Publications of Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux
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See detailEpidémiologie de la rage et connaissance, attitudes et pratiques des communautés au Burkina Faso
Savadogo, Madi ULiege; Koné, Philippe; Dahourou, Laibané Dieudonné et al

in Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux (2020), 73

Rabies is an endemic zoonosis in developing countries and is one of the most virulent and deadly viral diseases. It is a threat to public and animal health in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study ... [more ▼]

Rabies is an endemic zoonosis in developing countries and is one of the most virulent and deadly viral diseases. It is a threat to public and animal health in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study describes the epidemiology of rabies and the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the populations in Ouagadougou. Data were collected from households and technical services involved in the prevention, control and surveillance of human and animal rabies. The KAP survey was conducted among 616 households. It showed that the majority of participants had heard of human (80.7%) and animal (94.6%) rabies, were aware that the disease is mainly transmitted by infected dog bites (94.2%), and were able to quote at least two routes of rabies transmission (65.7%). In contrast, only 9.7% of dog owners claimed to be able to afford annual canine rabies vaccination. The main channels of information and communication about rabies used by the participants were friends and family (41.8%), school (33.4%), and media 24.8%). As for the retrospective epidemiological study, which was based on the documents vailable within national services, it showed that an average of 4172 cases of bites were recorded each year, that only 31.7% of those bitten had received complete post-exposure prophylaxis, and that 68% of the animal tested were positive for rabies virus. These studies confirm the presence of a rabies risk in the country, and show the need for increased education and community involvement, and close collaboration between the animal and human health sectors for integrated bite-case management. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial network analysis of practice adoption facing outbreaks of African Swine Fever
Govoeyi, Benoit ULiege; Agbokounou, Aristide Mahoutin; Camara, Younouss ULiege et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2020), 179

Animal epizootics show widely destructive effect on livestock value chains in sub Saharan Africa, pushing many smallholders into poverty and discouraging investments. Hence, African swine fever (ASF) has ... [more ▼]

Animal epizootics show widely destructive effect on livestock value chains in sub Saharan Africa, pushing many smallholders into poverty and discouraging investments. Hence, African swine fever (ASF) has been playing a deeply depressing role on swine value chain of Benin since its first occurrence in the country in 1997. Exchanges between actors are fundamental among stakeholders for the overall performance of a value chain and is key in the way these can respond to challenges, as epizootic threats. The present study describes how stakeholders of the swine value chain interact in the diffusion of innovative practices facing an outbreak of ASF. In seven districts, focus groups were first organized with stakeholders to identify changes and other reactions that ensued from a recent ASF outbreak in Benin. In a second step, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted, following a respondent-driven sampling, to collect the contact information needed for social network analysis. The influence of actors’ characteristics on their degree centrality was tested through multiple linear regression model. Regulatory requirements and available incomes facilitated practice diffusion among groups of pork butchers, traders/brokers and input suppliers. Stockbreeders displayed passivity in the diffusion of practices whereas they should have the forefront role in addressing the challenge of ASF. Nevertheless, their significant interest in capacity reinforcement, associations, exchange visits and professionalization may lead them to increase their involvement in a joint control of the disease. © 2020 [less ▲]

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See detailReproductive performances of local pigs in West African countries: A review
Dotché, I. O.; Bonou, G. A.; Dahouda, M. et al

in Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research (2020), 10(1), 49-55

The local pig is reared in all West Africa countries, and especially in small farms, playing so an important role in its preservation. This article reviews work done on reproductive performances of local ... [more ▼]

The local pig is reared in all West Africa countries, and especially in small farms, playing so an important role in its preservation. This article reviews work done on reproductive performances of local pigs in West Africa. These performances focus on age at puberty, estrus and sex cycle, gestation length, pro-lificity, viability and growth before piglets weaning. Factors that can influence these parameters are included. Finally, the contribution of animal biotechnology to these performances improvement is discussed. © 2011-2020 JAVR. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of discrete choice experiment to analyze the demand for village chicken paid vaccination service against Newcastle disease in DR Congo
Lwapa Embele Isenge, F.; Masumu Mulumbu, J.; Matala Mfwamba, F. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2020), 182

