Publications of Jo CAERS
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See detailBispecific, T-Cell-Recruiting Antibodies in B-Cell Malignancies.
Lejeune, Margaux ULiege; Köse, Murat Cem ULiege; Duray, Elodie ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Immunology (2020), 11(762), 1-20

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are designed to recognize and bind to two different antigens or epitopes. In the last few decades, BsAbs have been developed within the context of cancer therapies and in ... [more ▼]

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are designed to recognize and bind to two different antigens or epitopes. In the last few decades, BsAbs have been developed within the context of cancer therapies and in particular for the treatment of hematologic B-cell malignancies. To date, more than one hundred different BsAb formats exist, including bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), and new constructs are constantly emerging. Advances in protein engineering have enabled the creation of BsAbs with specific mechanisms of action and clinical applications. Moreover, a better understanding of resistance and evasion mechanisms, as well as advances in the protein engineering and in immunology, will help generating a greater variety of BsAbs to treat various cancer types. This review focuses on T-cell-engaging BsAbs and more precisely on the various BsAb formats currently being studied in the context of B-cell malignancies, on ongoing clinical trials and on the clinical concerns to be taken into account in the development of new BsAbs. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-tracer PET/CT scan after injection of combined [ 18 F]NaF and [ 18 F]FDG outperforms MRI in the detection of myeloma lesions
WITHOFS, Nadia ULiege; Beguin, Yves ULiege; COUSIN, François ULiege et al

in Hematological Oncology (2019), 37

The detection rates of whole-body combined [ 18 F]NaF/[ 18 F]FDG positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), CT alone, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI), and X ... [more ▼]

The detection rates of whole-body combined [ 18 F]NaF/[ 18 F]FDG positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), CT alone, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI), and X-ray were prospectively studied in patients with treatment-requiring plasma cell disorders The detection rates of imaging techniques were compared, and focal lesions were classified according to their anatomic location. Twenty-six out of 30 initially included patients were assessable. The number of focal lesions detected in newly diagnosed patients (n = 13) and in relapsed patients (n = 13) were 296 and 234, respectively. The detection rate of PET/CT was significantly higher than those of WB-MRI (P < 0.05) and CT (P < 0.0001) both in patients with newly diagnosed and in those with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM). The X-ray detection rate was significantly lower than those of all other techniques, while CT detected more lesions compared with WB-MRI at diagnosis (P = 0.025). With regard to the infiltration patters, relapsed patients presented more diffuse patterns, and more focal lesions located in the limbs compared with newly diagnosed patients. In conclusion, the detection rate of [ 18 F]NaF/[ 18 F]FDG PET/CT was significantly higher than those of CT, MRI, and X-ray, while the detection rate of X-rays was significantly lower than those of all other imaging techniques except for focal lesions located in the skull. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered chondrocyte differentiation, matrix mineralization and MEK-Erk1/2 signaling in an INPPL1 catalytic knock-out mouse model of opsismodysplasia
Vande Catsyne, Charles-Andrew ULiege; Sayyed, Sufyan Ali ULiege; Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULiege et al

in Advances in Biological Regulation (2019)

Opsismodysplasia (OPS) is a rare but severe autosomal recessive skeletal chondrodysplasia caused by inactivating mutations in the Inppl1/Ship2 gene. The molecular mechanism leading from Ship2 gene ... [more ▼]

Opsismodysplasia (OPS) is a rare but severe autosomal recessive skeletal chondrodysplasia caused by inactivating mutations in the Inppl1/Ship2 gene. The molecular mechanism leading from Ship2 gene inactivation to OPS is currently unknown. Here, we used our Ship2∆/∆ mouse expressing reduced amount of a catalytically-inactive SHIP2 protein and a previously reported SHIP2 inhibitor to investigate growth plate development and mineralization in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro. First, as observed in OPS patients, catalytic inactivation of SHIP2 in mouse leads to reduced body length, shortening of long bones, craniofacial dysmorphism, reduced height of the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone and to defects in growth plate mineralization. Second, intrinsic Ship2∆/∆ bone defects were sufficient to induce the characteristic OPS alterations in bone growth, histology and mineralization ex vivo. Third, expression of osteocalcin was significantly increased in SHIP2-inactivated chondrocyte cultures whereas production of mineralized nodules was markedly decreased. Targeting osteocalcin mRNA with a specific shRNA increased the production of mineralized nodules. Fourth, levels of p-MEK and p-Erk1/2 were significantly increased in SHIP2-inactivated chondrocytes in response to serum and IGF-1, but not to FGF2, as compared to control chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrocytes and bones in culture with a MEK inhibitor partially rescued the production of mineralized nodules, the size of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and bone growth, raising the possibility of a treatment that could partially reduce the phenotype of this severe condition. Altogether, our results indicate that Ship2∆/∆ mice represent a relevant model for human OPS. They also highlight the important role of SHIP2 in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification and its different differentiation steps. Finally, we identified a role of osteocalcin in mineralized nodules production and for the MEK-Erk1/2 signaling pathway in the OPS phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of stromal galectin-1 enhances multiple myeloma development: Emphasis on a role in osteoclasts
Muller, Joséphine; Duray, Elodie ULiege; Lejeune, Margaux ULiege et al

