Publications of Philippe Jacques
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See detailNew Continuous Process for the Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants in Foam Overflowing Bioreactor
Guez, J.-S.; Vassaux, A.; Larroche, C. et al

in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2021), 9

In this work, an original culture process in bioreactor named overflowing continuous culture (O-CC) was developed to produce and recover continuously mycosubtilin, a lipopeptide antifungal biosurfactant ... [more ▼]

In this work, an original culture process in bioreactor named overflowing continuous culture (O-CC) was developed to produce and recover continuously mycosubtilin, a lipopeptide antifungal biosurfactant of major interest. The lipopeptide production was first investigated in shake conical flasks in different culture media [ammonium citrate sucrose (ACS), Difco sporulation medium (DSM), and Landy], followed by a pH condition optimization using 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) and 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffered media. A simple theoretical modeling of the biomass evolution combined with an experimental setup was then proposed for O-CC processed in stirred tank reactor at laboratory scale. Seven O-CC experiments were done in modified Landy medium at the optimized pH 6.5 by applying dilution rates comprised between 0.05 and 0.1 h–1. The O-CC allowed the continuous recovery of the mycosubtilin contained in the foam overflowing out of the reactor, achieving a remarkable in situ product removal superior to 99%. The biomass concentration in the overflowing foam was found to be twofold lower than the biomass concentration in the reactor, relating advantageously this process to a continuous one with biomass feedback. To evaluate its performances regarding the type of lipopeptide produced, the O-CC process was tested with strain BBG116, a mycosubtilin constitutive overproducing strain that also produces surfactin, and strain BBG125, its derivative strain obtained by deleting surfactin synthetase operon. At a dilution rate of 0.1 h–1, specific productivity of 1.18 mg of mycosubtilin⋅g–1(DW)⋅h–1 was reached. Compared with other previously described bioprocesses using almost similar culture conditions and strains, the O-CC one allowed an increase of the mycosubtilin production rate by 2.06-fold. © Copyright © 2021 Guez, Vassaux, Larroche, Jacques and Coutte. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Surfactin-Like Lipopeptides From Bacillus spp.: Natural Biodiversity and Synthetic Biology for a Broader Application Range
Théatre, Ariane ULiege; Cano-Prieto, Carolina; Bartolini, Marco et al

in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2021), 9

Surfactin is a lipoheptapeptide produced by several Bacillus species and identified for the first time in 1969. At first, the biosynthesis of this remarkable biosurfactant was described in this review ... [more ▼]

Surfactin is a lipoheptapeptide produced by several Bacillus species and identified for the first time in 1969. At first, the biosynthesis of this remarkable biosurfactant was described in this review. The peptide moiety of the surfactin is synthesized using huge multienzymatic proteins called NonRibosomal Peptide Synthetases. This mechanism is responsible for the peptide biodiversity of the members of the surfactin family. In addition, on the fatty acid side, fifteen different isoforms (from C12 to C17) can be incorporated so increasing the number of the surfactin-like biomolecules. The review also highlights the last development in metabolic modeling and engineering and in synthetic biology to direct surfactin biosynthesis but also to generate novel derivatives. This large set of different biomolecules leads to a broad spectrum of physico-chemical properties and biological activities. The last parts of the review summarized the numerous studies related to the production processes optimization as well as the approaches developed to increase the surfactin productivity of Bacillus cells taking into account the different steps of its biosynthesis from gene transcription to surfactin degradation in the culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailLimiting factors of mycopesticide development
Zaki, Omran ULiege; Weekers, F; Thonart, Philippe ULiege et al

in Biological Control (2020)

Phytosanitary crop protection products have shown their impact on the environment. They may not be very selective and their excessive use in agriculture causes pollution of soil and groundwater ... [more ▼]

