Publications of Jean-Louis Croisier
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See detailCurrent practice for safe return-to-play after lateral ankle sprain: A survey among French-speaking physicians
Aguilaniu, Aude ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in Foot and Ankle Surgery (in press)

Background: Recommendations are available for assessment criteria for safe return-to-play (RTP) after a lateral ankle sprain. However, their current use among physicians is unknown. Methods: French ... [more ▼]

Background: Recommendations are available for assessment criteria for safe return-to-play (RTP) after a lateral ankle sprain. However, their current use among physicians is unknown. Methods: French-speaking physicians in Belgium, France and Switzerland were asked to complete an online survey and report their clinical assessment of selected RTP criteria. Results:The respondent sample (n = 109) included physicians with and without Sports Medicine education, varied level of experience and proportion of athletes in their practice population. Pain was the most selected criterion for safe RTP (90% of physicians), followed by ability to engage in functional tasks (82%), functional instability (73%), range of motion (61%), proprioception (47%), mechanical instability (39%), strength (38%) and swelling (31%). A low proportion of physicians use quantitative measures to assess these criteria (between 4% and 53%). Conclusions: A large proportion of physicians consider the recommended criteria for RTP decisions. However, physicians do not frequently use quantitative measures. [less ▲]

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See detailReliability of ankle evertors, invertors and dorsiflexors one-repetition maximal (1-RM)
Aguilaniu, Aude ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege et al

Conference (2021, September 08)

INTRODUCTION: After a Musculo-skeletal injury, monitoring rehabilitation could help practitioners to objectify improvement and to decide how to adapt their treatment. Muscle strength is one essential ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: After a Musculo-skeletal injury, monitoring rehabilitation could help practitioners to objectify improvement and to decide how to adapt their treatment. Muscle strength is one essential component of rehabilitation in general. One – Repetition Maximal (1-RM) is a reliable measure that helps practitioners to quantitatively assess muscle strength (Grgic et al., 2020). A large majority of muscles could be assessed with 1-RM, however we do not know if the assessment of ankle muscle strength could be assessed using 1-RM in reliable way. The aim of this study was to determine the level of Intrarater agreement of ankle 1-RM. METHODS: Twenty-fou r healthy young adults (10 women and 14 men) volunteered to participate in this study. One – Repetition maximal of ankle evertors, invertors and dorsiflexors were measured with participants lying supine with the calf of tested ankle on a step (knee flexed approximately to 30-40°) and a complete flexion of the other leg. The measurement were performed over one week by the same assessor on the same vertical pulley. Intrarater reliability was determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the measurement error was determine using the standard errors of measurement (SEM) minimal detectable change (MDC). RESULTS: Intrarater reliability in healthy women for inversion, eversion and dorsiflexion 1-RM was good to excellent (ICC=0.69–0.95) with relatively low measurement errors (SEM=1.31 - 1.84 and MDC=3.62-5.10). Intrarater reliability in healthy men for inversion, eversion and dorsiflexion 1-RM was fair to excellent (ICC=0.54–0.84) with relatively low measurement errors (SEM=2.94 - 4.45 and MDC=8.14 – 12.3). CONCLUSION: The assessment of ankle evertors, investors and dorsiflexors 1-RM is reliable in healthy young adults. This results has to be studied on injured adults but it is a promising method easy to use in rehabilitation after ankle injury. Reference: Grgic, J., Lazinica, B., Schoenfeld, B. J., & Pedisic, Z. (2020). Test–Retest Reliability of the One-Repetition Maximum (1RM) Strength Assessment: a Systematic Review. Sports Medicine - Open, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-00260-z [less ▲]

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See detailKnee strength measurement: Can we switch between isokinetic dynamometers?
Paulus, Julien ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; FORTHOMME, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in Isokinetics and Exercise Science (2021), 29(3), 247-268

