Publications of Julien Perrez
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See detailTwenty years of research on political discourse: A systematic review and directions for future research
Randour, François; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Reuchamps, Min

in Discourse and Society (2020)

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse, but little attention has been paid to what the concept of political discourse itself encompasses. With this in mind, this article ... [more ▼]

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse, but little attention has been paid to what the concept of political discourse itself encompasses. With this in mind, this article aims to understand what types of discourse are categorized as ‘political’ in linguistic research and what their characteristics are (form, type of actors, policy domains, geographical coverage). To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review of 164 scientific articles from the Scopus database. Overall, the findings show that political discourse is generally limited to the discourses of (institutionalized) political elites and most specifically to oral monological speeches. The review also highlights discrepancies regarding the geographical scope and the policy domains covered by the empirical analyses, more specifically a bias toward the Western world and issues related to external defense policies, justice and home affairs. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation in political metaphor: A diachronic study of metaphor use in TV debates about Belgian federalism
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2020)

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper focuses on the usage of metaphors to describe the evolution of federalism in the country over time ... [more ▼]

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper focuses on the usage of metaphors to describe the evolution of federalism in the country over time. This research more specifically undertakes a systematic analysis of the use of metaphors by Belgian politicians during television debates from the 1980’s until now. The aim of our paper is twofold: firstly, we would like to determine which metaphorical frames have been used by the political actors to describe the establishment and evolution of the Belgian federal system; secondly, we would like to understand how the use of given metaphorical frames varies according to a set of variables related (i) to the political context, (ii) to the political affiliation of the participants and (iii) to the communicative nature of the metaphorical mapping (deliberate vs. non-deliberate metaphors). Our analysis relies on an original longitudinal corpus of 80 television debates covering 40 years from the French-speaking public broadcaster RTBF (approx. 900,000 words), relating to the progressive transformation of Belgium’s political system. These debates have been transcribed and semi-automatically searched for to identify potentially relevant metaphorical contexts. After a manual check, 2,350 contexts have been confirmed as being relevant for our study. These contexts have been analyzed by applying the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010). Tentative results suggest that some metaphorical frames appear to the same extent throughout the corpus (this for instance the case of the construction and battle frames), whereas other appear to be limited to periods of political crises (such as the relationships frame). This has also been observed for the distinction between non-deliberate and deliberate metaphors, the latter ones appearing to be more frequent in critical political contexts. The full results of our study, also including the question of the variation between the political actors, will be discussed during our presentation. [less ▲]

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See detailMetaphors in political communication: A case study of the use of deliberate metaphors in non-institutional political interviews
Heyvaert, Pauline ULiege; Randour, François; Dodeigne, Jérémy et al

in Journal of Language and Politics (2019)

This article analyses the use of (deliberate) metaphors in political discourse produced by French-speaking Belgian regional parliamentarians during non-institutional political interviews. The article ... [more ▼]

This article analyses the use of (deliberate) metaphors in political discourse produced by French-speaking Belgian regional parliamentarians during non-institutional political interviews. The article first investigates if the use of deliberate metaphor limits itself to a particular type of political discourse (i.e. public and institutional political discourse) or if metaphor use is also found in other types of settings (i.e. non-institutional political discourse). Second, the article analyses the variation of deliberate metaphor use between political actors depending on gender, seniority and political affiliation. To this end, the article applies Steen’s (2008) three-dimensional model of metaphor analysis on biographical interviews conducted with French-speaking Belgian regional parliamentarians (RMPs). Our results indicate that RMPs, when using non-deliberate metaphors, mostly rely on source domains such as 'construction', 'battle' and 'relationships'. This is in contrast with the use of deliberate metaphors, where source domains like 'sports', 'nature' and 'container' take the upper hand. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation in political metaphor: A diachronic study of metaphor use in TV debates about Belgian federalism
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2019, August 11)

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article ... [more ▼]