Phytosanitary crop protection products have shown their impact on the environment. They may not be very selective and their excessive use in agriculture causes pollution of soil and groundwater, destruction of many beneficial insects and the emergence of resistant pests. Hence there is strong public and political pressure driven by consumers to implement phytosanitary alternatives that are less aggressive to the environment, such of biopesticides. Biopesticides and, in particular, mycopesticides are frequently used as an environmentally friendly tools to reduce plant diseases by inhibiting the growth of pathogens and inducing resistance in plants. <br /> <br />In this review, we will first analyze the current evolution of the global market of biopesticides. Boosted by different political initiatives all over the world, this market has increased 6-fold between 2005 and 2016. In 2016, it represented 6% of the global pesticide market with a compound annual growth rate (CGAR) of 14.1%. The mycopesticides accounted for only 10% of the global biopesticide market of 2016. <br /> <br />We then focused on two main factors which should contribute to the future development of mycopesticides: the large panel of their modes of action and the physiological state of the active product. Indeed, several modes of action could, in some instances, increase the efficacy of a biopesticide and postpone the emergence of resistance mechanism. The broad set of mechanisms use by Trichoderma harzianum and T. atroviride to reduce plant diseases: nutrient competition, direct antagonism, mycoparasitism and induction of resistance mechanism in plants were developed as an example. Stability of the active substance is another essential factor for creating competitive mycopesticides. For this, the choice of propagule types could be a major factor in enhancing their stability. This choice was discussed highlighting the advantages of conidia or sporidia from solid-state fermentation. <br /> <br />To end with, the registration process in European Union was described revealing another limiting factor that delays the development of mycopesticides in this zone. [less ▲]

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See detailAgrobacterium tumefaciens C58 presence affects Bacillus velezensis 32a ecological fitness in the tomato rhizosphere
Abdallah, D. B.; Krier, F.; Jacques, Philippe ULiege et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2020), 27(22), 28429-28437

The persistence of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains as soil-associated saprophytes may cause an inconsistency in the efficacy of the biocontrol inoculants under field condition. The study of the ... [more ▼]

The persistence of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains as soil-associated saprophytes may cause an inconsistency in the efficacy of the biocontrol inoculants under field condition. The study of the interaction occurring in the rhizosphere between the beneficial and the pathogenic microbes is thus interesting for the development of effective biopesticides for the management of crown gall disease. However, very little is still known about the influence of these complex interactions on the biocontrol determinants of beneficial bacteria, especially Bacillus strains. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil borne pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 on root colonization and lipopeptide production by Bacillus velezensis strain 32a during interaction with tomato plants. Results show that the presence of A. tumefaciens C58 positively impacted the root colonization level of the Bacillus strain. However, negative impact on surfactin production was observed in Agrobacterium-treated seedling, compared with control. Further investigation suggests that these modulations are due to a modified tomato root exudate composition during the tripartite interaction. Thus, this work contributes to enhance the knowledge on the impact of interspecies interaction on the ecological fitness of Bacillus cells living in the rhizosphere. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailNorine: update of the nonribosomal peptide resource
Flissi, A.; Ricart, E.; Campart, C. et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2020), 48(D1), 465-469

Norine, the unique resource dedicated to nonribosomal peptides (NRPs), is now updated with a new pipeline to automate massive sourcing and enhance annotation. External databases are mined to extract NRPs ... [more ▼]

Norine, the unique resource dedicated to nonribosomal peptides (NRPs), is now updated with a new pipeline to automate massive sourcing and enhance annotation. External databases are mined to extract NRPs that are not yet in Norine. To maintain a high data quality, successive filters are applied to automatically validate the NRP annotations and only validated data is inserted in the database. External databases were also used to complete annotations of NRPs already in Norine. Besides, annotation consistency inside Norine and between Norine and external sources have reported annotation errors. Some can be corrected automatically, while others need manual curation. This new approach led to the insertion of 539 new NRPs and the addition or correction of annotations of nearly all Norine entries. Two new tools to analyse the chemical structures of NRPs (rBAN) and to infer a molecular formula from the mass-to-charge ratio of an NRP (Kendrick Formula Predictor) were also integrated. Norine is freely accessible from the following URL: https://bioinfo.cristal.univ-lille.fr/norine/. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural products: what is the biosynthetic potential of unicellular eukaryotes?
Meunier, Loïc ULiege; Jacques, Philippe ULiege; Baurain, Denis ULiege

Poster (2019, March 14)

Microbial organisms are a precious source of natural products for medical and agricultural fields. These natural products are produced by different enzymes classes from the secondary metabolism, resulting ... [more ▼]