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease that can affect a large number of avian species and cause severe economic loss in many countries. This disease is a major constraint for rural ... [more ▼]

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease that can affect a large number of avian species and cause severe economic loss in many countries. This disease is a major constraint for rural chicken production in most developing countries. In this country, ND is known since the 1940s. It exists in enzootic form in almost all provinces of the country. No systematic long-term control measures have been taken against this devastating disease in village poultry. A discrete choice experiment was carried out to analyze the demand for paid vaccination services, by first identifying the preferences of 320 village chicken keepers from eight sites, four of which had benefitted from such a paid chicken vaccination program against ND and four of which did not. The preference was for a vaccination service carried out following imposed calendar. The public veterinarian was the most preferred professional to ensure the paid vaccination of village chickens. The results led to the design of a profile of paid vaccination service tailored to chicken keepers’ expectations. The public veterinarian would supervise vaccination activities, which would be implemented by trained community-based health workers, through collective campaigns at fixed periods in the year. The acceptable price (equivalent to 0.10 US dollar per dose) would allow the service to be set in a sustainable way and might be increased if trust in the delivered service may be built further. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of reproductive performances of local and improved pigs reared in south Benin
Dotché, I. O.; Bankolé, C. B. O.; Dahouda, M. et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2020), 52(2), 687-698

Benin’s domestic production of pork is deficient because of the animals’ low productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performances of pigs reared in south Benin. Data on zootechnical ... [more ▼]

Benin’s domestic production of pork is deficient because of the animals’ low productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performances of pigs reared in south Benin. Data on zootechnical performances and reproduction management were collected from 63 farms in the departments of Ouémé and Plateau. These data were analyzed with SAS software, and the Fisher test was used for the significance of the breed, sex, and parity number effect on the zootechnical performances. It appears that estrus detection was mainly based on the observation of signs of vulvar changes and behavior of the sow. These estruses were detected at any time and without the boar. The local sows were mated as soon as estruses were detected while improved sows were mated 36 h after. The pregnancy detection was performed by control of return of estrus, 21 days after the mating by the majority (80.6%) of the respondents. The litter size, the number of piglets born alive, and the weaned piglets of improved sows were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of local sows. These parameters increased with the parity number until the 4th parity and decreased after. The litter size was highly correlated with the number of piglets born alive and weaned piglets. The farrowing interval was longer in local sows than in improved sows. The weights at birth, at 1 and 2 months old of improved piglets, were significantly higher than those of local piglets (P < 0.001). The knowledge of these performances will allow actions to be taken for their improvement. © 2019, Springer Nature B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of preferences of agro-pastoralists for the attributes of traction dromedaries in harness cultivation: A case study of the Koro district of Mali
Traoré, Bakary ULiege; Govoeyi, Benoît ULiege; Hamadou, Issa et al

in Pastoralism (2019), 9(19),

The aim of this study was to characterize agro-pastoralists’ preferences in dromedary rearing in the Koro district of Mali, which has experienced a decade of spontaneous development in using dromedaries ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to characterize agro-pastoralists’ preferences in dromedary rearing in the Koro district of Mali, which has experienced a decade of spontaneous development in using dromedaries for harnessed cultivation. Five criteria for assessment of dromedary types used for traction were identified through nine focus group discussions. The assessment criteria developed and estimated rates were the morphological characteristics (23.2%), disease resistance (14.1%), work attitude (26.3%), colour of the coat (25.3%) and docility (11.1%). A multi-attribute analysis method was applied with 115 dromedary owners. Conditional logit was used to estimate utility function and willingness to pay (WTP) for different attributes. Work attitude seems to be an important parameter for decision-making with a WTP amounting to 558.94 euros (614.94 USD). Disease resistance comes second position in decision-making for the selection of dromedaries, with a WTP of 348.77 euros (383.40 USD). To a lesser extent, the white coat with a WTP in the order of 54.45 euros (59.86 USD) intervenes in agro-pastoral decision-making. The agro-pastoralists have a strong reluctance for the dark brown coat. In conclusion, the present results showed that further studies should be conducted on materials and traction technologies to promote harnessed cultivation by dromedaries to preserve and strengthen the multi-functional nature of the dromedary. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors affecting the decision of vaccinating dogs in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Savadogo, Madi ULiege; Ouattara, Boris; Tialla, Dieudonné et al