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article focuses on the usage of metaphors to describe the evolution of federalism in the country over time. As argued by Ritchie (2013), ‘examining metaphors that appear in political discourse provides insights into the way speakers understand their situation, and how they seek to accomplish their ends’. This research undertakes a systematic analysis of the use of metaphors by Belgian politicians during television debates from the 1980’s until now. We rely on an original longitudinal corpus of 127 (part of) television debates covering 40 years from both public broadcasters in Belgium: the Dutch-speaking VRT and the French-speaking RTBF. The selected television debates relate to the progressive – albeit not without political tensions – transformation of Belgium’s political system. Our corpus is thus a solid indicator of this political transformation and therefore provides a fertile ground for the analysis of metaphors. To do so, we will conduct a corpus analysis by applying the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010) in order to identify potential metaphorical contexts. In line with Steen’s three- dimensional model (2008), we will subsequently analyse the identified metaphors by making a distinction between three different layers of metaphor, respectively at the linguistic, conceptual and communicative levels. Building on previous studies (Perrez & Reuchamps 2014, 2015), this analysis makes it possible to determine which (deliberate) metaphors have been used by the political elite to describe the establishment and evolution of the federal system, and more specifically, to assess to what extent this metaphor usage evolved over time and across the linguistic border. References Perrez, Julien & Reuchamps, Min (2014). Deliberate metaphors in political discourse: the case of citizen discourse. Metaphorik.de 25: 7–41. Perrez, Julien & Reuchamps, Min (2015). A crazy machine or a strong “living apart together” relationship? The role of metaphors in citizens’ perception of Belgian federalism. Mots. Les langages du politique 109: 125–145. Ritchie, L. David. (2013): Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Steen, Gerard J. (2008): “The paradox of metaphor: Why we need a three- dimensional model for metaphor”, in: Metaphor & Symbol 23: 213–241. Steen, Gerard J., Dorst, Aletta G., Herrmann, J. Berenike, Kaal, Anna, Krennmayr, Tina & Pasma, Trijntje (2010): A Method for Linguistic Metaphor Identification, From MIP to MIPVU, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptual metaphors in citizen discourse about Belgian federalism: what can linguistic research gain from a more global approach to political corpora?
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2019, July 03)

In the wake of Lakoff and Johnson’s seminal work (1980), much attention has been devoted to the study of metaphors not as rhetoric figures but as conceptual tools structuring complex realities. While ... [more ▼]

In the wake of Lakoff and Johnson’s seminal work (1980), much attention has been devoted to the study of metaphors not as rhetoric figures but as conceptual tools structuring complex realities. While conceptual metaphors occur in every area of life, the political domain remains one prominent area where to find metaphors. This importance of metaphors in politics has among others been stressed by Charteris-Black (2011, 28) who highlights their contribution to the construction of more accessible ‘mental representations of political issues’ and suggests their power resides in their ability to ‘activate unconscious emotional associations’, which ‘contributes to myth creation’. Accordingly, scholars in linguistics and in political science have moved toward investigating the use of metaphors in various political domains (for an overview, see Bougher 2012). Yet, in these accounts of the metaphor’s role in politics, the predominant focus has always been on discourses by the political elites (see for instance Charteris-Black 2011). While the metaphors used by the elites are definitely relevant because they illustrate how they frame the political debate, citizens’ discourse about politics should also be taken into account. More specifically, research on citizen data can lead to two specific kinds of insights: on the one hand, it makes it possible to assess to what extent metaphors produced by the political elite are integrated in the citizens’ political reasoning, but on the other hand, it also offers the opportunity to look at how citizens ‘generate their own metaphors (i.e., spontaneous metaphors) to make sense of the political environment’ (Bougher 2012, 149). The relevance of metaphors in citizen discourse has been confirmed by Perrez & Reuchamps (2015) who showed that citizens do produce metaphors when talking about complex political processes and that these metaphors reveal different political visions. Against this background, this contribution will present the results of new citizen data analyses, collected in 2017 and 2018 in the Dutch-, French- and German-speaking communities of Belgium. Comparing this new citizen corpus with the one used in Perrez & Reuchamps (2015) will make it possible to analyse to what extent the metaphor use of citizens has evolved over time and different political contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’uniformité du discours politique : analyse bibliométrique et linguistique de la catégorisation des discours politiques
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

in CogniTextes (2019)

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse, but there has been little attention to what is meant by the concept of political discourse itself. In these studies, political ... [more ▼]

