Publications of Corinne CHARLIER
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See detailAtmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the vicinity of shredding facilities in Wallonia (Belgium)
Dufour, Patrice ULiege; PIRARD, Catherine ULiege; Ortegat, Geoffrey et al

in Atmospheric Pollution Research Journal (in press)

In Belgium, 16 shredding facilities manage annually tens of thousands tons of wastes from different origins (endof-life vehicles, electronic waste, electrical transformers, …). These materials contain ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, 16 shredding facilities manage annually tens of thousands tons of wastes from different origins (endof-life vehicles, electronic waste, electrical transformers, …). These materials contain hazardous persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The shredding process promotes the production and the emission of dust contaminated by these compounds. The objective of this study is to measure the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in fallout dust collected in the vicinity of 3 shredding plants located in Wallonia (French speaking part of Belgium). Samples were collected by using Owen gauges and pollutant levels were measured by GC-MS. The median deposition levels measured for ΣPCDD/Fs, Σdioxin-like PCBs, 5 × Σ6 DIN PCBs and PBDE 209 were 1.9 pg TEQ/m2.day, 4.4 pg TEQ/m2.day, 246.5 ng/m2.day and 253.8 ng/m2.day, respectively. These levels represent high concentrations compared to those observed in most of the remote, rural and urban areas studied around the world and were similar to those measured in other heavily industrialized districts. Consequently, the health effects of this high exposure to pollutants among workers and residents in the vicinity of these shredding facilities are of concern. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of an UHPLC/DAD method for the determination of cannabinoids in seized materials: Analysis of 213 samples sold in Belgian CBD shops
DEVILLE, Marine ULiege; DUBOIS, Nathalie ULiege; Denooz, Raphaël ULiege et al

in Forensic Science International (2020), 310

Purpose: Nowadays, (−)-cannabidiol (CBD) is gaining popularity for the treatment of various problems and can be found easily in many stores in Belgium. However, such product must comply with the law: if ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Nowadays, (−)-cannabidiol (CBD) is gaining popularity for the treatment of various problems and can be found easily in many stores in Belgium. However, such product must comply with the law: if the total tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content [(−)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol + (−)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THC-A)] is higher than 0.2%, it is considered as narcotic by the Belgian legislation. In this context, we have developed a method to quantify major cannabinoids (THC, THC-A, CBD, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, cannabigerol and cannabinol) in plant material. Methods: After drying, a liquid-liquid extraction was performed on plant materials, followed by dilutions. Extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a photodiode array detector. Mobile phases consisted of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water applied in a 16-minute gradient mode. After validating the method, it was applied to 213 samples seized by the police in CBD shops. Results: The method fulfilled the criteria in terms of specificity, calibration curve, precision, trueness and dosing range. Total THC content ranged from 0.14 to 1.17% (median 0.38%) with 110 samples exceeding the Belgian legal threshold of 0.2%. The amounts measured in the samples varied greatly, some were 6 times below the amount labelled on the packaging, others showed a concentration 4 times higher than stated on the package. Same strain also showed concentration differences from shop to shop. Conclusion: Our method was successfully validated and applied to samples seized in CBD shops. Half of the products exceeded the Belgian legal threshold. THC and CBD concentrations discrepancies showed that products sold in CBD shops are not pharmaceutical grade. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailBackground contamination of perfluoralkyl substances in a Belgian general population
PIRARD, Catherine ULiege; Dufour, Patrice ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege

in Toxicology Letters (2020), 333

The few Belgian studies on the human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have until now concerned the Northern part of Belgium (Flanders), while data related to Wallonia (South region) are ... [more ▼]