Microbial organisms are a precious source of natural products for medical and agricultural fields. These natural products are produced by different enzymes classes from the secondary metabolism, resulting in a large diversity of molecular structures and bioactivities. Currently, the main known microbial producers of bioactive compounds are bacteria and fungi, which have already been extensively exploited for the pharmaceutical and phytosanitary drugs. However, other unicellular eukaryotes seem to also have potential for the production of bioactive compounds, which present somehow a new continent for the discovery of natural products. A preliminary large-scale in silico analysis through unicellular eukaryotic lineages, for which genomic data are available, indicates that a part of these organisms might possess diverse classes of secondary metabolism pathways and thus be potential candidates for the discovery of novel compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailNonribosomal peptides in fungal cell factories: from genome mining to optimized heterologous production
Vassaux, A.; Meunier, Loïc ULiege; Vandenbol, Micheline ULiege et al

in Biotechnology Advances (2019)

Fungi are notoriously prolific producers of secondary metabolites including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). The structural complexity of NRPs grants them interesting activities such as antibiotic, anti ... [more ▼]

Fungi are notoriously prolific producers of secondary metabolites including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). The structural complexity of NRPs grants them interesting activities such as antibiotic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The discovery of these compounds with attractive activities can be achieved by using two approaches: either by screening samples originating from various environments for their biological activities, or by identifying the related clusters in genomic sequences thanks to bioinformatics tools. This genome mining approach has grown tremendously due to recent advances in genome sequencing, which have provided an incredible amount of genomic data from hundreds of microbial species. Regarding fungal organisms, the genomic data have revealed the presence of an unexpected number of putative NRP-related gene clusters. This highlights fungi as a goldmine for the discovery of putative novel bioactive compounds. Recent development of NRP dedicated bioinformatics tools have increased the capacity to identify these gene clusters and to deduce NRPs structures, speeding-up the screening process for novel metabolites discovery. Unfortunately, the newly identified compound is frequently not or poorly produced by native producers due to a lack of expression of the related genes cluster. A frequently employed strategy to increase production rates consists in transferring the related biosynthetic pathway in heterologous hosts. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview about the topic of NRPs discovery, from gene cluster identification by genome mining to the heterologous production in fungal hosts. The main computational tools and methods for genome mining are herein presented with an emphasis on the particularities of the fungal systems. The different steps of the reconstitution of NRP biosynthetic pathway in heterologous fungal cell factories will be discussed, as well as the key factors to consider for maximizing productivity. Several examples will be developed to illustrate the potential of heterologous production to both discover uncharacterized novel compounds predicted in silico by genome mining, and to enhance the productivity of interesting bio-active natural products. © 2019 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAntifungal activities of bacillus subtilis lipopeptides to two venturia inaequalis strains possessing different tebuconazole sensitivity
Desmyttere, H.; Deweer, C.; Muchembled, J. et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2019), 10(OCT),

Within the framework of biocontrol development, three natural substances produced by Bacillus subtilis, called lipopeptides, have been studied: fengycin (F), surfactin (S), and mycosubtilin (M). Their ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of biocontrol development, three natural substances produced by Bacillus subtilis, called lipopeptides, have been studied: fengycin (F), surfactin (S), and mycosubtilin (M). Their antifungal properties were tested in vitro, in liquid medium, on two strains of Venturia inaequalis, ascomycete fungi causing apple scab. These two strains were, respectively sensitive and less sensitive to tebuconazole, an active substance of the triazole family. These three molecules were tested on their own, in binary (FS, FM, SM) and ternary mixtures (FSM). The antifungal activities of lipopeptides were estimated by calculating an IC50, compared to tebuconazole chemical substance. In tests involving the sensitive strain, all lipopeptide modalities exhibited antifungal activity. However, modalities involving fengycin and its mixtures exhibited the best antifungal activities; the activity of fengycin alone being very similar to that of tebuconazole. Interestingly, regarding the strain with reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole, surfactin and fengycin alone were not efficient while mycosubtilin and the different mixtures showed interesting antifungal activities. Specifically, the antifungal activity of FS and FSM mixture were equivalent to that of tebuconazole. For both fungal strains, microscopic observations revealed important morphological modifications in the presence of fengycin and in a less important proportion in the presence of surfactin but not in the presence of mycosubtilin. Overall, this study highlights the diversity in mode of action of lipopeptides on apple scab strains. © 2019 Desmyttere, Deweer, Muchembled, Sahmer, Jacquin, Coutte and Jacques. [less ▲]

