Publications of Benoît Dardenne
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See detailLes redoublants, victimes de stéréotypes dévalorisants?
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Crahay, Marcel (Ed.) Peut-on lutter contre l'échec scolaire? (2019)

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See detailInteractions between stereotype threat, subjective aging, and memory in older adults
Marquet, Manon ULiege; Missotten, Pierre ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2019), 26(1), 121-143

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a ... [more ▼]

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under high threat perceived more threat than people under low threat. This could be explained by an effect of age stereotypes in the high-threat group: the more positive age stereotypes held by participants, the more they perceived threat, which in turn decreased their memory performance and made them feel mentally older. We hypothesized that age group identity is stronger in people with more positive age stereotypes, which increase perceived threat. [less ▲]

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See detailOverdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2019), 8(3), 231-245

There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological ... [more ▼]

There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child?s cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a ?boy,? a ?girl,? or a ?child? on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child?s behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys? performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis threat and underperformance: The threat must be relevant and implicit
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2018)

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See detailSexisme positif: bienveillance et chaleur
Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Silvestre, Aude ULiege

in Faniko, Kléa; Bourguignon, David; Sarrasin, Oriane (Eds.) et al Psychologie de la discrimination et des préjugés: de la théorie à la pratique (2018)

The suggestion that sexism can be positive is not an oxymoron. If sexism, as other forms of stereotyping, has been primarily studied from the explicitly hostile angle, current research on paternalism and ... [more ▼]

The suggestion that sexism can be positive is not an oxymoron. If sexism, as other forms of stereotyping, has been primarily studied from the explicitly hostile angle, current research on paternalism and benevolence reveal negative consequences of an apparent positive sexism. A negative attitude is certainly concealed behind this positive appearance. We offer to align this duality to a more general model of social perception two-dimensionality. Then, we will review research demonstrating that this positive sexist attitude indeed leads to deleterious consequences, both at an individual and interpersonal level. We will attempt to point out diverse explanations for the existence, and sometimes even support from its target, of this attitude. We will finally propose that sexism is an efficient tool of gender inequality's maintenance. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique Quels sont les facteurs influençant son acceptation auprès des cliniciens ?
Marchal, Sylvie; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, November 18)

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est ... [more ▼]

Le travail d’un psychologue, d’un neuropsychologue ou encore d’un logopède évolue constamment en fonction des apports de la recherche. L’efficacité de la réalité virtuelle comme outil thérapeutique est étudiée et soulignée depuis une vingtaine d’années (Malbos et al., 2013). Néanmoins, actuellement, une minorité de cliniciens l’ont intégrée dans leur pratique (Gicquel, 2016). Le but de cette étude est d’identifier les facteurs ayant un rôle déterminant dans le choix des cliniciens d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle. Pour ce faire, nous avons effectué notre travail en deux étapes : l’élaboration d’un modèle conceptuel et l’élaboration d’un questionnaire visant à éprouver la pertinence du modèle proposé. Le modèle a donc été construit sur base de la littérature concernant l’acceptation d’une technologie (Azjen, 1985 ; Davis, 1989 ; Taylor et Todd, 1995 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Il soutient l’idée que l’intention de réaliser un comportement dépendrait de l’utilité perçue, de l’attitude, des normes subjectives et de la perception de contrôle comportemental. Ce modèle a ensuite guidé l’élaboration des items de notre questionnaire en adaptant ceux régulièrement proposés au sein de la littérature (Davis, 1989 ; Glegg, 2013 ; Venkatesh et al., 2008). Au niveau méthodologique, la diffusion du questionnaire s’est faite par internet au travers des réseaux sociaux et professionnels francophones. La participation se réalisait sur base volontaire. Ainsi, 98 personnes ont participé à notre étude (80 femmes, 18 hommes). Cet échantillon était composé de 71 psychologues (72,4%), 15 neuropsychologues (15,3%) et 12 logopèdes (12,2%). Parmi eux, 84 répondants (85,7%) n’avait jamais utilisé la réalité virtuelle dans un contexte clinique et plus de la moitié de l’échantillon s’estimait peu familier avec cette technologie ou les recherches sur son efficacité en clinique. En accord avec nos hypothèses, nos résultats indiquent que les cliniciens tendent principalement à se référer à la norme subjective, à leur perception de contrôle sur l’utilisation de l’outil ainsi qu’à leur attitude propre envers la technologie pour former leur intention d’utiliser la réalité virtuelle dans leur pratique clinique. Par contre, l’absence de significativité de l’utilité perçue est en désaccord avec notre hypothèse. Ceci pourrait potentiellement s’expliquer par la non-familiarité des répondants avec l’utilisation de l’outil virtuel. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic Stereotypes
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]

