Publications of Jean-Baptiste GIOT
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See detailAge-dependent impact of the major common genetic risk factor for COVID-19 on severity and mortality.
Nakanishi, Tomoko; Pigazzini, Sara; Degenhardt, Frauke et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (2021), Online ahead of print.

BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes amongst younger adults-and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. We characterized the clinical implications of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes amongst younger adults-and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. We characterized the clinical implications of the major genetic risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and its age-dependent effect, using individual-level data in a large international multi-centre consortium. METHOD: The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is a chromosome 3 locus, tagged by the marker rs10490770. We combined individual level data for 13,424 COVID-19 positive patients (N=6,689 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in nine countries to assess the association of this genetic marker with mortality, COVID-19-related complications and laboratory values. We next examined if the magnitude of these associations varied by age and were independent from known clinical COVID-19 risk factors. FINDINGS: We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·2-1·6) and COVID-19 related mortality (HR 1·5, 95%CI 1·3-1·8). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95%CI 1·6-2·6), venous thromboembolism (OR 1·7, 95%CI 1·2-2·4), and hepatic injury (OR 1·6, 95%CI 1·2-2·0). Risk allele carriers ≤ 60 years had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR 2·6, 95%CI 1·8-3·9) compared to those > 60 years OR 1·5 (95%CI 1·3-1·9, interaction p-value=0·04). Amongst individuals ≤ 60 years who died or experienced severe respiratory COVID-19 outcome, we found that 31·8% (95%CI 27·6-36·2) were risk variant carriers, compared to 13·9% (95%CI 12·6-15·2%) of those not experiencing these outcomes. Prediction of death or severe respiratory failure among those ≤ 60 years improved when including the risk allele (AUC 0·82 vs 0·84, p=0·016) and the prediction ability of rs10490770 risk allele was similar to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. INTERPRETATION: The major common COVID-19 risk locus on chromosome 3 is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality-and these are more pronounced amongst individuals ≤ 60 years. The effect on COVID-19 severity was similar to, or larger than most established risk factors, suggesting potential implications for clinical risk management. FUNDING: Funding was obtained by each of the participating cohorts individually. [less ▲]

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See detailLung and liver sarcoidosis‐like reaction induced by tocilizumab
Lambert, Nicolas ULiege; Hansen, Isabelle ULiege; El Moussaoui, Majdouline ULiege et al

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2021)

A drug‐induced sarcoidosis‐like reaction is a systemic granulomatous reaction indistinguishable from sarcoidosis and occurring in temporal relationship with a drug initiation. In this article, we report a ... [more ▼]

A drug‐induced sarcoidosis‐like reaction is a systemic granulomatous reaction indistinguishable from sarcoidosis and occurring in temporal relationship with a drug initiation. In this article, we report a patient who developed lung and liver granulomatous lesions following tocilizumab initiation for a giant cell arteritis. Infectious, toxic, neoplastic and inflammatory differential diagnoses were ruled out and lesions regressed after treatment cessation, leading to the diagnosis of tocilizumab induced sarcoidosis‐like reaction. We review the six cases reported so far and emphasize the value of a prompt diagnosis. Finally, we discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this rare reaction, which could help to better understand the pathophysiology of sarcoidosis. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolated pelvic bone involvement as a presentation of alveolar echinococcosis.
Cambier, Audrey ULiege; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULiege; LEONARD, Philippe ULiege et al

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2021), 21(8), 1192

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See detailTransmission of SARS-CoV-2 After COVID-19 Screening and Mitigation Measures for Primary School Children Attending School in Liège, Belgium.
Meuris, Christelle ULiege; Kremer, Cécile; Geerinck, Anton ULiege et al

in JAMA Network Open (2021), 4(10), 2128757

IMPORTANCE: Recent data suggest a relatively low incidence of COVID-19 among children. The possible role that children attending primary school may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly ... [more ▼]