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See detailKendrick Mass Defect Approach Combined to NORINE Database for Molecular Formula Assignment of Nonribosomal Peptides
Chevalier, M.; Ricart, E.; Hanozin, Emeline ULiege et al

in Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2019), 30(12), 2608-2616

The identification of known (dereplication) or unknown nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) produced by microorganisms is a time consuming, expensive, and challenging task where mass spectrometry and nuclear ... [more ▼]

The identification of known (dereplication) or unknown nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) produced by microorganisms is a time consuming, expensive, and challenging task where mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance play a key role. The first step of the identification process always involves the establishment of a molecular formula. Unfortunately, the number of potential molecular formulae increases significantly with higher molecular masses and the lower precision of their measurements. In the present article, we demonstrate that molecular formula assignment can be achieved by a combined approach using the regular Kendrick mass defect (RKMD) and NORINE, the reference curated database of NRPs. We observed that irrespective of the molecular formula, the addition and subtraction of a given atom or atom group always leads to the same RKMD variation and nominal Kendrick mass (NKM). Graphically, these variations translated into a vector mesh can be used to connect an unknown molecule to a known NRP of the NORINE database and establish its molecular formula. We explain and illustrate this concept through the high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of a commercially available mixture composed of four surfactins. The Kendrick approach enriched with the NORINE database content is a fast, useful, and easy-to-use tool for molecular mass assignment of known and unknown NRP structures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2019, American Society for Mass Spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailBio-emulsifying and biodegradation activities of syringafactin producing Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from oil contaminated soils
Zouari, O.; Lecouturier, D.; Rochex, A. et al

in Biodegradation (2019), 30(4), 259-272

Pseudomonas strains isolated from oil contaminated soils were screened for biosurfactant production. Three out of eleven Pseudomonas isolates were selected for their high emulsifying activity (E24 value ... [more ▼]

Pseudomonas strains isolated from oil contaminated soils were screened for biosurfactant production. Three out of eleven Pseudomonas isolates were selected for their high emulsifying activity (E24 value on n-hexadecane ~ 78%). These isolates (E39, E311 and E313) were identified as members of the P. putida group using phenotypical methods and a molecular approach. To identify the chemical nature of produced biosurfactants, thin layer chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry analysis were carried out and revealed lipopeptides belonging to the syringafactin family. The activity of the produced biosurfactants was stable over a pH range of 6–12, at high salinity (10%) and after heating at 80 °C. Tests in contaminated sand micro-bioreactors showed that the three strains were able to degrade diesel. These results suggest the potential of these syringafactin producing strains for application in hydrocarbon bioremediation. © 2018, Springer Nature B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailAntitumor astins originate from the fungal endophyte Cyanodermella asteris living within the medicinal plant Aster tataricus
Schafhauser, T.; Jahn, L.; Kirchner, N. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2019), 116(52), 26909-26917

Medicinal plants are a prolific source of natural products with remarkable chemical and biological properties, many of which have considerable remedial benefits. Numerous medicinal plants are suffering ... [more ▼]

Medicinal plants are a prolific source of natural products with remarkable chemical and biological properties, many of which have considerable remedial benefits. Numerous medicinal plants are suffering from wildcrafting, and thus biotechnological production processes of their natural products are urgently needed. The plant Aster tataricus is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and contains unique active ingredients named astins. These are macrocyclic peptides showing promising antitumor activities and usually containing the highly unusual moiety 3,4-dichloroproline. The biosynthetic origins of astins are unknown despite being studied for decades. Here we show that astins are produced by the recently discovered fungal endophyte Cyanodermella asteris. We were able to produce astins in reasonable and reproducible amounts using axenic cultures of the endophyte. We identified the biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for astin biosynthesis in the genome of C. asteris and propose a production pathway that is based on a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Striking differences in the production profiles of endophyte and host plant imply a symbiotic cross-species biosynthesis pathway for astin C derivatives, in which plant enzymes or plant signals are required to trigger the synthesis of plant-exclusive variants such as astin A. Our findings lay the foundation for the sustainable biotechnological production of astins independent from aster plants. © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBioinformatics tools for the discovery of new lipopeptides with biocontrol applications
Pupin, M.; Flissi, A.; Jacques, Philippe ULiege et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2018), 152(4), 993-1001

As conventional or chemical pesticides have negative impact on environment and health of both farmer and consumers, it becomes relevant to develop alternative solutions to limit their use. In this context ... [more ▼]

