Publications of Tatiana Art
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See detailEvaluation of the Bactericidal Effect of Nebulized Silver Nanoparticles on Common Respiratory Bacteria in Horses–In Vitro Studies
Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; Paindaveine, Charlotte ULiege; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULiege et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2021), 103

Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in both human and veterinary medicine. Bacteria can be part of the etiology of respiratory disorders in horses. Bactericidal activity of silver has been largely ... [more ▼]

Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in both human and veterinary medicine. Bacteria can be part of the etiology of respiratory disorders in horses. Bactericidal activity of silver has been largely described and silver is currently used in veterinary therapeutic applications such as wound dressings. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro bactericidal effects of nebulized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on 2 com- mon equine respiratory bacteria, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli . Firstly, antimicrobial susceptibility of AgNP was determined over time by turbidity assessment in liquid broth. Secondly, bacterial growth inhibition was tested after instillation or after nebulization of low (100 ppm) and high (500, 1,000 and 2,000 ppm) concentrations of AgNP on agar plate. Both bacteria were susceptible to AgNP, even at dilution 1:4 for A. equuli and 1:8 for S. zooepidemicus after 8 hours of incubation, and 1:256 for both bacteria after 24 hours of incubation. The bacterial growth was partially inhibited at low concentration and completely inhibited at high concentrations of instilled AgNP. The bac- terial growth was completely inhibited after nebulization of low concentrations of AgNP for A. equuli and high concentrations of AgNP for S. zooepidemicus . We concluded nebulized AgNP could be a candidate for innovative therapeutic way against bacterial res- piratory disorders in horses. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to assess the in vivo poten- tial and toxicity of nebulized AgNP. [less ▲]

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See detailAcylcarnitine profile in Alaskan sled dogs during submaximal multiday exercise points out metabolic flexibility and liver role in energy metabolism.
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; BOEMER, François ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(8), 0256009

Alaskan sled dogs develop a particular metabolic strategy during multiday submaximal exercise, allowing them to switch from intra-muscular to extra-muscular energy substrates thus postponing fatigue ... [more ▼]

Alaskan sled dogs develop a particular metabolic strategy during multiday submaximal exercise, allowing them to switch from intra-muscular to extra-muscular energy substrates thus postponing fatigue. Specifically, a progressively increasing stimulus for hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis provides glucose for both fueling exercise and replenishing the depleted muscle glycogen. Moreover, recent studies have shown that with continuation of exercise sled dogs increase their insulin-sensitivity and their capacity to transport and oxidize glucose and carbohydrates rather than oxidizing fatty acids. Carnitine and acylcarnitines (AC) play an essential role as metabolic regulators in both fat and glucose metabolism; they serve as biomarkers in different species in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. We assessed the effect of multiday exercise in conditioned sled dogs on plasma short (SC), medium (MC) and long (LC) chain AC by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our results show chain-specific modification of AC profiles during the exercise challenge: LCACs maintained a steady increase throughout exercise, some SCACs increased during the last phase of exercise and acetylcarnitine (C2) initially increased before decreasing during the later phase of exercise. We speculated that SCACs kinetics could reflect an increased protein catabolism and C2 pattern could reflect its hepatic uptake for energy-generating purposes to sustain gluconeogenesis. LCACs may be exported by muscle to avoid their accumulation to preserve glucose oxidation and insulin-sensitivity or they could be distributed by liver as energy substrates. These findings, although representing a "snapshot" of blood as a crossing point between different organs, shed further light on sled dogs metabolism that is liver-centric and more carbohydrate-dependent than fat-dependent and during prolonged submaximal exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of a heart rate monitor for calculating heart rate variability parameters in exercising horses
Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; Cees, van Beckhoven; Moyse, Evelyne et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2021), 104

Heart rate is evaluated in exercising horses to monitor the level of fitness to exercise, and it is usually acquired using heart rate monitors (HRM) or telemetric electrocardiograms (ECG). While HRM are ... [more ▼]