IMPORTANCE: Recent data suggest a relatively low incidence of COVID-19 among children. The possible role that children attending primary school may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of the possible role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 21 to December 31, 2020, in a primary school in Liège, Belgium, among a volunteer sample of 181 children, parents, and school employees. EXPOSURES: Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection once a week for 15 weeks through throat washing, performed with 5 mL of saline and collected in a sterile tube after approximately 30 seconds of gargling. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In case of test positivity, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at determining the timing of symptom onset and symptom duration. SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequencing was also performed. Confirmed cases were linked based on available information on known contacts and viral sequences. RESULTS: A total of 181 individuals participated in this study, including 63 children (34 girls [54.0%]; mean [SD] age, 8.6 [1.9] years [range, 5-13 years]) and 118 adults (75 women [63.6%]; mean [SD] age, 42.5 [5.7] years [range, 30-59 years]). Forty-five individuals (24.9%) tested positive: 13 children (20.6%; 95% CI, 10.6%-30.6%) and 32 adults (27.1%; 95% CI, 19.1%-35.7%) (P = .34). Children were more often asymptomatic compared with adults (6 [46.2%; 95% CI, 19.1%-73.3%] vs 4 of 31 [12.9%; 95% CI, 1.3%-24.5%]; P = .04). The median duration of symptoms was shorter in children than in adults (0.00 days [IQR, 0.00-1.00 days] vs 15.00 days [IQR, 7.00-22.00 days]). A reconstruction of the outbreak revealed that most transmission events occurred between teachers and between children within the school. Of the observed household transmission events, most seemed to have originated from a child or teacher who acquired the infection at school. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite the implementation of several mitigation measures, the incidence of COVID-19 among children attending primary school in this study was comparable to that observed among teachers and parents. Transmission tree reconstruction suggests that most transmission events originated from within the school. Additional measures should be considered to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at school, including intensified testing. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19 by worldwide meta-analysis
The COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative; Gazon, Hélène; JUSZCZAK, Danusia ULiege et al

in Nature (2021)

The genetic makeup of an individual contributes to susceptibility and response to viral infection. While environmental, clinical and social factors play a role in exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

The genetic makeup of an individual contributes to susceptibility and response to viral infection. While environmental, clinical and social factors play a role in exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease severity, host genetics may also be important. Identifying host-specific genetic factors indicate biological mechanisms of therapeutic relevance and clarify causal relationships of modifiable environmental risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes. We formed a global network of researchers to investigate the role of human genetics in SARS-COV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. We describe the results of three genome-wide association meta-analyses comprising 49,562 COVID-19 patients from 46 studies across 19 countries worldwide. We reported 15 genome-wide significant loci that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe manifestations of COVID-19. Several of these loci correspond to previously documented associations to lung or autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. They also represent potentially actionable mechanisms in response to infection. We further identified smoking and body mass index as causal risk factors for severe COVID-19. The identification of novel host genetic factors associated with COVID-19, with unprecedented speed, was enabled by prioritization of shared resources and analytical frameworks. This working model of international collaboration a blue-print for future genetic discoveries in the event of pandemics or for any complex human disease. [less ▲]

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See detailCoronavirus et COVID-19 : le point sur une pandémie galopante.
Davenne, Eric ULiege; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege; HUYNEN, Pascale ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2020), 75

La communauté internationale fait actuellement face à une pandémie de syndrome respiratoire aigu due à un nouveau coronavirus, le SARS-CoV-2. Ce syndrome a été nommé COVID-19 pour COronaVIrus Disease 2019 ... [more ▼]