Poster (2019, November 08)

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See detailThe Diversity of Impacts Brought by Sound Implementation of Public-Private Partnerships in the Veterinary Domain
Poupaud, Mariline ULiege; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle et al

Conference (2019, September 07)

Public Private Partnership (PPP) is defined as a joint approach in which the public and private sector agree responsibilities and share resources and risks to achieve common objectives that deliver ... [more ▼]

Public Private Partnership (PPP) is defined as a joint approach in which the public and private sector agree responsibilities and share resources and risks to achieve common objectives that deliver benefits in a sustainable manner. However only limited information is available on the added value of PPP in the veterinary domain. The aim of this study was to identify the different benefits and impacts lead by PPPs implemented in this field. A structured questionnaire survey was implemented by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to collect data on the different types of PPPs worldwide (n=181 countries). Three case studies were selected from the survey results (n=97) for CIRAD to implement an in depth impact assessment. An expert opinion elicitation involving around 40 experts was performed using semi-structured interviews and an expert meeting in October 2018 to validate the list of benefits and impacts developed. Sixteen categories of benefits (direct effect) and five categories of impacts (long term influence) were identified: stronger national economy; greater trust in public and private partners; reduced business risk and increased opportunities; improved public health (reduced zoonotic risk and improved food security) and societal issues such as livelihood improvement and reduction in gender inequality. This study represents the first practical attempt to represent the diversity of impacts that proper implementation of PPPs in the field of veterinary domain could generate. This work is currently contributing to the development of OIE guidelines to promote good practices for impactful and sustainable PPPs in the veterinary domain. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic parameters affecting reproduction and production performances of dairy cattle in peri-urban of Bamako, Mali
Touré, Abdoulaye ULiege; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege; Geda, Fikremariam et al

in Veterinary World (2019), 12(6),

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the reproduction and production performances of crossbred and local dairy cattle in peri-urban of Bamako, the capital of Mali. Materials and Methods: A ... [more ▼]

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the reproduction and production performances of crossbred and local dairy cattle in peri-urban of Bamako, the capital of Mali. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 randomly selected households with 450 dairy cattle from four peri-urban of Bamako were individually interviewed, given register format and divided into four focus group discussions. The participants were dairy farmers and they were asked to know the phenotype that seems to them the more interesting for the reproduction and production performances of their dairy cattle. Results: The calving interval (CI) obtained exceeded 433 days in all phenotypic types with average milk yields of 5.13±1.84 kg/day, 4.76±2.41, and 3.05±1.32 kg/day, respectively, for the Holstein crossbred, Montbeliard crossbred, and the local breeds (Zebu Peul and/or Zebu Maure). Crossbred was more productive than local breeds with significant (p<0.05) differences for lactation length, CI and total production and not significant on parity. The results also showed the advantages of the crossbred cows in terms of CI (460±80 days) compared to local zebus breeds (433±115 days) to keep the time of milking as long as possible. However, the Zebu Azawak breed whose cradle is located in Northern Mali, managed under extensive peri-urban rearing conditions, has less favorable production parameters than those of other local cattle breeds in milk production (636±43.3 kg vs. 681±41.1 kg). Conclusion: The present study revealed that crossbred dairy cattle performed better in terms of CI, lactation length, and production compared to the local breeds. The study also showed that the local Azawak breed numerically performed less compared to the other local breeds evaluated in this study, namely, Peul and Maure. [less ▲]

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See detailStakeholder involvement in cattle-breeding program in developing countries: A Delphi survey
Camara, Younouss ULiege; Sow, F.; Govoeyi, Benoit ULiege et al

in Livestock Science (2019), 228

Stakeholders’ involvement is key to breeding programs’ success. The identification of stakeholders, their categories, respective role and weight in the overall process therefore constitutes a crucial ... [more ▼]