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse, but there has been little attention to what is meant by the concept of political discourse itself. In these studies, political corpora collected from discourses by political elites (presidential debates, presidential addresses, public speeches, …) often appear to be overrepresented, leaving aside other forms of political discourses such as media discourse on political issues or citizen discourse. In this context, this contribution pursues a twofold objective. First, we aim to understand what types of discourse are categorized as political in linguistic research and what their characteristics are (type of actors, themes, etc.). To answer these questions, this contribution provides a PRISMA bibliometric analysis on a sample of 172 scientific articles from the Scopus database. Secondly, this article explores to what extent the notion of political discourse refers to a coherent whole from a linguistic point of view. To answer this second question, we study the formal characteristics of three subtypes of political discourse (parliamentary debates, televised debates and citizen corpora) in order to assess their degree of divergence. The results of these analyses reveal a real difference between these three corpora and allow us to better understand what could constitute the political genre and its textual registers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution of metaphors over time: a longitudinal analysis of metaphor usage by Belgian politicians over the period 1980-2017
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2019, June 05)

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article ... [more ▼]

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article focuses on the usage of metaphors to describe the evolution of federalism in the country over time. As argued by Ritchie (2013), ‘examining metaphors that appear in political discourse provides insights into the way speakers understand their situation, and how they seek to accomplish their ends’. This research undertakes a systematic analysis of the use of metaphors by Belgian politicians during television debates from the 1980’s until now. We rely on an original longitudinal corpus of 127 (part of) television debates covering 40 years from both public broadcasters in Belgium: the Dutch-speaking VRT and the French-speaking RTBF. The selected television debates relate to the progressive – albeit not without political tensions – transformation of Belgium’s political system. Our corpus is thus a solid indicator of this political transformation and therefore provides a fertile ground for the analysis of metaphors. To do so, we will conduct a corpus analysis by applying the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010) in order to identify potential metaphorical contexts. In line with Steen’s three-dimensional model (2008), we will subsequently analyse the identified metaphors by making a distinction between three different layers of metaphor, respectively at the linguistic, conceptual and communicative levels. Building on previous studies (Authors 2015), this analysis makes it possible to determine which (deliberate) metaphors have been used by the political elite to describe the establishment and evolution of the federal system, and more specifically, to assess to what extent this metaphor usage evolved over time and across the linguistic border. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodological Workshop - Measuring the effect of metaphors: the use of experimental surveys
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François

Scientific conference (2019, May 16)

The workshop will be divided in three main units. The first part will discuss experiments as a method: what is an experiment? What are the differences with other methods? What are the main steps in ... [more ▼]

The workshop will be divided in three main units. The first part will discuss experiments as a method: what is an experiment? What are the differences with other methods? What are the main steps in conducting a (good) experiment? (Do & Don’t) The second part focuses on experiments and metaphor studies. The last part of the workshop will present concrete examples of studies as well as a group discussion on a specific case, aiming at fostering discussions among participants. If possible, we would like to invite the participants to this workshop to have a look at the three following articles (email francois.randour@uclouvain.be if you want access to the articles ). - Steen, Reijnierse, Burgers (2014) ; Boeynaems, Burgers, Konijn, Steen (2017); Perrez & Reuchamps (2015) (articles used for the third part of the workshop). [less ▲]

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See detailVariation in Political Metaphor
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Reuchamps, Min; Thibodeau, Paul H.

Book published by John Benjamins Publishing Company (2019)

The objective of this book is to understand variation in political metaphor. Political metaphors are distinctive and important because they are used to achieve political goals: to persuade, to shape ... [more ▼]

The objective of this book is to understand variation in political metaphor. Political metaphors are distinctive and important because they are used to achieve political goals: to persuade, to shape expectations, to realize specific objectives and actions. The analyses in the book go beyond the mere identification of conceptual metaphors in discourse to show how political metaphors function in the real world. It starts from the finding that the same conceptual domains are used to characterize politics, political entities and political issues. Yet, the specific metaphors used to describe these conceptual domains often change. This book explores some of the reasons for this variation, including features of political leaders (e.g., their age and gender), countries, and other sociopolitical circumstances. This perspective yields a better understanding of the role(s) of metaphors in political discourse. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion: A journey through variation in political metaphor
Thibodeau, Paul H.; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Reuchamps, Min

in Perrez, Julien; Reuchamps, Min; Thibodeau, Paul H. (Eds.) Variation in Political Metaphor (2019)

The concluding chapter discusses political, linguistic, psychological, and methodological dimensions related to the study of political metaphor. It high- lights common themes discussed in the primary ... [more ▼]