La communauté internationale fait actuellement face à une pandémie de syndrome respiratoire aigu due à un nouveau coronavirus, le SARS-CoV-2. Ce syndrome a été nommé COVID-19 pour COronaVIrus Disease 2019 par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Le point de départ de l’épidémie est la ville de Wuhan (Chine), où le virus aurait été transmis de l’animal à l’homme préalablement à la transmission inter-humaine. Il s’agit de la 3ème épidé-mie causée par un coronavirus après celles du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS) en 2003 et du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS) débutée en 2012. Le COVID-19 s’est rapidement propagé en Chine et se répand actuellement à travers le monde entier. L’infection touche surtout les patients de plus de 40 ans et la mortalité est accrue en présence de comorbidités. Les enfants sont, quant à eux, pauci- ou asymptomatiques. Le diagnostic repose, le plus souvent, sur la détection du génome viral au niveau du nasopharynx par des méthodes de biologie moléculaire. En l’absence de molécules anti-virales spéci-fiques, le traitement reste, à l’heure actuelle, principalement symptomatique. Force est de constater que la pandémie de COVID-19 est plus difficile à contrôler que ce que les premières données ne laissaient présager. L’élément clé face au SARS-CoV-2 est de limiter sa transmission. Les mesures de prévention reposent, principalement, sur l’application de mesures d’hygiène des mains adéquates et la désinfection de l’environnement, ainsi que sur des mesures de distance sociale visant à limiter les contacts dans la population et à protéger les populations à risque. [less ▲]

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See detailArthrites à Kingella kingae chez l'enfant : à propos de six cas.
ANTHOPOULOU, Anastasia ULiege; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege; FRERE, Julie ULiege et al

in Revue medicale de Liege (2019), 74(9), 475-478

We report six cases of children with probable or confirmed Kingella kingae bone and joint infections (BJI) and discuss the role of this pathogen in the pediatric population. The advent of Polymerase Chain ... [more ▼]

We report six cases of children with probable or confirmed Kingella kingae bone and joint infections (BJI) and discuss the role of this pathogen in the pediatric population. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) led to the recognition of the importance of Kingella kingae in several human diseases, particularly in BJI affecting children aged 6 to 48 months. Kingella kingae infections in children have most often a good prognosis provided that the diagnosis is discussed, appropriate diagnostic methods are performed and effective antibiotics are prescribed. [less ▲]

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See detailGanglionic tuberculosis in a Crohn’s disease patient treated by infliximab despite anti-tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis
VIEUJEAN, Sophie ULiege; BURY, Thierry ULiege; GASPARD, Laura ULiege et al

Conference (2019, February)

Infliximab is an IgG1κ monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) who have significantly improved the management of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), but with an ... [more ▼]

Infliximab is an IgG1κ monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) who have significantly improved the management of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), but with an increased risk of opportunistic infection, especially tuberculosis (TB). We report a case of a 54 years-old man with an ileal Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosed in July 2014 (Montreal classification at diagnosed: A2L1B1p-). Patient was an active smoker and was treated by budesonide for several flares. Two years after diagnosis, since he has been hospitalised for subocclusion treated with methylprednisolone, combination therapy by mercaptopurine and anti-TNFα was discussed for steroid dependence. Patient was screened for tuberculosis (TB). A latent tuberculosis (LTB) was highlighted based on a positive interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON TB) without clinical, microbiological and radiological evidence of active disease. A nine-month course of isoniazid (INH) 300 mg/day was started 4 weeks before the combination therapy with thiopurine/infliximab at the recommended doses. This treatment allowed a clinical remission and thiopurine could be stopped. Six months after completing INH for LTB and 1 month after cessation of thiopurine, patient was admitted in our emergency department for fever, dyspnoea and cough. Chest tomography showed large lymphadenopathies in the right pulmonary hilum and in the mediastinum. A fibroscopy with a bronchoalveolar lavage (with looking for bacillus of Koch) and an endobronchial ultrasound with biopsies were performed, both negative. Finally, a diagnosis of ganglionic tuberculosis was settled by a positive microscopic exam (auramine coloration) on an excised cervical lymphadenopathy. No resistance to usual anti-tuberculosis treatment was highlighted. Infliximab was immediately discontinued and anti-tuberculosis 4-drug regimen was initiated. Patient received Vedolizumab as IBD treatment 1 month later and he did not present any recurrence of TB infection or new flare of Crohn's disease up until now. This case report emphasizes that chemoprophylaxis for LTB does not completely protect against reactivation of TB in IBD patients treated by anti-TNF. It could be useful to study risk factors for reactivation of LTB in this treated by biologics population (monotherapy or combination therapy) to establish a case-by-case monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatic alveolar echinococcosis.
DETRY, Olivier ULiege; MEURISSE, Nicolas ULiege; Delwaide, Jean ULiege et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2018), 118(3), 200-201