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See detailThe link between self-perceptions of aging, cancer view and physical and mental health of older people with cancer: A cross-sectional study
Schroyen, Sarah ULiege; Marquet, Manon ULiege; Jerusalem, Guy ULiege et al

in Journal of Geriatric Oncology (2017), 8(1), 64-68

Objectives Older people may suffer from stigmas linked to cancer and aging. Although some studies suggested that a negative view of cancer may increase the level of depression, such an association has ... [more ▼]

Objectives Older people may suffer from stigmas linked to cancer and aging. Although some studies suggested that a negative view of cancer may increase the level of depression, such an association has never been studied in the elderly population. Similarly, even though it is established that a negative self-perception of aging has deleterious consequences on mental and physical health in normal aging, the influence in pathological contexts, such as oncology, has not been studied. The main aim of this study is thus to analyze the effect of these two stigmas on the health of elderly oncology patients. Materials and Methods 101 patients suffering from a cancer (breast, gynecological, lung or hematological) were seen as soon as possible after their diagnosis. Their self-perception of age, cancer view and health (physical and mental) was assessed. Results Multiple regressions showed that patients with a more negative self-perception of aging and/or more negative cancer view reported poorer global health. We also observed that negative self-perception of aging was associated with worse physical and mental health, whereas negative cancer views were only linked to worse mental health. No interaction was observed between these two stigmas, suggesting that their action is independent. Conclusion Older patients with cancer face double stigmatization, due to negative self-perception of aging and cancer, and these stigmas have impacts on global and mental health. Self-perception of aging is also linked to physical health. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to analyze the direction of the association between this double stigmatization and health. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of parental anxiety sensitivity and learning experiences in children's anxiety sensitivity.
Stassart, Céline ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2017)

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and the children’s emotional intelligence (EI). The samplecomprised 200 non-clinical children, aged 9–13 years, and their parents (mothers andfathers). Results revealed that the effect of parental AS on children’s AS is moderated bythe children’s EI for maternal AS and by their femininity traits for paternal AS. Learningexperiences following somatic sensations influenced the children’s level of AS. Morespecifically, special attention by parents following a child’s somatic sensations (reinforce-ment and transmission of information) was associated with high AS in children. Parentalreactions of fear following a parent’s somatic sensations (modelling) seem to predicthigher scores for AS when the link is moderated by the child’s femininity orientation. Theimplications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2017), 39(9), 913-930

Introduction: Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects.Method: Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players (?control? group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects.Results: As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group?s performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat.Conclusions: Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher performance under diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition because of their feeling of control over their cognitive performance. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype Content of People with Acquired Brain Injury: Warm but Incompetent
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Journal of Applied Social Psychology (2017), 47(10), 539-552

Since stereotypes about people with acquired brain injury (ABI) can lead to prejudice, studying these stereotypes is highly important. In two studies, we examined these stereotypes both on idiosyncratic ... [more ▼]

Since stereotypes about people with acquired brain injury (ABI) can lead to prejudice, studying these stereotypes is highly important. In two studies, we examined these stereotypes both on idiosyncratic dimensions and on the two dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model. Participants completed a specific questionnaire about ABI and warmth and competence questionnaires regarding people with ABI and other social groups. Specific stereotypes about ABI were found to be underpinned by dimensions of “cognitive impairments and ADL limitations,” “catastrophic outcomes,” and “personal and interpersonal development.” Within the model, people with ABI were seen as being warm but incompetent. The ambivalent ABI stereotype could elicit prejudicial attitudes that may impede rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Stereotype Threat on Older People’s Clinical Cognitive Outcomes: Investigating the Moderating Role of Dementia Worry
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Clinical Neuropsychologist (2017), 31(8), 1306-1328

OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that stereotype threat (ST) reduces older people's cognitive performance, but few have studied its impact on clinical cognitive outcomes. Our study was designed to ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that stereotype threat (ST) reduces older people's cognitive performance, but few have studied its impact on clinical cognitive outcomes. Our study was designed to further examine the impact of ST on the clinical assessment of older subjects' cognitive functioning, as well as the moderating role of fear of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (or 'dementia worry'). METHOD: Seventy-two neurologically normal (MMSE > 26) participants aged between 59 and 70 completed a set of neuropsychological tasks in either an ST or a positive condition (condition in which negative stereotypes were invalidated). RESULTS: Regression-based path analyses showed that only participants who expressed moderate or high fear of AD underperformed on executive tasks in the ST condition compared to their counterparts in the positive condition. Moreover, in the ST condition, participants' performance on executive tasks was more impaired (relative to normative data) than in the positive condition. However, ST had no effect on memory and attention performance. DISCUSSION:Our results showed that ST can cause older people to perform at pathological levels on executive tasks. Results highlight the need for clinicians to be cautious when conducting neuropsychological assessments of older people who express high levels of dementia worry. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Self-Transcendence and Cognitive Processes in the Response Expectancy Effect
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 77-92