Heart rate is evaluated in exercising horses to monitor the level of fitness to exercise, and it is usually acquired using heart rate monitors (HRM) or telemetric electrocardiograms (ECG). While HRM are com- monly available and easy-to-use for horse’s owners, ECG is a more expensive equipment requiring user’s experience. Interest for heart rate variability (HRV) in horses is increasing for both research and clini- cal purposes. HRV is usually calculated from interbeat intervals (IBI) obtained by ECG. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of an HRM to detect IBI for the calculation of HRV in both resting and exercising horses. Simultaneous ECG and HRM recordings were performed on 13 horses and ponies under normal training conditions for at least 45 minutes. IBI from ECG were corrected using a dedi- cated software. IBI from HRM were exported without correction. Two HRV-parameters were calculated on both recordings for resting and exercising periods: the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Agreement and concordance between the two systems were determined using Bland-Altman plot and Lin’s correlation coefficient, respectively. Effects of variables were consequently assessed. For both HRV-parameters during resting and exercising periods, the means of the differences between the two systems were lower than 0.47 ms with a correlation co- efficient higher than 0.999. Height, weight and body condition score had no effect on the results. The studied HRM could be of interest as easy-to-use device for obtaining HRV-parameters SDRR and RMSSD in resting and exercising horses. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro Assays for the Assessment of Impaired Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Equine Atypical Myopathy.
Kruse, Caroline ULiege; Stern, David ULiege; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULiege et al

in Life (Basel, Switzerland) (2021), 11(7),

Equine atypical myopathy is a seasonal intoxication of grazing equids. In Europe, this poisoning is associated with the ingestion of toxins contained in the seeds and seedlings of the sycamore maple (Acer ... [more ▼]

Equine atypical myopathy is a seasonal intoxication of grazing equids. In Europe, this poisoning is associated with the ingestion of toxins contained in the seeds and seedlings of the sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The toxins involved in atypical myopathy are known to inhibit ß-oxidation of fatty acids and induce a general decrease in mitochondrial respiration, as determined by high-resolution respirometry applied to muscle samples taken from cases of atypical myopathy. The severe impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics induced by the toxins may explain the high rate of mortality observed: about 74% of horses with atypical myopathy die, most within the first two days of signs of poisoning. The mechanism of toxicity is not completely elucidated yet. To improve our understanding of the pathological process and to assess therapeutic candidates, we designed in vitro assays using equine skeletal myoblasts cultured from muscle biopsies and subjected to toxins involved in atypical myopathy. We established that equine primary myoblasts do respond to one of the toxins incriminated in the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the accuracy of a commercial heart rate monitoring system to detect RR-waves interval in Warmblood horses
Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; van Beckhoven, Cees; Moyse, Evelyne ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2020, November 20)

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See detailDetection of mitochondrial dysfunction by blood mononuclear cells analysis
Kruse, Caroline ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULiege et al

Poster (2019, November 21)

Since mitochondria play diverse crucial roles within the cell, mitochondrial dysfunction can have disastrous consequences. High resolution respirometry (HRR) is a new tool that allows the quantification ... [more ▼]

Since mitochondria play diverse crucial roles within the cell, mitochondrial dysfunction can have disastrous consequences. High resolution respirometry (HRR) is a new tool that allows the quantification of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer capacities. This tool allows an analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics and the main substrate pathway of the cells that are of interest. In human, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been used as biomarkers in diverse pathological models, as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the horse, HRR studies have been conducted on skeletal muscles samples. Using this technique, a so-called “mitochondrial syndrome” has been reported in equine atypical myopathy, an environmental intoxication, which is characterized by a severe decrease of mitochondrial respiratory capacity in affected individuals. However, the muscle biopsy procedure is difficult to use in equine clinical routine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether mitochondrial function could be assessed on equine blood mononuclear cells with respirometry. Whole blood was collected in 9 ml EDTA tubes in six horses. Cells of interest (PBMC) were isolated with a density-separation medium (Lymphoprep™) following a standardized procedure. Electron paramagnetic resonance as well as HRR analysis were performed within the following 6 hours. With this isolation technique more than 1x106 PBMC/ml of whole blood were obtained. Respirometric analysis with PBMC taken from the same horses indicated a lack of reproducibility. This finding seems to be primarily due to a too long timeframe (i.e. ±Xh) between cell isolation and respirometric analysis. Additional studies indicated that when respirometry was performed within the first 2 hours after cell isolation, standard variation between samples was significantly reduced. Up to now a correlation between skeletal muscle fiber and PBMC mitochondrial bioenergetics in the equine species is not possible to be established. A standardization of the procedure is vital for reproducibility between laboratories and comparison between healthy and ill horses. The next steps are to compare the oxygraphic measures between equine PBMC and muscle biopsies, as well as the comparison of mitochondrial function between healthy and horses in extreme metabolic conditions (e.g atypical myopathy). [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral blood mononuclear cells to detect mitochondrial dysfunction in horses: a preliminary study
Kruse, Caroline ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULiege et al