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See detailAlveolar echinococcosis in southern Belgium: retrospective experience of a tertiary center.
Cambier, Audrey ULiege; LEONARD, Philippe ULiege; Losson, Bertrand ULiege et al

in European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (2018), 37(6), 1195-1196

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See detailPrise en charge multidisciplinaire de l'echinococcose alveolaire : le groupe Echino-Liege.
Cambier, Audrey; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege; LEONARD, Philippe ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2018), 73(3), 135-142

Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease due to the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. The definitive host is the red fox. Until recently, Belgium was considered a country at very low risk for ... [more ▼]

Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease due to the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. The definitive host is the red fox. Until recently, Belgium was considered a country at very low risk for alveolar echinococcosis. However, recent studies carried out in southern Belgium have revealed, through post-mortem examination, high prevalences (up to 62 %) in foxes. Cats and dogs can act as definitive hosts. Human are accidentally infected by ingestion of food contaminated by the feces. After a long incubation period, invasive hepatic lesions may appear, as well as extra-hepatic lesions. The disease may be fatal. The diagnosis is based on imaging techniques, serology and nucleic acid detection in tissues. Early diagnosis may allow surgical removal of the lesion associated with at least 2 years of albendazole postoperative treatment. In case of contraindication to surgery, a long term treatment with albendazole is necessary. Liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. This article presents the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutics features of this zoonotic disease. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Echinococcose alvéolaire, une zoonose émergente en Wallonie. Une approche « one health » par le groupe ECHINO-LIEGE
Cambier, Audrey ULiege; DETRY, Olivier ULiege; Lempereur, Laetitia ULiege et al

in Veterinaria: Bulletin d'Information de l'Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2018)

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See detailAlveolar echinococcosis is now endemic in southern Belgium
Cambier, A; Leonard, Philippe ULiege; Losson, Bertrand ULiege et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2018, January), 81(1), 31

Introduction: Until now, Belgium has been considered as a low-risk country for alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However it was recently demonstrated by necropsy series that up to 51% of the red foxes (Vulpes ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Until now, Belgium has been considered as a low-risk country for alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However it was recently demonstrated by necropsy series that up to 51% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may be infected by E. multilocaris in some parts of Southern Belgium. The first local Belgian human AE cases were described in the early 2000's. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the experience of a tertiary university hospital of Southern Belgium with AE management. Methods: The authors retrospectively collected data from the parasitology laboratory (serologies), the hospital pharmacy in charge of supplying albendazole, and by searching through patient’s files with medico-economic information service of a tertiary university hospital. The medical files were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Twenty-one cases (66% male) of local AE have been recorded from 1999 to 2016. All patients were Belgian citizens with more than 30 years of life in Southern Belgium (Liege province: 10 cases (47.4%), Luxembourg province: 8 cases (36.8%), Namur Province: 3 cases (15.8 %)). Mean age of diagnosis was 66 years (ranges: (35-85y). Eighteen patients had hepatic involvement: 14 underwent surgical resection and 5 had unresectable liver lesions and underwent albendazole palliative therapy until death. During the same period, the faculty of veterinary medicine observed an increased rate of lethal hepatic AE in dogs, another indication of high AE incidence. Conclusions: AE appears to be spreading in Belgium and has actually an uneven geographical distribution with endemicity in areas of Southern and Eastern Belgium. However, it is probable that local AE cases will be diagnosed in the whole country, considering that there is no reason that infected foxes remain in Southern Belgium and also the fact that some people from Northern Belgium might spend long period in Southern Belgium, with or without their dogs. The liver is the most frequently involved organ and the only cure can be achieved by complete R0 resection of all AE lesions. In reaction to this experience, the authors created a multidisciplinary group for AE diagnosis and management, including hepatologists, infectiologists, microbiologists, pathologists, radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, surgeons and veterinarians. The authorities should be aware of this medical issue and should facilitate the access to Albendazole for AE patients. A complete national survey should be encouraged, and BASL might have an important role in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of giant cell arteritis associated with culture-proven Coxiella burnetii aortitis
de Worm, S.; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege; Courtoy, C. et al

in International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2018), 69

A case of proven Coxiella burnetii aortitis, possibly associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA), is reported. A 72-year-old man, who is a hunter, presented with weight loss, fever, jaw claudication, and ... [more ▼]