The concluding chapter discusses political, linguistic, psychological, and methodological dimensions related to the study of political metaphor. It high- lights common themes discussed in the primary chapters, noting points of convergence in the research questions being investigated, the methods used to investigate them, and the findings they reveal. In synthesizing some of these contributions, we hope to point towards potentially fruitful avenues of future research. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying variation in political metaphor: From discourse analysis to experiment
Reuchamps, Min; Thibodeau, Paul H.; Perrez, Julien ULiege

in Perrez, Julien; Reuchamps, Min; Thibodeau, Paul H. (Eds.) Variation in Political Metaphor (2019)

The introduction offers an overview of the literature on political metaphors, with Critical Discourse Analysis and Conceptual Metaphor Theory as starting points. It then presents the main objective of the ... [more ▼]

The introduction offers an overview of the literature on political metaphors, with Critical Discourse Analysis and Conceptual Metaphor Theory as starting points. It then presents the main objective of the book, viz. to study the variation in political metaphor, based on the analyses of actual data, from diverse corpora, political actors and countries. On this basis, the threefold approach to variation in political metaphor is presented: diachronic, functional and methodological variations. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle prise en compte du genre dans la communication fédérale ? Analyse linguistique et communicationnelle
Christophe, Christel; Dister, Anne; Donjean, Christine et al

Report (2019)

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See detail50 years of Belgian federalism: a longitudinal analysis of political discourse across six State reforms
Randour, François; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Reuchamps, Min et al

Conference (2018, August)

There is a growing attention among scholars on the analysis of conflicts in divided societies. They highlight an interesting paradox at the heart of linguistically divided democracies and especially of ... [more ▼]

There is a growing attention among scholars on the analysis of conflicts in divided societies. They highlight an interesting paradox at the heart of linguistically divided democracies and especially of federal countries. Federalism is often seen as a solution to reduce tensions and reach compromises, yet it also fosters additional tensions (e.g. demands for self-rule). While studies of federalism have discussed the institutional and political nature of federalising reforms, one main question remains: how do elites sell these reforms to the public? Belgium provides a case in point to study such dynamics, with a long-started opposition between two linguistic groups (Flemish and Francophones) that led to six State reforms in forty years. Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates the discourses of Belgian politicians on federalism through the six Belgian State reforms. We analyse discourses of Belgian politicians during television debates from the time of the first State reforms in the 1980’s until present time. We rely on an original longitudinal corpus of 127 (part of) television debates covering 40 years from both public broadcasters in Belgium: the Dutch-speaking VRT and the French-speaking RTBF. The selected television debates relate to the progressive – albeit not without political tensions – transformation of Belgium’s federal system. Our corpus is thus a solid indicator of this political transformation and allows identifying, for the different State reforms, how Belgian political elites framed their standpoints on this critical issue. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis will be used to identify the selling points used by elites to defend or criticise the State reforms. As a State reform is quite complex and technical, it is crucial to identify how elites of both linguistic groups present this to the public to make it more or less desirable. Our analysis covers two dimensions: (1) it considers the evolution of discourses on Belgian federalism and State reforms longitudinally starting from the beginning of the 1980’s until 2016. It thus allows questioning if and how elite discourses evolved alongside State reforms. (2) It compares the discourses between and within Belgian linguistic communities. Are there differences between Dutch-speaking and French-speaking politicians on the way they conceive these reforms? The paper offers an original approach to analyse how political elites communicate on and perceive evolutions of federalism. [less ▲]

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See detailFraming the Basic Income: An experimental study on the framing impact of metaphors on the opinion formation process
Legein, Thomas; Vandeleene, Audrey; Randour, François et al

Conference (2018, August)

Many studies in cognitive linguistics have highlighted the important role of metaphors in political discourse, and more specifically their ability to frame complex concepts (Lakoff 1996). The key question ... [more ▼]

Many studies in cognitive linguistics have highlighted the important role of metaphors in political discourse, and more specifically their ability to frame complex concepts (Lakoff 1996). The key question is however under which conditions different framings lead to different representations of such complex political issues. Using an experimental design, this paper tackles the question of the framing impact of metaphors by focusing on the opportunity to implement a basic income (BI) system in a given polity. We take advantage of the preliminary stage of the BI debate in Belgium to study the influence of discursive strategies on the opinion formation process of individuals. As De Wispelaere and Noguera (2012) highlighted, the framing of the BI proposal may significantly increase its psychological feasibility. Carefully choosing the arguments employed to address this question can help avoid triggering negative perceptions and ensure positive attitudes toward this policy. While most studies on the BI so far have been either normative or descriptive, our experiment aims at determining to what extent the confrontation of individuals to metaphors illustrating the BI system impact the way they apprehend its implementation in Belgium. We show that very light variations in an informative text can induce major differences in the opinion formation process of the participants. This suggests that, when a debate is controversial and ambiguous, citizens’ opinions are sensitive to framing effects. BI proponents or opponents should thus pay particular attention to which arguments and metaphors are put forward in the public debate, as this could modify its outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailLes discours politiques comme registres textuels : une approche linguistique
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2018, July)