Conference (2019)

Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a ubiquitous cause of disease in human and animals. In the equine species, muscle fibers were analyzed to detect and assess defective mitochondrial function. Using ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a ubiquitous cause of disease in human and animals. In the equine species, muscle fibers were analyzed to detect and assess defective mitochondrial function. Using respirometry, a so-called “mitochondrial syndrome” has been reported in equine atypical myopathy, which is characterized by a severe decrease of mitochondrial respiratory capacity in affected individuals [1] . Up to now, respirometric studies in horses have been successfully conducted on skeletal muscles samples. However, the muscle biopsy procedure is rather invasive and therefore difficult to use in equine clinical routine. Despite the fact that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been used in human medicine to assess mitochondrial function, there is only one study comparing PBMC and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in monkeys so far [2]. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether mitochondrial function can be assessed on equine blood cells with respirometry, according to the fact that blood is a biological sample easier to collect than muscle. Whole blood was collected in 9 ml EDTA tubes in four horses. Cells of interest (PBMC) were isolated with a density-separation medium (Lymphoprep™) within one hour of sampling, following a standardized procedure. Electron paramagnetic resonance as well as the respirometric analysis were performed within the following 4 hours. The preliminary tests show that recorded respirations are similar to those documented in humans. However, a lack of reproducibility of respirometric analysis with PBMC taken from the same horses was observed. Therefore, a correlation between skeletal muscle fiber and PBMC mitochondrial bioenergetics in the equine species is, up to now, not possible to be established. Nevertheless, an efficient PBMC isolation protocol was established and mitochondrial respiration with respirometry was obtained. The cause of the variations within the same individual is still under examination. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro bactericidal activity of nebulized silver on equine common respiratory bacteria
Paindaveine, Charlotte ULiege; Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; Mainil, Jacques ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2019), 33

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See detailEpithelial RABGEF1 deficiency promotes intestinal inflammation by dysregulating intrinsic MYD88-dependent innate signaling.
El Abbas, Sophie ULiege; Radermecker, Coraline ULiege; Bai, Qiang ULiege et al

in Mucosal Immunology (2019)

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) contribute to the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and inflammation through their interactions with the environment and host immune responses. Yet our understanding ... [more ▼]

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) contribute to the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and inflammation through their interactions with the environment and host immune responses. Yet our understanding of IEC-intrinsic regulatory pathways remains incomplete. Here, we identify the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RABGEF1 as a regulator of intestinal homeostasis and innate pathways dependent on IECs. Mice with IEC-specific Rabgef1 deletion (called Rabgef1(IEC-KO) mice) developed a delayed spontaneous colitis associated with the local upregulation of IEC chemokine expression. In mouse models of colitis based on Interleukin-10 deficiency or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) exposure, we found that IEC-intrinsic RABGEF1 deficiency exacerbated development of intestinal pathology and dysregulated IEC innate pathways and chemokine expression. Mechanistically, we showed that RABGEF1 deficiency in mouse IECs in vitro was associated with an impairment of early endocytic events, an increased activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway, and increased chemokine secretion. Moreover, we provided evidence that the development of spontaneous colitis was dependent on microbiota-derived signals and intrinsic MYD88-dependent pathways in vivo. Our study identifies mouse RABGEF1 as an important regulator of intestinal inflammation, MYD88-dependent IEC-intrinsic signaling, and chemokine production. This suggests that RABGEF1-dependent pathways represent interesting therapeutic targets for inflammatory conditions in the gut. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasured and predicted oxygen uptake in healthy adults
Art, Tatiana ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Balligand, Marc ULiege et al

Poster (2019)

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See detailEffects of a P-class CpG-ODN administered by intramuscular injection on plasma cytokines and on white blood cells of healthy horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Frellstedt, Linda; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2018), 201

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic ... [more ▼]