Stakeholders’ involvement is key to breeding programs’ success. The identification of stakeholders, their categories, respective role and weight in the overall process therefore constitutes a crucial aspect of animal breeding. The objective of this paper is to show how the different international experts in breeding perceive the participation of stakeholders and their collaboration in the sustainable management of cattle-breeding programs in developing countries. This study uses the Delphi method to collect experts’ opinions on stakeholders’ involvement in breeding scheme design. In a first round, experts are asked to list all potential stakeholders and to score them on a scale from 1 to 5 according to the perceived importance of roles assigned to them. In a second round, experts were asked to confirm or modify their first notes for each proposal, by taking into account the opinion of the other experts. In the first and second rounds, 17 and 12 experts answered our questionnaires respectively. Two types of analyses were first realized, i.e., a statistical analysis, which evaluated the consensus and the divergence between experts, and a textual analysis, which evaluated the arguments and the roles. Then a factorial correspondence analysis was conducted to propose a typology of stakeholders according to their roles. In the first round, the State representatives, researchers and breeders were frequently mentioned, but the experts variably perceived the importance given to them individually. In the second round, the experts confirmed the need to involve these stakeholders. Between the two rounds, a convergence of views is observed on this implication, despite a persisting divergence on the assigned roles and their relative importance. This diversity of views may have reflected a diversity of origins and professions of responding experts. Development professionals considered the State as the main actor, while researchers considered the breeders and researchers. Expressed through a typological analysis, this divergence of experts’ perception of roles suggests three groups of actors playing main roles. Group 1 corresponds to research, which role is to provide a scientific support for genetic and economic evaluation, as well as technological development. Group 2, composed of State, NGOs and funding institutions, covers roles in financing, subsidizing and capacity building. Group 3, including farmers and their organizations, is responsible of the breeding program management, genetic progress and breed conservation. The proposed typology of actors according to their role may intervene as a basis of discussion, helping in the identification of fruitful agreements beyond the perspective of one sole expert in charge of the designing of a breeding program. It suggests an organization that federates these groups of actors and defines the intervention framework and the activities of the breeding program. © 2019 [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of breeders’ participation to an indigenous cattle breeding program
Camara, Younouss ULiege; Ciss, M.; Moula, Nassim ULiege et al

in Agronomy for Sustainable Development (2019), 39(5),

Many cattle breeding programs were initiated in Africa to increase the productivity of indigenous cattle breeds. Most of these programs have failed, partly due to the lack of involvement of breeders. The ... [more ▼]

Many cattle breeding programs were initiated in Africa to increase the productivity of indigenous cattle breeds. Most of these programs have failed, partly due to the lack of involvement of breeders. The present case study contributes to the understanding of such failures. The N’Dama cattle breeding program in Senegal was taken as a case study for an in-depth analysis of participation using mixed methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 breeders: 26 who participated, 15 of whom recently resigned, and 27 who had never participated. Content and statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the motivations of breeders and the factors influencing their participation in the breeding program. Results more particularly highlight the complexity of social issues within a breeding project, in face of classical determinants of adoption that are distance or production systems features. It pinpoints crucial levers of improvement, i.e., the management of animal property rights between the nucleus management and the participating breeders, the legitimacy of participants’ representatives in cooperatives, and the strategic mobilization of member social networks. Also, adding on previous works of the authors, this study highlights the need to take better account of the dynamics of production systems, then paying sufficient attention to the objectives, preferences, and ongoing strategies of the breeders for the future. The present study is the first to highlight the added value of mixed methods to analyze innovation adoption and participation in a livestock breeding program, taking both into account the overall innovation drivers and dynamics tied to actors’ strategies. © 2019, INRA and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailValuing breeders' preferences in the conservation of the Koundoum sheep in Niger by multi-attribute analysis
Hamadou, I.; Moula, Nassim ULiege; Siddo, S. et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht (2019), 62(2), 537-545

This study characterises farmer's preferences for breeding rams and tackles their willingness to contribute to the Koundoum sheep conservation programme through their quantified appreciation of the main ... [more ▼]