in Cancers (2019), 11(2), 261

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See detailLa souris, le patient, et le faux expert. Décryptage d'une mystification.
Bakker, Julie ULiege; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege; Baron, Frédéric ULiege et al

Article for general public (2018)

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les ... [more ▼]

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les contrôles qui y sont associés induisent de nombreuses contraintes pratiques, des charges administratives et des coûts financiers importants que les chercheurs seraient certainement heureux d'éviter s'il existait une alternative à l'expérimentation animale. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is new in MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma
Vercruyssen, M.; Vrancken, Louise ULiege; CAERS, Jo ULiege

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2018), 9

Multiple Myeloma (MM) and other plasma cell malignancies initially present as an asymptomatic precursor state, known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermlned signiflcance (MG US). When confronted to a ... [more ▼]

Multiple Myeloma (MM) and other plasma cell malignancies initially present as an asymptomatic precursor state, known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermlned signiflcance (MG US). When confronted to a monoclonal proteln in blood or urine tests, physicians should first exclude the presence of a treatment-requiring MM. They should be aware that there are two benign precursor states, that do not require anti-myeloma trealment. Both MGUS and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) need an initial visit by a haematologist, with further follow-up tailored to the individual patient and disease characteristics. In the current article we describe both entitles, discuss their monitoring and resume the latest publications in their field. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma patients
Fostier, K.; CAERS, Jo ULiege

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2018), 9

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) can be challenging, especially in patients with light-chain or nonsecretory disease. The disease should be excluded in patients presenting with unexplained anaemia ... [more ▼]

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) can be challenging, especially in patients with light-chain or nonsecretory disease. The disease should be excluded in patients presenting with unexplained anaemia or renal failure and suspected in patients with signs of back pain combined with other systemic symptoms, such as fatigue and weight loss, or back pain combined with ab normal blood tests. The diagnosis is based on clinical, biological and radiological abnormalities that are resumed in the current article. At diagnosis, additional cytogenetic testing is important to determine the prognosis and guide physicians in their treatment choices. The disease is generally monitored by quantitying the monoclonal proteins in blood or urine. The follow-up of patients can be further tailored to the patients' general status, obtained response and disease characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of lenalidomide maintenance on the immune environment of multiple myeloma patients with low tumor burden after autologous stem cell transplantation
Fostier, K.; Caers, Jo ULiege; Meuleman, N. et al

in Oncotarget (2018), 9(29), 20476-20489

Lenalidomide is a potent anti-myeloma drug with immunomodulatory properties. It is increasingly used in a low-dose maintenance setting to prolong remission duration after standard treatment. Data on the ... [more ▼]

Lenalidomide is a potent anti-myeloma drug with immunomodulatory properties. It is increasingly used in a low-dose maintenance setting to prolong remission duration after standard treatment. Data on the in vivo effects of lenalidomide are scarce and sometimes different from the well-described in vitro effects. We therefore evaluated the numerical, phenotypical and functional impact of lenalidomide maintenance on several immune cell types in a cohort of seventeen homogeneously treated myeloma patients achieving a low residual myeloma burden after a bortezomib based-induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Lenalidomide maintenance: 1) increased the fraction of naïve CD8+ T cells and several memory T-cell subsets, 2) reduced the numbers of terminal effector CD8+ T cells, 3) resulted in a higher expression of co-stimulatory molecules on resting T cells and of the inhibitory checkpoint molecules LAG-3 on CD4+ T cells and TIM-3 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, 4) reduced the number of TIGIT+ CD8+ T cells, 5) increased the number of regulatory T cells with a phenotype associated with strong suppressive capacity. Purified CD8+ T cells showed increased and more polyfunctional recall viral responses. However, PBMC responses were not enhanced during lenalidomide maintenance and CD4+ T-cell responses specific for the myeloma-associated antigen MAGE-C1 even tended to become lower. We conclude that lenalidomide maintenance after autologous stem cell transplantation has complex pleotropic effects on the immune environment. Immune interventions such as anti-myeloma vaccination should include measures to tackle an expanded inhibitory Treg compartment. © Fostier et al. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is a novel target for proliferation associated high-risk myeloma.
Bolomsky, Arnold; Heusschen, Roy ULiege; Schlangen, Karin et al