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic injection in healthy horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and the effect of an intramuscularly administered P-class CpG-ODN on hematology and on plasma cytokines (IFN-α,IL-10, TNF-α,IFN-γ) in eight healthy horses. Intra-muscular CpG-ODN or placebo (PBS) was administered twice at a 7 days-interval. Groups were inversed after 2 months of washout period. A physical examination, complete blood count (CBC) and plasma cytokine measurements were performed from 2 days before injection up to 21 days after injection.P-class CpG-ODN injection was well tolerated with minor side effects. After the first injection a significant transient drop in circulating total leukocytes, lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes were observed. A transient drop in circulating eosinophils was also noted during 48 hours after each CpG injection. P-class CpG-ODN at a dose of 5 mg can be safely used in horses. A redistribution of white blood cells was observed in horses receiving CpG, but no change in plasma cytokines was observed at the indicated dose, route of administration and sampling times. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy.
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes (2018)

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen storage diseases but their role has been overlooked in equine PSSM. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial function is impaired in the myofibers of PSSM-affected horses. Nine horses with a history of recurrent exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis were tested for the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) mutation: 5 were tested positive (PSSM group) and 4 were tested negative (horses suffering from rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, RUO group). Microbiopsies were collected from the gluteus medius (gm) and triceps brachii (tb) muscles of PSSM, RUO and healthy controls (HC) horses and used for histological analysis and for assessment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) using high-resolution respirometry. The modification of mitochondrial respiration between HC, PSSM and RUO horses varied according to the muscle and to substrates feeding OXPHOS. In particular, compared to HC horses, the gm muscle of PSSM horses showed decreased OXPHOS- and electron transfer (ET)-capacities in presence of glutamate&malate&succinate. RUO horses showed a higher OXPHOS-capacity (with glutamate&malate) and ET-capacity (with glutamate&malate&succinate) in both muscles in comparison to the PSSM group. When expressed as ratios, our results highlighted a higher contribution of the NADH pathway (feeding electrons into Complex I) to maximal OXPHOS or ET-capacity in both rhabdomyolysis groups compared to the HC. Specific modifications in mitochondrial function might contribute to the pathogenesis of PSSM and of other types of exertional rhabdomyolyses. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of methacholine bronchoprovocation test for the diagnosis of asymptomatic severe equine asthma
Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; Frellstedt, Linda; Tosi, Irène ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