As conventional or chemical pesticides have negative impact on environment and health of both farmer and consumers, it becomes relevant to develop alternative solutions to limit their use. In this context, innovative strategies to accelerate the development of biocontrol agents are welcome. For a decade of years, it has been demonstrated that lipopeptides are very efficient weapons against fungi responsible for crop diseases. Lipopeptides are secondary metabolites, produced by many microorganisms including beneficial rhizobacteria. The lipopeptide biosynthetic pathways include nonribosomal peptide synthetases. These modular enzymatic complexes work as assembly lines to build the peptides step by step, leading to the production of original peptide compounds with specific features as the presence of non proteinogenic monomers and cyclic and branched structures. In this paper, Florine and Norine bioinformatics tools, especially dedicated to non-ribosomal synthetases and their products are presented. Their use is mainly focused on the discovery of lipopeptides produced by Bacillus or Pseudomonas because they seem to represent a versatile reservoir of active secondary metabolites with promising activities for applications in phytosanitary area. © 2018, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging. [less ▲]

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See detailPolynucleotide phosphorylase is involved in the control of lipopeptide fengycin production in Bacillus subtilis
Yaseen, Y.; Diop, A.; Gancel, F. et al

in Archives of Microbiology (2018), 200(5), 783-791

Bacillus subtilis is a wealth source of lipopeptide molecules such as iturins, surfactins and fengycins or plipastatins endowed with a range of biological activities. These molecules, designated secondary ... [more ▼]

Bacillus subtilis is a wealth source of lipopeptide molecules such as iturins, surfactins and fengycins or plipastatins endowed with a range of biological activities. These molecules, designated secondary metabolites, are synthesized via non-ribosomal peptides synthesis (NRPS) machinery and are most often subjected to a complex regulation with involvement of several regulatory factors. To gain novel insights on mechanism regulating fengycin production, we investigated the effect of the fascinating polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), as well as the effect of lipopeptide surfactin. Compared to the wild type, the production of fengycin in the mutant strains B. subtilis BBG235 and BBG236 altered for PNPase has not only decreased to about 70 and 40%, respectively, but also hampered its antifungal activity towards the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. On the other hand, mutant strains BBG231 (srfAA−) and BBG232 (srfAC−) displayed different levels of fengycin production. BBG231 had registered an important decrease in fengycin production, comparable to that observed for BBG235 or BBG236. This study permitted to establish that the products of pnpA gene (PNPase), and srfAA− (surfactin synthetase) are involved in fengycin production. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailLipopeptide biodiversity in antifungal Bacillus strains isolated from Algeria
Abdellaziz, L.; Chollet, M.; Abderrahmani, A. et al

in Archives of Microbiology (2018)

Several Bacillus strains have been well studied for their ability to control soil-borne plant diseases. This property is linked to the production of several families of lipopeptides. Depending of their ... [more ▼]

Several Bacillus strains have been well studied for their ability to control soil-borne plant diseases. This property is linked to the production of several families of lipopeptides. Depending of their structure, these compounds show antifungal and/or plant systemic resistance inducing activities. In this work, the biodiversity of lipopeptides produced by different antifungal Bacillus strains isolated from seeds, rhizospheric, and non-rhizospheric soils in Algeria was analyzed. Sixteen active strains were characterized by PCR for their content in genes involved in lipopeptide biosynthesis and by MALDI-ToF for their lipopeptide production, revealing a high biodiversity of products. The difficulty to detect kurstakin genes led us to design two new sets of specific primers. An interesting potential of antifungal activity and the synthesis of two forms of fengycins differing in the eighth amino acid (Gln/Glu) were found from the strain 8. Investigation of its genome led to the finding of an adenylation domain of the fengycin synthetase predicted to activate the glutamate residue instead of the glutamine one. According to the comparison of both the results of MALDI-ToF-MS and genome analysis, it was concluded that this adenylation domain could activate both residues at the same time. This study highlighted that the richness of the Algerian ecosystems in Bacillus strains is able to produce: surfactin, pumilacidin, lichenysin, kurstakin, and different types of fengycins. © 2018 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of a secondary carotenoid producer microalga of the genus Coelastrella
Corato, Amélie ULiege; Franck, Fabrice ULiege; Jacques, Philippe ULiege

Poster (2017, September)

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising ... [more ▼]