in Haematologica (2018), 103

Treatment of high-risk patients is a major challenge in multiple myeloma. This is especially true for patients assigned to the gene-expression-profiling defined proliferation subgroup. Although recent ... [more ▼]

Treatment of high-risk patients is a major challenge in multiple myeloma. This is especially true for patients assigned to the gene-expression-profiling defined proliferation subgroup. Although recent efforts have identified some key players of proliferative myeloma, genetic interactions and players that can be targeted with clinically effective drugs have to be identified to overcome the poor prognosis of these patients. We therefore examined maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) for its implications in hyper-proliferative myeloma and analysed the activity of the MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 in vitro and in vivo. MELK was found to be significantly overexpressed in the proliferative subgroup of myeloma. This finding translated into poor overall survival in patients with high vs. low MELK expression. Enrichment analysis of upregulated genes in myeloma cells of MELKhigh patients confirmed the strong implications in myeloma cell proliferation. Targeting of MELK with OTSSP167 impaired the growth and survival of myeloma cells, thereby affecting central survival factors such as MCL-1 and IRF4. This activity was also observed in the 5TGM.1 murine model of myeloma. OTSSP167 reduced bone marrow infiltration and serum paraprotein levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we revealed a strong link between MELK and other proliferation associated high-risk genes (PLK-1, EZH2, FOXM1, DEPDC1) and MELK inhibition also impaired the expression of those genes. We therefore conclude that MELK is an essential component of a proliferative gene signature and that pharmacological inhibition of MELK represents an attractive novel approach to overcome the poor prognosis of high-risk patients with a proliferative expression pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailSchnitzler syndrome associated with hairy cell leukemia presenting with chronic urticaria and arthralgias
Fank, H.; Caers, Jo ULiege; Marot, L. et al

in JAAD Case Reports (2018), 4(4), 386-389

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See detailExosomes play a role in multiple myeloma bone disease and tumor development by targeting osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
Faict, Sylvia; Muller, Joséphine ULiege; De Veirman, Kim et al

in Blood Cancer Journal (2018), 8(11), 105

Progression of multiple myeloma (MM) is largely dependent on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment wherein communication through different factors including extracellular vesicles takes place. This cross ... [more ▼]

Progression of multiple myeloma (MM) is largely dependent on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment wherein communication through different factors including extracellular vesicles takes place. This cross-talk not only leads to drug resistance but also to the development of osteolysis. Targeting vesicle secretion could therefore simultaneously ameliorate drug response and bone disease. In this paper, we examined the effects of MM exosomes on different aspects of osteolysis using the 5TGM1 murine model. We found that 5TGM1 sEVs, or 'exosomes', not only enhanced osteoclast activity, they also blocked osteoblast differentiation and functionality in vitro. Mechanistically, we could demonstrate that transfer of DKK-1 led to a reduction in Runx2, Osterix, and Collagen 1A1 in osteoblasts. In vivo, we uncovered that 5TGM1 exosomes could induce osteolysis in a similar pattern as the MM cells themselves. Blocking exosome secretion using the sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869 not only increased cortical bone volume, but also it sensitized the myeloma cells to bortezomib, leading to a strong anti-tumor response when GW4869 and bortezomib were combined. Altogether, our results indicate an important role for exosomes in the BM microenvironment and suggest a novel therapeutic target for anti-myeloma therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor OTSSP167 has preclinical activity on multiple myeloma bone disease.
Muller, Joséphine ULiege; Bolomsky, Arnold; Dubois, Sophie ULiege et al

in Haematologica (2018), 103

Multiple myeloma bone disease is characterized by an uncoupling of bone remodeling in the multiple myeloma microenvironment, resulting in the development of lytic bone lesions. Most myeloma patients ... [more ▼]