Neuropsychological assessment is known to be influenced by expectancy effects, which can either enhance (placebo) or diminish (nocebo) cognitive performance. Research suggests that the response expectancy ... [more ▼]

Neuropsychological assessment is known to be influenced by expectancy effects, which can either enhance (placebo) or diminish (nocebo) cognitive performance. Research suggests that the response expectancy effect is influenced by various individual and situational factors and that the placebo effect results in an increase in monitoring processes as measured indirectly. However, the impact on monitoring processes has not yet been studied by direct measures such as Judgement Of Learning (JOL). This study aimed to investigate the response expectancy effect on various neuropsychological tasks, including a task that directly assesses monitoring capacities (JOL). In addition to determining which cognitive functions are influenced by the expectancy effect, this study examined the moderating role of the self-transcendence dimension of personality. Eighty healthy subjects were exposed to three bogus conditions presented as allegedly having a positive, negative, or no impact on cognitive capacities. Then they completed, in random order, three blocks of tasks (executive, attentional, and memory), one in each condition. Results showed an effect of negative instructions on flexibility (poorer performance) and memory (better performance) scores. Furthermore, positive instructions led to better explicit monitoring capacities (JOL) than the neutral condition. These effects were moderated by self-transcendence, as only participants with moderate or high self-transcendence exhibited these effects. Overall, our results showed that the response expectancy effect emerges from a combination of individual and cognitive factors. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions
Van Assche, Jasper; Bostyn, Dries; De keersmaecker, Jonas et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(3), 132-155

Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium). By ... [more ▼]

Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium). By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies), and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions), we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish (N = 310) and one Walloon (N = 365) undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation) and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(2),

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide ... [more ▼]

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision- making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape malefemale relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. [less ▲]

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See detail"OK, C'est pas bien, mais que peut-on y faire?" Propositions de stratégies pour contrer les effets néfastes des stéréotypes paternalistes sur la performance motrice
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle (Eds.) Évolutions sociales, innovations et politiques: Nouvelles questions et nouveaux enjeux pour la psychologie de la santé, Actes du Congrès de l’AFPSA, tome 2 (2016)

Introduction : Au fil de trois études, nous tentons d’appliquer trois types de stratégies basées sur la régulation émo-tionnelle dans le but de réduire l’impact négatif des stéréotypes paternalistes sur ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Au fil de trois études, nous tentons d’appliquer trois types de stratégies basées sur la régulation émo-tionnelle dans le but de réduire l’impact négatif des stéréotypes paternalistes sur la performance mo-trice. Les personnes cibles de stéréotypes paternalistes sont explicitement perçues comme chaleu-reuses et gentilles, mais, plus subtilement, comme incompétentes. Méthodologie : Dans une première étude, nous appliquons les stratégies de réévaluation et de suppression de l’anxiété, pour diminuer les effets néfastes du paternalisme sur la performance motrice. Dans une seconde étude, nous proposons non plus une régulation d’une émotion spécifique, mais plutôt une régulation sur la valence des émotions. Nous envisageons une stratégie de diminution des émotions négatives, en comparaison à une stratégie d’augmentation des émotions positives. Enfin, dans une troisième étude, nous nous intéressons à une régulation totalement libre, non dirigée vers les émo-tions. Nous appliquons la pratique de la pleine conscience comme outils pour restaurer la perfor-mance motrice impactée négativement par l’exposition à du paternalisme. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que les stratégies de régulation dirigée vers l’anxiété n’ont pas d’impact sur la performance (étude 1), que diminuer ses émotions négatives amène à une moins bonne performance que d’augmenter ses émotions positives (étude 2), et enfin, qu’introduire un exercice de pleine conscience après une induction de paternalisme permet de restaurer la performance (étude 3). Conclusion : Il semblerait que moins la stratégie est dirigée vers une émotion spécifique, plus elle semble être efficace pour diminuer, voire éliminer, les effets négatifs sur la performance motrice. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype reactance effect in individuals practicing contact sports
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2015, November)

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