A case of proven Coxiella burnetii aortitis, possibly associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA), is reported. A 72-year-old man, who is a hunter, presented with weight loss, fever, jaw claudication, and hardened temporal arteries associated with a persistent inflammatory syndrome and arteritis of the whole aorta, including the brachiocephalic arteries, as seen on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The diagnosis of GCA was retained, and treatment with prednisolone was started. Given the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, the patient underwent replacement of the abdominal aorta with an allograft. Histology showed intense chronic arteritis attributed to atherosclerosis with dissection. However, Coxiella burnetii infection was confirmed by serology and then by culture and molecular biology on the surgical specimen. A combination of hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline was added to tapered prednisolone and the outcome was favourable. © 2018 The Author(s) [less ▲]

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See detailRecurrence of visceral and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient under immunosuppressive therapy
DARCIS, Gilles ULiege; Van der Auwera, Gert; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege et al

in BMC Infectious Diseases (2017), 17

Background: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandflies. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis is often challenging as it mimics many ... [more ▼]

Background: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandflies. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis is often challenging as it mimics many other infectious or alignant diseases. The disease can present in three ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis, which rarely occur together or consecutively. Case presentation: The patient was a 52 years old immunosuppressed Belgian woman with a long history of severe rheumatoid arthritis. She underwent bone marrow biopsy to explore thrombocytopenia. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was made by identification of Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in macrophages. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was successful. She later developed cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with amphotericin B lipid complex. She next presented with relapsing cutaneous lesions followed by rapidly progressing lymphadenopathies. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Treatments by miltefosine, amphotericin B, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate were subsequently initiated. She later presented a recurrent bone marrow involvement treated with intramuscular paromomycin and miltefosine. She died two years later from leukemia. At the time of death, she presented with a mucosal destruction of the nose. A Leishmania-specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) identified L. infantum as etiological agent. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the potential concomitant or sequential involvement of multiple anatomic localizations of Leishmania in immunosuppressed patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAtteinte hépato-splénique et bartonellose systémique chez une patiente immunocompétente
Narinx, Justine ULiege; Poncin, Aurélie ULiege; HUYNEN, Pascale ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(7-8), 331-335

We describe a case of a young healthy patient who presents a lot of hepato-splenic lesions caused by a systemic cat scratch disease. This case allows us to discuss the uncommon manifestations of the cat ... [more ▼]

We describe a case of a young healthy patient who presents a lot of hepato-splenic lesions caused by a systemic cat scratch disease. This case allows us to discuss the uncommon manifestations of the cat scratch disease and to describe the two types of hepatic lesions caused by a systemic Bartonella infection : The granulomatosis and peliosis. [less ▲]

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See detailAbcès cérébraux à nocardia farcinica dans le cadre d'une infection systémique
DELVENNE, Eléonore ULiege; Farnir, Florent ULiege; GUIOT, Julien ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(7-8), 340-343

The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from Nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections sur prothèses articulaires
KURTH, William ULiege; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, May 19)

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See detailPrise en charge de la neutropénie fébrile chez le patient cancéreux
FRERES, Pierre ULiege; GONNE, Elodie ULiege; COLLIGNON, Joëlle ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 195-200

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement ... [more ▼]

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement confrontés à un effet secondaire sévère des traitements cytotoxiques, le neutropénie fébrile (NF). La NF est une complication gravissime de la chimiothérapie, car elle peut être rapidement mortelle et provoque un arrêt temporaire, voire définitif, des traitements. Dans cet article, nous résumons les dernières recommandations quant à la prise en charge thérapeutique des patients présentant une NF sous traitements anti-cancéreux. [less ▲]

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