BACKGROUND: Isokinetic evaluation is considered the gold standard in muscle strength measurement due to its sensitivity, intra-dynamometer reproducibility and usefulness in the injury prevention screening ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Isokinetic evaluation is considered the gold standard in muscle strength measurement due to its sensitivity, intra-dynamometer reproducibility and usefulness in the injury prevention screening and follow up of subjects with musculoskeletal pathologies, neurological disease or after surgical operation. However, can one switch among different isokinetic dynamometers for the purpose of knee muscles evaluation? OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate the compatibility of the isokinetic short concentric and eccentric strength evaluation protocol and of the fatigability resistance evaluation between three different isokinetic devices. METHODS: Eighteen recreationally active men underwent three isokinetic knee testing sessions on three different isokinetic devices with 7–10 days of rest between each session. Relative (Pearson’s r product-moment correlation coefficient – PCC) and absolute (standard error of measurement – SEM, Cohen effect sizes (d) and probabilistic inferences – MBI) parameters of reproducibility were determined to assess the inter-dynamometer agreement. RESULTS: For the short concentric and eccentric strength evaluation protocol, the extensors in concentric mode and the flexors in eccentric mode can be compared (eventually with transposition formulas provided) between Biodex, Con-Trex and Cybex (almost all PCC  0.80). The DCR could be compared between Con-Trex and Cybex and between Biodex and Cybex pairs (eventually with transposition formula provided). For the fatigability resistance evaluation protocol, the total sum can be compared for extensors (eventually with transposition formulas provided) for PM for all dynamometer pairs considered and, in the case of MW, only for Biodex and Con-Trex (PCC  0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Only some of the parameters derived either from the short concentric and eccentric strength evaluation protocol or the fatigability resistance evaluation protocol may be interchangeable providing transposition formulas are applied. Otherwise, isokinetic findings are largely system-dependent save some specific instances. [less ▲]

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See detailUpper limb field tests and tennis serve performance: which tests to choose?
Tooth, Camille ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Tubez, François ULiege et al

in Journal of Medicine and Science in Tennis (2021), 27(1),

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See detailDevelopment of a new fatigability jumping protocol : Effect of the test duration on reproducibility and performance
Paulus, Julien ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Science et Sports (2021), 36(3), 95-102

The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and isokinetic fatigability protocols are mainly used to evaluate the anaerobic power of athletes for whom jumping is a predominant action in their sport. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and isokinetic fatigability protocols are mainly used to evaluate the anaerobic power of athletes for whom jumping is a predominant action in their sport. Nevertheless, the testing protocol must be as close as possible to the activity pattern of the sport to be valid. Therefore, for these athletes, the test should consist of repetitions of jumps that are task-specific. Our aim was to propose a new jumping protocol allowing for specific assessment of fatigue, to examine its absolute and relative reliability and to determine its ideal duration. Twenty male volleyball performed fifty countermovement jumps (CMJ) at a rate of 33 jumps per minute on two occasions, with seven days recovery between each session. Jump height was computed for each CMJ using a 3D optoelectronic system, which was subsequently added to determine cumulative performance after 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 repetitions. Reliability of the average jump height was not affected by the lengthening of the protocol and was high for all considered durations (ICC > 0.94; SEM < 5%). A decrease in performance was directly and proportionally related to the duration of the fatigability protocol. Measuring average jump height during a protocol involving 25 CMJ at the rate of 33 jumps per minute appears to represent the best compromise between reliability, induced fatigue and physiological considerations. Moreover, until 25 repetitions, the partial sums by five repetitions can and should be used to further explore the subject's performance during the test. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs de risque de lésions d'épaule chez le sportif overhead
Tooth, Camille ULiege; Gofflot, Amandine ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in Ortho-Rhumato (2021), 19(1), 13-16

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See detailGardiens de but en football : caractéristiques et pathologies spécifiques
Letiexhe, Antoine ULiege; Delvaux, François ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2021), 38(1), 28-36

Goalkeepers are important players in a soccer team. Their purpose is to not take a goal. They are the only ones authorized to grab the ball with their hands. They have different physical characteristics ... [more ▼]

Goalkeepers are important players in a soccer team. Their purpose is to not take a goal. They are the only ones authorized to grab the ball with their hands. They have different physical characteristics and abilities from other players. They cover approximately half of the distance of the outfield players. They have few decisive actions (2 to 10) but it is at a high intensity (jumps, dives, sprints). Goalkeepers are different players, so they are exposed to different types of injuries. The incidence of injury is lesser than other, 4,6 per 1000 hours of soccer exposure against 8 for the out fields players. Injuries in the upper extremity are 5 times more frequent in goalkeepers than other, with longer days of absence. Appropriate training combined with specific prevention programs should contribute to the reduction of injuries and the optimization of their soccer potential. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la résistance à la fatigue musculaire de cheville avec un outil de destabilisation
Aguilaniu, Aude ULiege; Amand, Laurie; Hallais, Etienne et al