The few Belgian studies on the human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have until now concerned the Northern part of Belgium (Flanders), while data related to Wallonia (South region) are missing. To fill this gap, 8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and 3 perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates were measured in the serum of 242 adults (> 18 years old) recruited in 2015 and living in the Province of Liege. Some multivariate regression models were also built with the PFAS levels and the participant’s answers to a questionnaire about their diet and lifestyle habits in order to identify some predictors of exposure. The results obtained showed that although PFAS levels observed in our population seemed to be similar or lower than those reported in other countries, and especially lower than in the Northern part of Belgium, half of the population showed PFOS and PFOA serum levels above the health guidance values set by the German HBM Commission. As expected, age and gender were the main covariates explaining the different PFAS serum levels between participants, while breastfeeding (for women), consumption of fish and seafood, consumption of rice, and use of nail polish seemed also to impact the PFAS body burden of our population. Nevertheless, the statistical models were poorly predictive suggesting that the main sources of exposure were not taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical validation of a quantitative method for therapeutic drug monitoring on the Alinity®c Abbott
DUBOIS, Nathalie ULiege; Sqalli, Ghali ULiege; Gilson, Maud ULiege et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2020), 78(2), 147-155

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Alinity®c Abbott compared to the Architect® immunoassay system for the determination of drugs having a narrow therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Alinity®c Abbott compared to the Architect® immunoassay system for the determination of drugs having a narrow therapeutic index. Methods: Valproic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, phenobarbital and vancomycin were analyzed using Particle-Enhanced Turbidimetric Inhibitor Immunoassay (Petinia), phenytoin and theophylline were analyzed using an immunoenzymatic method and a colorimetric method was performed to quantify lithium. The methods were validated according to the total error approach. Seven validation standards were analyzed in quintuplet during four days to establish the limits of the methods. Dilution integrity and interferences (hemolysis and high concentrations of bilirubin and lipids) were also tested. Depending on the analyte, the results obtained for twenty to forty patients on the Alinity® were compared to those obtained on the Architect®. Results: The bias and the coefficients of variation for repeatability and for intermediate precision were lower than 15% for all drugs. Accuracy profiles were acceptable (acceptance limits fixed at 30%) in the validated ranges. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were similar to those determined by Abbott except for gentamicin for which we determined a LLOQ at 1.22 mg/L while Abbott determined it at 0.5 mg/L. All assays diluted linear and analyte concentrations were not affected by interferences. Concentrations obtained for real samples on the Alinity®c are comparable to those obtained on the Architect®ci. Conclusions: The analytical validation of a method suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of drugs on the Alinity®c meets the requirements of European Medicines Agency [less ▲]

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See detailLE CHEMSEX ET SES RISQUES : COMPRENDRE, POUR MIEUX TRAITER, L’EVOLUTION DES USAGES DE STUPEFIANTS ET DES PRATIQUES SEXUELLES
Taureau, Mathieu ULiege; Ouafik, Maxence ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege et al

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2020), 120(1), 25-31

“Chemsex” is a spreading practice that can be described as the use of drugs in the intention of increasing and prolong physical sensations during a sexual intercourse. Chemsex is associated with both the ... [more ▼]

“Chemsex” is a spreading practice that can be described as the use of drugs in the intention of increasing and prolong physical sensations during a sexual intercourse. Chemsex is associated with both the dangers of addictive substances use and of risky sexual behaviour. Through this publication, we will discuss the epidemiology and risks, but also the good psychiatric man−agement perspectives of what could become an important public health issue. [less ▲]

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See detailVignette thérapeutique de l’étudiant: Bénéfices et risques de l’utilisation du lithium en psychiatrie
Rossetti, Fiamma ULiege; BAKAY, Sara ULiege; PIETTE, Catherine ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2020), 75(4), 265-270

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See detailAssessment of children’s exposure to currently used pesticides in wallonia, Belgium
PIRARD, Catherine ULiege; Remy, Suzanne; Giusti, Arnaud et al

in Toxicology Letters (2020), 329

In spring 2016, a study was carried out to characterize currently used pesticide (CUP) exposure among children living in Wallonia (Belgium). Pesticides were measured in both first morning urine voids of ... [more ▼]

