since stereotypes about people with acquired brain injury (ABI) can lead to prejudice, studying these stereotypes is highly important. In two studies, we examined these stereotypes both on idiosyncratic dimensions and on the two dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model. Participants completed a specific questionnaire about ABI and warmth and competence questionnaires regarding people with ABI and other social groups. Specific stereotypes about ABI were found to be underpinned by dimensions of “cognitive impairments and ADL limitations,” “catastrophic outcomes,” and “personal and interpersonal development.” Within the model, people with ABI were seen as being warm but incompetent. The ambivalent ABI stereotype could elicit prejudicial attitudes that may impede rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Stereotype Threat on Older People’s Clinical Cognitive Outcomes: Investigating the Moderating Role of Dementia Worry
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Clinical Neuropsychologist (2017), 31(8), 1306-1328

OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that stereotype threat (ST) reduces older people's cognitive performance, but few have studied its impact on clinical cognitive outcomes. Our study was designed to ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that stereotype threat (ST) reduces older people's cognitive performance, but few have studied its impact on clinical cognitive outcomes. Our study was designed to further examine the impact of ST on the clinical assessment of older subjects' cognitive functioning, as well as the moderating role of fear of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (or 'dementia worry'). METHOD: Seventy-two neurologically normal (MMSE > 26) participants aged between 59 and 70 completed a set of neuropsychological tasks in either an ST or a positive condition (condition in which negative stereotypes were invalidated). RESULTS: Regression-based path analyses showed that only participants who expressed moderate or high fear of AD underperformed on executive tasks in the ST condition compared to their counterparts in the positive condition. Moreover, in the ST condition, participants' performance on executive tasks was more impaired (relative to normative data) than in the positive condition. However, ST had no effect on memory and attention performance. DISCUSSION:Our results showed that ST can cause older people to perform at pathological levels on executive tasks. Results highlight the need for clinicians to be cautious when conducting neuropsychological assessments of older people who express high levels of dementia worry. [less ▲]

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