Multiple myeloma bone disease is characterized by an uncoupling of bone remodeling in the multiple myeloma microenvironment, resulting in the development of lytic bone lesions. Most myeloma patients suffer from these bone lesions, which not only causes morbidity but also negatively impacts survival. The development of novel therapies, ideally with a combined anti-resorptive and bone-anabolic effect, is of great interest because lesions persist with the current standard of care, even in patients in complete remission. We have previously shown that MELK plays a central role in proliferation-associated high-risk multiple myeloma and its inhibition with OTSSP167 resulted in decreased tumor load. MELK inhibition in bone cells has not yet been explored, although some reports suggest factors downstream of MELK stimulate osteoclast activity and inhibit osteoblast activity, which makes MELK inhibition a promising therapeutic approach. Therefore, we assessed the effect of OTSSP167 on bone cell activity and the development of myeloma-induced bone disease. OTSSP167 inhibited osteoclast activity in vitro by decreasing progenitor viability as well as via a direct anti-resorptive effect on mature osteoclasts. In addition, OTSSP167 stimulated matrix deposition and mineralization by osteoblasts in vitro. This combined anti-resorptive and osteoblast-stimulating effect of OTSSP167 resulted in the complete prevention of lytic lesions and bone loss in myeloma-bearing mice. Immunohistomorphometric analyses corroborated our in vitro findings. In conclusion, we show that OTSSP167 has a direct effect on myeloma-induced bone disease in addition to its anti-multiple myeloma effect, which warrants further clinical development of MELK inhibition in multiple myeloma. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean myeloma network recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients with rare plasma cell dyscrasias.
Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Musto, Pellegrino; Caers, Jo ULiege et al

in Leukemia (2018), 32(9), 1883-1898

The introduction of novel agents in the management of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell dyscrasias has changed our treatment approaches and subsequently the outcome of patients. Due to current ... [more ▼]

The introduction of novel agents in the management of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell dyscrasias has changed our treatment approaches and subsequently the outcome of patients. Due to current advances, the European Myeloma Network updated the diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), AL-amyloidosis, monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD), POEMS syndrome, and primary plasma cell leukemia. For patients with WM, the combination of rituximab with chemotherapy remains the treatment cornerstone, while the Bruton-tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has been introduced and approved for relapsed/refractory disease. The management of light chain amyloidosis depends on the presence and severity of heart disfunction. If present, intensification with an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is not recommended. Further aggregation of misfolded light chains could be prevented by doxycycline or monoclonal antibodies targeting amyloid deposits. Initial treatment generally consists of melphalan/dexamethasone or bortezomib-based regimens. For relapsing patients, one can consider proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, melphalan or daratumumab. Because intact or light-chain immunoglobulins are also the culprits for MIDD, the small monoclonal plasma cells' clones should be treated and generally respond well to bortezomib-based treatment. POEMS syndrome is a well-defined clinical entity that can present as solitary bone lesions or disseminated disease. Radiation therapy is used for patients with localized disease and result in long-lasting response. Systemic treatment should be proposed to patients with disseminated disease, but regimens that can worsen a pre-existing polyneuropathy should be avoided. PPCL is located at the other end of the spectrum of plasma cell disorders and is associated with an aggressive disease course and poor prognosis. It requires an imminent, multi-phase and novel agents-based therapy, including induction, ASCT, consolidation and maintenance, with short treatment-free intervals. Patients not eligible for transplant procedures require personalized, intensive therapeutic approach. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be used in selected patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis, treatment, and response assessment in solitary plasmacytoma: updated recommendations from a European Expert Panel.
Caers, Jo ULiege; Paiva, B.; Zamagni, E. et al

in Journal of Hematology and Oncology (2018), 11(1), 10

Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone ... [more ▼]

Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone marrow aspiration can detect a low monoclonal plasma cell infiltration which indicates a high risk of early progression to an overt myeloma disease. Before treatment initiation, whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed to exclude the presence of additional malignant lesions. For decades, treatment has been based on high-dose radiation, but studies exploring the potential benefit of systemic therapies for high-risk patients are urgently needed. In this review, a panel of expert European hematologists updates the recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Myeloma Network recommendations on tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma: what to use and when
Caers, Jo ULiege; Garderet, Laurent; Kortum, K. Martin et al

in Haematologica (2018), 103

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma can be challenging, even for experienced physicians, and requires close collaboration between multiple disciplines (orthopedics, radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation ... [more ▼]