In spring 2016, a study was carried out to characterize currently used pesticide (CUP) exposure among children living in Wallonia (Belgium). Pesticides were measured in both first morning urine voids of 258 children aged from 9 to 12 years and in ambient air collected close to the children’s schools. Out of the 46 pesticides measured in the air, 19 were detected with frequencies varying between 11 % and 100 %, and mean levels ranging from < 0.04 to 2.37 ng/m³. Only 3 parent pesticides were found in 1–10% of the urine samples, while all the metabolites analyzed were positively detected at least once. The captan metabolite (THPI) was quantified in 23.5 % of the samples, while 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (chlopryrifos metabolite) was detected in all urines with levels ranging from 0.36–38.96 μg/l. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (t-DCCA) and diethylphosphate were the most abundant pyrethroid metabolites and dialkylphosphate measured. The air inhalation was demonstrated to be a minor route of exposure for the selected CUPs. Statistical regressions highlighted predictors of exposure for some pesticides such like consumption of grey bread, presence of carpets at home or indoor use of pesticides, although no clear source was identified for most of them [less ▲]

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See detailBlood Lead, Urinary Lead and Urinary δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Levels among Children Living in Kinshasa, D R Congo: A Pilot Biomonitoring Study,
Mputu, MLC; Ndelo, MP; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege et al

in Journal of toxicology and Risk Assessment (2019), 5(2),

Lead exists naturally in the earth's crust and it is widely used as a heavy metal. It is an environment toxicant that may deleteriously affect nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, endocrine and ... [more ▼]

Lead exists naturally in the earth's crust and it is widely used as a heavy metal. It is an environment toxicant that may deleteriously affect nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, endocrine and reproductive systems. So, exposure to lead in the environment continues to be a serious public health problem for all ages. Children are particularly susceptible to lead poisoning. They absorb more lead from their environment and their developing central nervous systems are vulnerable to the toxic. Fifty percent of children aged from 0 to 17-years-old presented blood lead levels above 100 μg/L and forty three percent of the same population presented blood lead levels above 50 μg/L. There was no correlation between urinary lead level and D-ALAU (urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid) with lead blood levels. But it was observed a small correlation between urinary lead and blood lead concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailHUMAN BIOMONITORING FOR GARDENERS EXPOSED TO CONTAMINATED SOILS IN LIÈGE
Maggi, Patrick ULiege; Petit, Jérôme; PIRARD, Catherine ULiege et al

Conference (2019, August 28)

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See detailDeath following consumption of MDAI and 5-EAPB
DEVILLE, Marine ULiege; DUBOIS, Nathalie ULiege; Cieckiewicz, Ewa et al

in Forensic Science International (2019), 299

5-(2-ethylaminopropyl)benzofuran (5-EAPB) and 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS) exhibiting MDMA-like properties. In this paper, we report the case of a 28 ... [more ▼]

5-(2-ethylaminopropyl)benzofuran (5-EAPB) and 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS) exhibiting MDMA-like properties. In this paper, we report the case of a 28-years old man, known as drug addict, found dead at home, with two unidentified powders next to him. External examination by the forensic pathologist was unremarkable but no autopsy was performed. Powders, blood and urine (which were the only samples available) were submitted to general unknown screening by high pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography with a time-of-flight detector (UPLC-TOF-MS), after liquid–liquid extraction for biological samples, or simple dilution for powders. Analysis revealed 68% of MDAI in one powder and 87% of 5-EAPB in the other one. Significant levels of the same substances were found in blood (MDAI: 2.09 mg/L and 5-EAPB: 6.45 mg/L). The cause of death was therefore attributed to the consumption of these NPS since screening for other drugs of abuse and for alcohol was negative (oxazepam was found in urine only). 5-methylaminopropylbenzofuran (5-MAPB) and 5-aminopropylbenzofuran (5-APB) were also found in blood (0.089 and 0.546 mg/L, respectively) and urine (1.00 and 4.88 mg/L, respectively). In addition to the inherent complexity of NPS identification by itself, another analytical difficulty in this case was the identification of the EAPB positional isomer. Our routine screening methods were not able to distinguish the positional isomer, but an additional classical gas chromatography technique was able to make the distinction. Anyway, in our case, this issue was simplified thanks to the availability of a relatively pure powder that was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). [less ▲]