Reasons for performing study: A group of experts in the field of equine respiratory disorders has recently proposed to rename Inflammatory Airway Disease and Recurrent Airway Obstruction as mild to ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: A group of experts in the field of equine respiratory disorders has recently proposed to rename Inflammatory Airway Disease and Recurrent Airway Obstruction as mild to moderate and severe equine asthma (SEA) respectively, in reference of the human asthma. One of the characteristics of asthma, in equine and human patients, is the absence of clinical signs during clinical remission. Methacholine bronchoprovocation test (BPT), which is a standard diagnostic test for detection of asymptomatic human asthma, has been used in some research protocols in horses but no study has examined its potential value for clinical diagnostic. Objectives: To assess whether the methacholine bronchoprovocation test is an applicable and repeatable clinical test to distinguish control horses and SEA horses in clinical remission. Methods: Twelve horses (6 with SEA history and 6 controls). Seven of them (3 SEA and 4 control horses) underwent BPT twice at a 24-hour-interval to determine the repeatability of the test. Then all horses were tested before and after a 7-days period in a stall environment. Simultaneously, usual ancillary pulmonary examinations were performed. Results: The BPT had a good feasibility and a significant repeatability. Before the stay in stalls, SEA and controls horses could not be differentiated by the BPT. After a 7-days period of straw and hay exposure, the bronchial hyperresponsiveness was increased in both SEA and control horses, while the other clinical or functional parameters were not significantly affected. The 7-days period in stalls resulted in a significant difference in bronchoreactivity between SEA and control horses. Conclusions: Methacholine BPT does not permit to differentiate control and asymptomatic SEA horses in clinical remission, unless the horses have been kept in stalls. Potential relevance: These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma differ between human and equine patients. Nevertheless, the BPT may be used to detect asymptomatic severe asthmatic horses after a light environmental challenge. Further researches are needed to assess the clinical interest of BPT for subclinical mild-moderate equine asthma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome after surgical correction of cleft palate by laryngeal tie-forward in 2 horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and dysphagia, with a guarded to poor prognosis if not treated. Surgical intervention consists mainly in palatoplasty that is considered a salvage procedure and complications are frequent. Only few cases of cleft palate in adult horses are described in literature. Laryngeal tie-forward, a surgical technique generally used to treat dorsal displacement of the soft palate, has been described only in one 4-year-old pony with cleft palate but clinical improvement after surgery was partial and temporary. Objectives: To describe laryngeal tie-forward as a valid option for the treatment of cleft palate in two adult horses not suitable for palatoplasty. Methods: Clinical records of two 8 y.o. jumping horses performing respectively at a low and intermediate intensity of exercise and competition. Both horses were referred for respiratory noise, exercise intolerance, cough and alimentary nasal discharge; they were diagnosed with a moderate soft palate defect and surgically treated by laryngeal tie-forward. A clinical examination and control endoscopy were realized at 4 months for one horse and at 3 years after surgery for the other. Results: In both horses postoperative endoscopy showed a visible reduction of the gap between soft palate and the larynx so that the epiglottis was covering the soft palate defect. One horse was examined 4 months after surgery, a residual respiratory noise during exercise was still present but lighter than prior to intervention, its performances had remarkably improved. The second horse was controlled 3 years after surgery, some cough was still observed but limited to the onset of exercise, performances were satisfying and the horse was working at the same intensity level. Globally, in both horses, initial symptoms had disappeared or were significantly reduced after surgery and owners were satisfied. Reduction of the soft palate defect was still effective, even several months after surgery. Conclusions: The description of these two clinical cases shows that some horses can grow up to adult age with moderate defects of the soft palate; they are likely to show clinical signs of variable severity. In such cases laryngeal tie-forward should be considered as an option if the defect is too large or asymmetrical to be corrected with palatoplasty. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système respiratoire chez le cheval : le maillon faible de la chaîne de l'oxygène ?
Art, Tatiana ULiege; Tosi, Irène ULiege

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Equine (2016), 11(41), 6-11

Des études ont montré que la résistance des voies supérieures contribue pour 90% de la résistance totale lors de l'inspiration, alors que les voies profondes contribuent pour 50% de la résistance totale ... [more ▼]

Des études ont montré que la résistance des voies supérieures contribue pour 90% de la résistance totale lors de l'inspiration, alors que les voies profondes contribuent pour 50% de la résistance totale lors de l'expiration. Les maladies respiratoires sont, après les problèmes troubles ostéo-articulaires et les boiteries, la seconde cause d'intolérance à l'effort et de réforme chez les chevaux de course et de sport. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of a CpG-ODN on the innate immune system of the horse: an in-vivo trial
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Pirottin, Dimitri ULiege; Fievez, Laurence ULiege et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing cytosine-phosphate-guanosine motifs (CpG-ODN) represent a class of agonists of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 activation induces the secretion of cytokines and the ... [more ▼]

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing cytosine-phosphate-guanosine motifs (CpG-ODN) represent a class of agonists of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 activation induces the secretion of cytokines and the maturation of immune cells, thus initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, CpG-ODN has been investigated in different species as a potential immune-modulator targeting infectious, allergic and neoplastic diseases. It has been administered by nebulisation to RAO-affected horses with promising results. Nonetheless, there is no in-vivo study on the effect of CpG administered systemically to the horse. Therefore, we tested the effect of CpG, given by intramuscular injection, on the equine immune response. Eight horses were used for this study. Five mg/horse were injected to 4 horses at D0 and D7; the other horses received a placebo (PBS). Blood was collected 2 days prior to each injection, then regularly up to D21. A clinical exam was realised daily. Laboratory analyses included haematology, ELISA tests for IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 and cytometry analyses for MCHII and CD86 expressions on B-lymphocytes. A cross-over of the 2 groups was realised after 2 months of washout. CpG was well tolerated. Significant transient eosinopenia, monocytosis and leukopenia were observed after CpG injection, while ELISA and cytometry analyses did not reveal any significant modification. This trial represents the first in-vivo study where CpG is administered systemically to healthy horses. Further studies are needed to adjust the dose, the formulation and the sampling schedule and to fully investigate this molecule as potentiel modulator of the equine immune system. [less ▲]

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