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma can be challenging, even for experienced physicians, and requires close collaboration between multiple disciplines (orthopedics, radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, hematology and oncology) before the final diagnosis of myeloma is made. The definition of multiple myeloma is based on the presence of clinical, biochemical, histo-pathological, and radiological disease markers. At presentation and during follow-up, specific tests are needed for exact disease characterization and correct diagnosis. These tests can also serve as prognostic markers and are useful for follow-up of a myeloma patient. In addition, molecular analyses remain pivotal for defining high-risk myeloma and are used in updated patient stratifications, while minimal residual disease assessment via flow cytometry, molecular techniques and radiological approaches allow to acquire additional prognostic information on patients' long-term outcome. This pivotal information will guide our future treatment decisions in forthcoming clinical trials. The European Myeloma Network group here updated their guidelines on different diagnostic recommendations, which should be of value to allow their appropriate use both at diagnosis and follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient-centered practice in elderly myeloma patients: an overview and consensus from the European Myeloma Network (EMN).
Larocca, Alessandra; Dold, Sandra Maria; Zweegman, Sonja et al

in Leukemia (2018), 32

Multiple myeloma is a disease typical of the elderly, and, because of the increase in life expectancy of the general population, its incidence is expected to grow in the future. Elderly patients represent ... [more ▼]

Multiple myeloma is a disease typical of the elderly, and, because of the increase in life expectancy of the general population, its incidence is expected to grow in the future. Elderly patients represent a particular challenge due to their marked heterogeneity. Many new and highly effective drugs have been introduced in the last few years and results from clinical trials are promising. Besides the availability of novel agents, a careful evaluation of elderly patients showed to be a key factor for the success of therapy. A geriatric assessment is a valid strategy to better stratify patients. In particular, different scores are available today to appropriately assess elderly patients and define their fitness/frailty status. The choice of treatment-transplantation, triplets, doublets, or reduced-dose therapies including novel agents-should depend on the patient's fitness status (fit, intermediate-fit or frail). Second-generation novel agents have also been evaluated as salvage therapy in the elderly, and these new agents certainly represent a further step forward in the treatment armamentarium for elderly patients with multiple myeloma. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom transplant to novel cellular therapies in multiple myeloma: EMN guidelines and future perspectives.
Gay, Francesca; Engelhardt, Monika; Terpos, Evangelos et al

in Haematologica (2018), 103

Survival of myeloma patients has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation and novel agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies ... [more ▼]

Survival of myeloma patients has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation and novel agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies. Compared to bortezomib- and lenalidomide-based regimens alone, the addition of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous transplantation significantly improves progression-free survival; although an overall survival benefit was not observed in all trials. Moreover, follow-up of recent trials is still too short to show any difference in survival. In the light of these findings, novel agent-based induction followed by autologous transplantation is considered the standard upfront treatment for eligible patients (level of evidence: 1A). Post-transplant consolidation and maintenance treatment can further improve patient outcome (1A). The availability of several novel agents has led to the development of multiple combination regimens as salvage treatment options. In this context, the role of salvage autologous transplantation and allotransplant have not been extensively evaluated. In case of prolonged remission after upfront autologous transplantation, another autologous transplantation at relapse can be considered (2B). Patients who experience early relapse and/or have high-risk features have a poor prognosis and may be considered as candidates for clinical trials that - in young and fit patients - may also include an allograft in combination with novel agents (2B). Ongoing studies are evaluating the role of novel cellular therapies, such as inclusion of antibody-based triplets and quadruplets and Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells: despite preliminary encouraging results, longer follow-up and larger patient numbers are needed before their clinical use can be widely recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention and management of adverse events of novel agents in multiple myeloma: a consensus of the European Myeloma Network.
Ludwig, Heinz; Delforge, Michel; Facon, Thierry et al

in Leukemia (2018), 32

During the last few years, several new drugs have been introduced for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, which have significantly improved the treatment outcome. All of these novel substances ... [more ▼]

During the last few years, several new drugs have been introduced for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, which have significantly improved the treatment outcome. All of these novel substances differ at least in part in their mode of action from similar drugs of the same drug class, or are representatives of new drug classes, and as such present with very specific side effect profiles. In this review, we summarize these adverse events, provide information on their prevention, and give practical guidance for monitoring of patients and for management of adverse events. [less ▲]

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See detailL’expérimentation animale reste indispensable (OPINION)
Amorim, Christiani; Andris, Fabienne; Arckens, Lut et al

Article for general public (2017)

Trop fréquemment, l’expérimentation animale est présentée comme une pratique archaïque. Elle a bien changé. Et 100 % des patients traités le sont grâce aux concepts et techniques développés grâce à elle.

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