Il existe une longue tradition de recherches linguistiques sur le discours politique depuis différentes perspectives théoriques, parmi lesquelles l’analyse critique des discours (cf. Fairclough ... [more ▼]

Il existe une longue tradition de recherches linguistiques sur le discours politique depuis différentes perspectives théoriques, parmi lesquelles l’analyse critique des discours (cf. Fairclough & Fairclough 2012, Wodak 1989), les approches lexicométriques (cf. Mayaffre 2005, 2016) ou encore les approches cognitivistes des métaphores (cf. Charteris Black 2011, Musolff 2016). Dans ces études, les corpus mobilisés émanent majoritairement des élites politiques (débats présidentiels, discours électoraux,…), laissant d’autres formes de discours politiques, comme les discours médiatiques portant sur des sujets politiques ou les discours citoyens sous-représentés. Comme le suggère Bougher (2012 :149): “while research on metaphors in political discourse has flourished in recent years, the focus on elite communication has left metaphor’s wider capacity as a reasoning tool for citizens underexplored”. Dans la lignée de cette constatation, Perrez & Reuchamps (2015) ont démontré que les métaphores jouaient en effet un rôle prépondérant dans la manière dont les citoyens parlaient du fédéralisme belge, confirmant par là-même l’intérêt d’étudier ce type de discours. Plus largement, ceci pose la question de ce qui constitue un discours politique. Dans quel mesure le discours politique peut-il être considéré comme un genre discursif indépendant ? En quoi diffère-t-il d’autres genres discursifs ? Quelles en sont les caractéristiques formelles et contextuelles ? Doit-on le considérer comme un genre uniforme, ou une catégorie regroupant plusieurs sous-genres? Dans ce contexte, notre étude poursuit un double objectif: d’une part, nous présenterons les résultats d’une analyse bibliométrique visant à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle les corpus émanant des élites sont surreprésentés dans les études linguistiques. D’autre part, nous nous intéresserons aux caractéristiques formelles de trois sous-genres de discours politiques (débats parlementaires, débats dominicaux et corpus citoyens) afin d’évaluer dans quelle mesure ces discours sont linguistiquement divergents. Ces deux axes devraient nous permettre de mieux délimiter les contours de ce qui pourrait constituer le genre politique. [less ▲]

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See detailConstructing futurity: A contrastive approach to L1 and L2 Dutch and French
Sambre, Paul; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Van Keirsbilck, Pascale et al

Conference (2018, July)

Context – Traditional grammar (Fleishman 1982) and constructional analyses of the future in other languages, largely concentrate on verbal predications (Berghs 2010, Hilpert 2008) as locus of futurity ... [more ▼]

Context – Traditional grammar (Fleishman 1982) and constructional analyses of the future in other languages, largely concentrate on verbal predications (Berghs 2010, Hilpert 2008) as locus of futurity. Furthermore, previous research in L1 (Dabrowska 2012) and L2 (Deknop et al. fc./2016) has shown individual productive variance in constructional profiles and lexical knowledge in adult speakers. Objective –This talk proposes a contrastive approach to describing constructional profiles and a conceptual network for futurity in L1 and advanced learners L2 Dutch and French (B1-C1 in CEFR). Corpus and procedure – The corpus is composed of elicited spoken Dutch and French, based on a questionnaire imposed on 20 L1/L2 speakers, who are asked questions about their future professional future in their mothertongue and thereafter in L2 Dutch or French (40 interactions). The questions combine different verb and nominal constructions for future time reference and are based on a usage-based construction network of futurity (AUTHOR 2009, 2012) inspired by Langacker’s (2008) extended epistemic model. This conceptual CxG network future time includes variation in tense and epistemic modality. (Expected) results – We describe and measure the constructional L1 and L2 profiles, comparing/correlating them as to their productivity for futurity in L1/L2. There are two important extensions of previous studies on future constructions. (1) The future is conceived at the interface between different predication types. (2) Future talk is taken at the level of larger-than-clause interaction (Nikiforidou 2011; Östman 2004). (3) Non-epistemic modality and complex clauses encode future time. (4) The descriptive approach leads to guidelines for teaching more authentic L2 constructions for futurity based on L1 constructions beyond the traditional scope of verbs and/or modes in a coherent conceptual framework. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of metaphors in television debates: a case study of ‘(love) relationship’ metaphors on Belgian federalism
Randour, François; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Reuchamps, Min et al