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See detailBreast Cancer and Exposure to Organochlorines in the CECILE Study : Associations with Plasma Levels Measured at the Time of Diagnosis and Estimated during Adolescence
Bachelet, Delphine; Verner, Marc-André; Neri, Monica et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2019), 16(271),

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See detail8. Fumeur pendant la grossesse est-il nuisible pour le foetus ?
DENOOZ, Raphael ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege

in Quertemont, Etienne; Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline (Eds.) et al J'arrête de fumer : comprendre son addiction pour mieux la vaincre (2019)

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit ... [more ▼]

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit aucune diminution du nombre de fumeurs. Or les effets sur la santé sont dévastateurs. Mais alors qu’est-ce qui nous pousse à fumer et pourquoi n’arrêtons-nous pas ? Ce livre répond à 30 questions afin de mieux comprendre les effets du tabac sur l’organisme du fumeur ainsi que sur celui de son entourage et donne des conseils pratiques au lecteur pour en finir avec le tabac. Quels produits retrouve-t-on dans le tabac ? Quel est l’effet de la nicotine sur le cerveau ? Quels sont les effets néfastes du tabac sur le foetus durant la grossesse ? Si vous pensez qu’arrêter de fumer est mission impossible, cet ouvrage est l’outil idéal pour vous prouver le contraire ! [less ▲]

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See detail2. Que sait-on de la composition du tabac et de sa fumée ? Quels sont les effets toxiques des différents produits identifiés ?
DEVILLE, Marine ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege

in Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline; BARTSCH, Pierre (Eds.) et al J'arrête de fumer : comprendre son addiction pour mieux la vaincre (2019)

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit ... [more ▼]

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit aucune diminution du nombre de fumeurs. Or les effets sur la santé sont dévastateurs. Mais alors qu’est-ce qui nous pousse à fumer et pourquoi n’arrêtons-nous pas ? Ce livre répond à 30 questions afin de mieux comprendre les effets du tabac sur l’organisme du fumeur ainsi que sur celui de son entourage et donne des conseils pratiques au lecteur pour en finir avec le tabac. Quels produits retrouve-t-on dans le tabac ? Quel est l’effet de la nicotine sur le cerveau ? Quels sont les effets néfastes du tabac sur le foetus durant la grossesse ? Si vous pensez qu’arrêter de fumer est mission impossible, cet ouvrage est l’outil idéal pour vous prouver le contraire ! [less ▲]

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See detail27. Vu l'importance de la pollution de l'air est-il vraiment utile d'arrêter de fumer ?
Dufour, Patrice ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege

in Quertemont, Etienne; Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline (Eds.) et al J'arrête de fumer : comprendre son addiciton pour mieux la vaincre (2019)

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit ... [more ▼]

Si, chaque année, des campagnes sont lancées afin de responsabiliser la population, la cigarette fait toujours un tabac. Les experts de la santé se montrent d’ailleurs très inquiets car on ne perçoit aucune diminution du nombre de fumeurs. Or les effets sur la santé sont dévastateurs. Mais alors qu’est-ce qui nous pousse à fumer et pourquoi n’arrêtons-nous pas ? Ce livre répond à 30 questions afin de mieux comprendre les effets du tabac sur l’organisme du fumeur ainsi que sur celui de son entourage et donne des conseils pratiques au lecteur pour en finir avec le tabac. Quels produits retrouve-t-on dans le tabac ? Quel est l’effet de la nicotine sur le cerveau ? Quels sont les effets néfastes du tabac sur le foetus durant la grossesse ? Si vous pensez qu’arrêter de fumer est mission impossible, cet ouvrage est l’outil idéal pour vous prouver le contraire ! [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (12 ULiège)