Conference (2021, February 17)

Background : Lateral ankle sprain is the most common ankle injury. Fatigue seems to play a role in this injury as it is at the end of a match (soccer or rugby) that ankle sprains occur most often. The ... [more ▼]

Background : Lateral ankle sprain is the most common ankle injury. Fatigue seems to play a role in this injury as it is at the end of a match (soccer or rugby) that ankle sprains occur most often. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a fatigue resistance test and to analyze the differences in the scores obtained according to the characteristics of our population. Material & Method: We recruited 40 active volunteers (25 men, 15 women, 23.2±2.7 years) with or without a history of sprains. They performed a unipodal support fatigue test with a Myolux® destabilization tool. The subjects had to perform a maximum number of repetitions of slow inversion and fast eversion. This test was performed twice at one week intervals. Subcategories were formed in our population. Results: The relative reproducibility was good ICC =0.80 [0.69-0.88] but the measurement error was relatively high (SEM=4.85 and MDC :13.5). A significant difference emerged between the healthy subjects who were statistically significantly better than the chronically unstable subjects (p<0.02). Conclusion: The muscle fatigue test with the Myolux® tool is reproducible. The number of repetitions of the inversion/eversion movement seems to be lower in subjects with chronic ankle instability, however to objectify an improvement or a difference between patients a difference of 14 repetitions is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailDocument, create and translate knowledge: the mission of ReFORM, the Francophone IOC Research Centre for Prevention of Injury and Protection of Athlete Health
Martens, Géraldine ULiege; Edouard, Pascal; Tscholl, Philippe et al

in British Journal of Sports Medicine (2021), 55(4), 187-188

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has supported athletes’ health protection by funding Research Centres dedicated to prevention and treatment of sports-related injuries and illnesses. After ... [more ▼]

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has supported athletes’ health protection by funding Research Centres dedicated to prevention and treatment of sports-related injuries and illnesses. After establishing four centres in 2009, the IOC Research Centres network expanded to 9 Institutions in 2014 and the 2019 round recognised 11 centres. Here we introduce ReFORM — an international French-speaking network of five institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes lésions partielles du ligament croisé antérieur
Sauvant, Céline ULiege; Delvaux, François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2020), 37(4), 208-215

Traumatic tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are the most common knee injury. About 10–27% of these tears are partial. Despite abundant study since the middle of the 20th century, there is no ... [more ▼]

Traumatic tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are the most common knee injury. About 10–27% of these tears are partial. Despite abundant study since the middle of the 20th century, there is no agreement on the definition of partial tears of the ACL, and no standard of care. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECTS OF A STRENUOUS ECCENTRIC KNEE EXTENSORS EXERCISE ON THREE DIMENSIONAL RUNNING BIOMECHANICS AND PHYSIOLOGIC PARAMETERS DURING AN EXHAUSTIVE ENDURANCE TEST.
Hody, Stéphanie ULiege; Bury, Thierry ULiege; VANDENBROECK, Benoît ULiege et al

in Müller, Erich (Ed.) Book of abstracts, ECSS 2020 (2020, October 28)

INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can affect the running pattern and endurance performance. However, the EIMD-induced changes in biomechanical and physiologic ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can affect the running pattern and endurance performance. However, the EIMD-induced changes in biomechanical and physiologic parameters remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single isokinetic eccentric (ECC) exercise and ensuing DOMS on running biomechanics, physiologic measures and muscle activity during an endurance exercise performed 48h later. METHODS: Twelve healthy , moderately active adult men completed two treadmill running tests (at 85% Maximal aerobic speed) until exhaustion, with a week interval between both tests. Participants were submitted to a bilateral isokinetic eccentric protocol on the knee extensors 48hours before the second test. The subject’s running kinematics (using a 3D motion system), heart rate, ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange and muscle activity were continuously recorded during the running tests. Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, plasma creatine kinase, muscle extensibility, muscle function were assessed before and 48h after the ECC exercise. RESULTS: In presence of EIMD, the running time to exhaustion was shorter (p<0.05) while the Borg rate of perceived exertion was higher (p<0.01). Muscle force and vertical jump performance were also reduced with EIMD. The physiological data showed no significant difference between both endurance tests, except for the lactate level and heart rate measured at the end of the test which appeared significantly higher with EIMD (p<0.05). In contrast, the 3D analysis revealed a significant decrease in stride length and a significant increase in stride frequency and stance phase with DOMS. Articular amplitudes and electromyography data showed no significant change although some trends are noteworthy, such as increased muscle activity. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the presence of knee extensors EIMD altered the running biomechanics and endurance performance without significative changes of the physiological parameters. Further investigations are required to explore whether the EIMD-induced biomechanical modifications are the result of pain perception or impaired muscle function. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of tDCS on Endurance Parameters in Confirmed Athletes
Bornheim, Stephen ULiege; Paulus, Julien ULiege; Bayard, Maxime et al

in Dela, F; Müller, E; Tsolakidis, E (Eds.) Book of abstracts - 25th anniversary congress - ECSS (2020, October)

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a multifactorial, complex phenomenon that limits athletes’ performances. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be an interesting option to reduce supraspinal ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a multifactorial, complex phenomenon that limits athletes’ performances. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be an interesting option to reduce supraspinal fatigue. However, to date, very little research has been done on the effects of tDCS on confirmed athletes. Our objective is to compare the effects of tDCS on endurance performance in confirmed athletes METHODS: Our study is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. 30 men aged between 18 and 30 years old were split into two groups (tDCS week 1 and sham week 2, or sham week 1 and tDCS week 2). All were right handed and footed, and had no positive answer on the TSST screening scale. They came to the University Hospital’s Isokinetic Lab twice to undergo a fatiguing protocol (30 maximal concentric repetitions over a 100° flexion amplitude at 180°/s). 20 min of either anodal or sham tDCS, with the anode over C3 and the cathode over FP2. We measured peak tork and work for both quadriceps and hamstrings in the dominant limb. RESULTS: There were no significant effects of tDCS compared to sham on quadriceps peak tork for the first 10, second 10 and final 10 repetitions (respectively 1,5%, 2% and 4,7% difference) or maximal work (respectively 1,5%, 2,5% and 5%), nor for first 10 repetitions of hamstring peak tork (2,5%) and work (3,6%). However, close to significant effects were seen on the second 10 contractions for peak tork values (p= 0,087, 4,75%) and significant effects were sean for the peak tork in the final 10 repetitions (7%), the maximal work in the second 10 repetitions (6,4%) and the final 10 repetitions (9%). CONCLUSION: Significant effects on hamstring fatigue were found after tDCS when compared to a sham treatment. These effects could potentially be explained by reducing supraspinal fatigue, or by decreasing perceived discomfort felt during the protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors influencing outcomes of rehabilitation for patients with lower limb loss
Pelzer, Doriane ULiege; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Benoît ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Abstract book of 22nd European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2020, September)

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See detailImpacts du sport de haut niveau sur le système locomoteur et endocrinien : état de la question
Conchin, Antoine ULiege; Delvaux, François ULiege; Radermecker, Régis ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2020), 37(3), 154-161

High performance sport has always had a considerable impact on the musculoskeletal system but also on the whole body of athletes. The main structures concerned are the bones, muscles, joints but also the ... [more ▼]

High performance sport has always had a considerable impact on the musculoskeletal system but also on the whole body of athletes. The main structures concerned are the bones, muscles, joints but also the endocrine system. The impact on these has been analyzed and to better understand the bio-physiological phenomena brought about by sport. We also emphasized the risks and the means of prevention concerning certain osteo-articular and muscular lesions. The influence of sports activity on hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone and cortisol has been developed, whether under stress or at rest. Finally, a paragraph was devoted to the use of doping products, the desired effects but also the risks generated. [less ▲]

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See detailL’union fait la force ! Le réseau francophone ReFORM est reconnu par le CIO pour faire avancer la prévention des blessures et la protection de la santé des athlètes
Edouard, Pascal; Bieuzen, François; Cabri, Jan et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2020), 37(2), 65-66

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