Conference (2018, June)

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article ... [more ▼]

Building on an interdisciplinary approach bringing together political science and linguistics, this paper investigates how and why metaphors are used by Belgian politicians. In particular, the article focuses on the usage of metaphors to describe the evolution of federalism in the country over time. As argued by Ritchie (2013), ‘examining metaphors that appear in political discourse provides insights into the way speakers understand their situation, and how they seek to accomplish their ends’. This research undertakes a systematic analysis of the use of metaphors by Belgian politicians during television debates from the 1980’s until now. We rely on an original longitudinal corpus of 127 (part of) television debates covering 40 years from both public broadcasters in Belgium: the Dutch-speaking VRT and the French-speaking RTBF. The selected television debates relate to the progressive – albeit not without political tensions – transformation of Belgium’s political system. Our corpus is thus a solid indicator of this political transformation and therefore provides a fertile ground for the analysis of metaphors. To do so, we will conduct a corpus analysis by applying the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010) in order to identify potential metaphorical contexts. In line with Steen’s three-dimensional model (2008), we will subsequently analyse the identified metaphors by making a distinction between three different layers of metaphor, respectively at the linguistic, conceptual and communicative levels. Building on previous studies (Perrez & Reuchamps 2014), this analysis makes it possible to determine which (deliberate) metaphors have been used by the political elite to describe the establishment and evolution of the federal system, and more specifically, to assess to what extent this metaphor usage evolved over time and across the linguistic border. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgian Tetris 3.0: An experimental study of the moderating role of political knowledge and aptness on the framing impact of political metaphors
Dodeigne, Jérémy; Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François et al

Conference (2018, June)

Recent research on the framing impact of conceptual metaphors in the political domain has shown varying results (cf. Reijnierse et al. 2015, Steen et al. 2014, Thibodeau & Boroditsky 2011, 2013, 2015 ... [more ▼]

Recent research on the framing impact of conceptual metaphors in the political domain has shown varying results (cf. Reijnierse et al. 2015, Steen et al. 2014, Thibodeau & Boroditsky 2011, 2013, 2015), suggesting that the framing function of metaphors should not be considered as an automatic process. Rather, the question is not so much to know if metaphors have an impact on citizens’ political representations and decisions, but rather to understand under which circumstances they might influence them (Krennmayr et al., 2014, p.67). These conditions should be understood as a series of parameters related to the nature of the metaphorical mapping itself (cf. deliberateness, aptness), to its realization in a given discourse (cf. extendedness) or to the frequency the citizens have been exposed to a given metaphorical mapping. In recent experiments, we also found that the level of political knowledge of the participants interacted with the framing impact of metaphors. This interaction suggested that the respondents with a lower level of political knowledge are those who are influenced by the metaphors, whereas the respondents with a higher level do not appear to be impacted (see Dodeigne, Perrez & Reuchamps in press, Vandeleene et al. submitted). In this panel, we will present the results of an experiment on the impact of the Tetris metaphor on citizens’ representations and preferences about Belgian federalism, conducted among a representative sample of 500 Flemish and 500 Walloon citizens. Each language group was randomly divided into four conditions (125 each): a control condition, a neutral condition and two metaphorical conditions, respectively BELGIAN FEDERALISM AS A TETRIS GAME, and BELGIAN FEDERALISM AS A DIVORCE. The aim of this experiment is (i) to check whether these two different metaphors have a different influence on the citizens’ representations (cf. aptness), (ii) to evaluate to what extent this potential impact differs among the two language groups and (iii) to assess the moderating role of political knowledge on the potential framing impact of these two metaphors. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the representativeness of political corpora in linguistic research
Perrez, Julien ULiege; Randour, François; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2018, May 03)