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising pigment is astaxanthin, because of its antioxidant, antitumoral and anti-inflamatory properties. The most used natural source of this pigment is the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. However this species grows slowly and lacks robustness for easy cultivation. Therefore, other species are investigated for astaxanthin production. Here, we identified a locally isolated strain as Coelastrella sp. that is a secondary carotenoid producer. [1] A known typical feature of this genus, that we could observed in the strain by scanning electron microcopy, is the presence of meridional ribs. [2] We analyzed the culture conditions and concluded that this strain grows both autotrophically and heterotrophically and is able of fast change in pigment composition under controlled stress conditions. Thanks to HPLC analyses, we determined that the strain accumulates a variety of secondary carotenoids, among which: astaxanthin, cantaxanthin and echinenone. Unidentified compounds will be further analyzed by mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of Surfactin and Fengycin Production by Bacillus mojavensis A21: Application for Diesel Biodegradation
Hmidet, N.; Ben Ayed; Jacques, Philippe ULiege et al

in BioMed Research International (2017)

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See detailFungal diversity of “Tomme d'Orchies” cheese during the ripening process as revealed by a metagenomic study
Ceugniez, A.; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Coucheney, F. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2017), 258

Tomme d'Orchies is an artisanal pressed and uncooked cheese produced and marketed in the north of France. This study aimed at showing the fungal microbiota evolution of this cheese using a metagenetic ... [more ▼]

Tomme d'Orchies is an artisanal pressed and uncooked cheese produced and marketed in the north of France. This study aimed at showing the fungal microbiota evolution of this cheese using a metagenetic based Illumina technology targeting the ITS2 domain of 5.8S fungal rDNAs. To this end, samples were taken from the rind and the core of different cheeses, after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of ripening. The data underpinned the prevalence of Yarrowia lipolytica and Galactomyces geotrichum for both microbiotas. Unusual species including Clavispora lusitaniae, Kazachstania unispora and Cladosporium cladosporioides were also detected, but their origins remain to be ascertained. The metagenomic revealed also the presence of Kluyveromyces and Debaryomyces species. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between Kluyveromyces marxianus from cheese origin and the intestinal symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron: Impressive antioxidative effects
Ceugniez, A.; Tourret, M.; Dussert, E. et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology (2017), 81

The effects of yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus S-2-05, of cheese origin, were assessed on the intestine anaerobe symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741 to unveil any changes in its antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The effects of yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus S-2-05, of cheese origin, were assessed on the intestine anaerobe symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741 to unveil any changes in its antioxidant properties. To this end, these microorganisms were grown and incubated either separately, or co-incubated, under anaerobic atmosphere. Afterwards, the microbial cells were recovered and washed, and extracts were prepared using a sterile detergent solution to mimic the intestine detergent content. The extracts prepared from K. marxianus S-2-05 and reference strain K. marxianus MUCL 29917, grown under different conditions, were assessed for their antioxidant properties against superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Extracts from both yeasts showed antioxidative effects, which were particularly important for K. marxianus S-02-5 after anaerobic incubation. Moreover, K. marxianus S-02-5 displayed a high level of activity against the aforementioned reactive oxygen species, enhancing that of B. thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741, after the co-incubation process. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate the proteins extracted. Superoxide dismutase, thiol peroxidase, rubrerythrin -intensively produced by B. thetaiotaomicron induced by the yeast-were identified by mass spectrometry. The antioxidative potential evidenced for K. marxianus S-02-5 is another advantage which could justify the utilization of this strain as a probiotic for countering intestinal inflammatory processes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailCyanodermella asteris sp. nov. (Ostropales) from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus
Jahn, L.; Schafhauser, T.; Pan, S. et al

in Mycotaxon (2017), 132(1), 107-123

An endophytic fungus isolated from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus is proposed as a new species. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences from the ribosomal DNA cluster (the ITS1+5.8S+ITS2, 18S ... [more ▼]

An endophytic fungus isolated from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus is proposed as a new species. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences from the ribosomal DNA cluster (the ITS1+5.8S+ITS2, 18S, and 28S regions) and the RPB2 gene revealed a relationship between the unknown fungus and the Stictidaceae lineage of the Ostropales. The new species, Cyanodermella asteris, grows in standard fungal growth media as a fluffy, pink filamentous fungus. Asexual and sexual sporulation has not yet been observed on media or in the plant. [less ▲]

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