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse from various theoretical perspectives, including critical discourse analysis (see among many others Fairclough 1995, Fairclough ... [more ▼]

There is a long tradition of linguistic research on political discourse from various theoretical perspectives, including critical discourse analysis (see among many others Fairclough 1995, Fairclough & Fairclough 2012, Wodak 1989), lexicometric approaches (see for instance Arnold 2005, Mayaffre 2005, 2016, Mayaffre & Poudat 2013, Authors 2015a) or cognitive linguistic approaches to metaphor (see among many other Charteris Black 2011, Musolff 2004, 2013, 2016 L’Hôte 2012). In these studies, political corpora collected from discourses by political elites (presidential debates, presidential addresses, public speeches,…) often appear to be overrepresented, leaving aside other forms of political discourses such as media discourse on political issues (see however Musolff 2004, 2013) or citizen discourse. As Bougher (2012 :149) posits for metaphor analysis : “while research on metaphors in political discourse has flourished in recent years, the focus on elite communication has left metaphor’s wider capacity as a reasoning tool for citizens underexplored”. This results in a certain lack of representativeness of the political domain in linguistic studies. Indeed, political discourse is not restricted to the political elites alone. Advocating a more global to political corpora, including corpora from different subdomains of the political spectrum, our talk is structured in two main parts. Firstly, we will propose a quantitative bibliographic analysis aiming at assessing what type of political corpora are frequently used in linguistic research. Secondly, on the basis of previous and current analyses of different kinds of political corpora (including citizen, media and elite discourse) we have been collecting in the framework of the ADAPOF-project (see for example Authors 2015b), we will illustrate how taking this variety of political genres into account, allows us to unravel phenomena such as conceptual alignment or metaphor circulation, related to specific political issues (in this case Belgian federalism). References Arnold, E. (2005). Le discours de Tony Blair (1997-2004). Corpus 4 | URL : http://corpus.revues.org/340. Authors (2015a). Constructing Quebec and Wallonia How political parties speak about their region. In Authors (ed), Minority Nations in Multinational Federations : A comparative study of Quebec and Wallonia, London & New-York : Rouledge, pp. 49-81. Authors (2015). Folle machine ou solide relation « living apart together » ? Le rôle des métaphores dans la perception citoyenne du fédéralisme belge. Mots. Les Langages du Politique, 109 | URL : http://journals.openedition.org/mots/22156. Bougher, L. (2012). The case for metaphor in political reasoning and cognition. Political Psychology, 33 (1), 145-163. Charteris-Black, J. (2011). Politicians and Rhetoric. The Persuasive Power of Metaphor, Houndmills : Palgrave Macmillan. Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis : the Critical Study of Language. New-York : Longman Group. Fairclough, I. & Fairclough, N. (2012). Political Discourse Analysis. A Method for Advanced Students. London & New-York : Routledge. L’Hôte, E. (2012). “Breaking up Britain”? Métaphores et discours sur la dévolution au Royaume-Uni. In Authors (eds.) Les relations communautaires en Belgique, Approches politiques et linguistiques, , Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia- L’Harmattan (Science politique), p. 161-189. Mayaffre, D. (2005). Les corpus politiques : objet, méthode et contenu. Introduction », Corpus, 4 | URL : http:// corpus.revues.org/292. Mayaffre, D. (2016). Du candidat au président : Panorama logométrique de François Hollande. Mots. Les Langages du Politique, 112 | URL : http://journals.openedition.org/mots/22479. Mayaffre, D. & Poudat, C. (2013).Quantitative Approaches to Political Discourse : Corpus Linguistics and Text Statistics. . In K. Fløttum (ed.), Speaking of Europe : Approaches to Complexity in European Political Discourse, Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins, pp. 135-150. Musolff, A. (2004). Metaphor and Political Discourse Analogical Reasoning in Debates about Europe. Houndmills : Palgrave MacMillan. Musolff, A. (2013).The heart of Europe : Synchronic Variation and Historical Trajectories of a Political Metaphor. In K. Fløttum (ed.), Speaking of Europe : Approaches to Complexity in European Political Discourse, Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins, pp. 135-150 Musolff, A. (2016). Political Metaphor Analysis : Discourse and Scenarios. London & New-York : Bloomsbury. Wodak, R. (ed.)(1989). Language, Power and Ideology : Studies in Political Discourse. Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins. [less ▲]

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