This study characterises farmer's preferences for breeding rams and tackles their willingness to contribute to the Koundoum sheep conservation programme through their quantified appreciation of the main phenotypic features of the sheep breed in the region. The Koundoum is the main wool sheep of Niger and shows a remarkable adaptation to the environment of the Niger River valley. In Tillabéri region, i.e. the Koundoum sheep's area of origin, the proportional piling tool is first used in 11 focus group discussions of breeders to determine the main selection criteria of breeding rams. The multi-attribute analysis method is then applied with 168 sheep owners. The econometric estimation of the utility function of breeders is conducted with a conditional logit model and the marginal willingness to pay is calculated. The results reveal a strong rejection by the breeders of characteristics like wool and black-coloured coat and thus shows the poor acceptability of an in situ conservation programme. Few breeders with a particular concern for the breed's conservation for cultural motives may nevertheless join such a conservation programme that should mainly be based on ex situ strategies. © Author(s) 2019. [less ▲]

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See detailValuing health surveillance as an information system: Interdisciplinary insights
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege; Vandenberg, O.; Kozlakidis, Z. et al

in Frontiers in Public Health (2019), 7(JUN),

The economic evaluation of health surveillance systems and of health information is a methodological challenge, as for information systems in general. Main present threads are considering cost ... [more ▼]

The economic evaluation of health surveillance systems and of health information is a methodological challenge, as for information systems in general. Main present threads are considering cost-effectiveness solutions, minimizing costs for a given technically required output, or cost-benefit analysis, balancing costs with economic benefits of duly informed public interventions. The latter option, following a linear command-and-control perspective, implies considering a main causal link between information, decision, action, and health benefits. Yet, valuing information, taking into account its nature and multiple sources, the modalities of its processing cycle, from production to diffusion, decentralized use and gradual building of a shared information capital, constitutes a promising challenge. This work proposes an interdisciplinary insight on the value of health surveillance to get a renewed theoretical framework integrating information and informatics theory and information economics. The reflection is based on a typological approach of value, basically distinguishing between use and non-use values. Through this structured discussion, the main idea is to expand the boundaries of surveillance evaluation, to focus on changes and trends, on the dynamic and networked structure of information systems, on the contribution of diverse data, and on the added value of combining qualitative and quantitative information. Distancing itself from the command-and-control model, this reflection considers the behavioral fundaments of many health risks, as well as the decentralized, progressive and deliberative dimension of decision-making in risk management. The framework also draws on lessons learnt from recent applications within and outside of health sector, as in surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, inter-laboratory networks, the use of big data or web sources, the diffusion of technological products and large-scale financial risks. Finally, the paper poses the bases to think the challenge of a workable approach to economic evaluation of health surveillance through a better understanding of health information value. It aims to avoid over-simplifying the range of health information benefits across society while keeping evaluation within the boundaries of what may be ascribed to the assessed information system. © 2019 Antoine-Moussiaux, Vandenberg, Kozlakidis, Aenishaenslin, Peyre, Roche, Bonnet and Ravel. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipatory assessment of paid vaccination campaigns for village chickens against Newcastle disease in Kongo Central province
Lwapa Embele Isenge, Francis ULiege; Masumu, J. M.; Matala, F. M. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2019), 172

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where state-driven animal vaccination campaigns are organized only in response to epidemics, the organization of a permanent animal vaccination service is ... [more ▼]

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where state-driven animal vaccination campaigns are organized only in response to epidemics, the organization of a permanent animal vaccination service is urgently needed. A non-governmental organization has set up an experimental paid vaccination service for village chickens against Newcastle Disease (ND) in the Kongo Central province. This mixed-method study presents a participatory assessment of this experiment, identifying socio-economic factors that influence the decision of chicken keepers to adopt vaccination. The study was conducted in four territories of the province. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with professionals of animal health and chicken keepers and 160 semi-structured interviews with chicken keepers, sampled by snowball technique. This participatory process has resulted in the design of a grid for assessing animal vaccination service's performance. Here translating the narratives into a preliminary structured assessment, this grid is an output of the study, to be mobilized for future rapid assessments of the vaccination service in a quantitative prospect. The grid consisted of nine criteria, further composed by 16 items, translated into questions to be asked to chicken keepers and vaccinators. In our study area, fieldworkers enumerated four animal vaccination campaigns during a period of 21 years (except those subject to the present assessment). Around 13% of chicken keepers of our sample had participated in ND vaccination programs. Almost 96% of interviewed chicken keepers expressed their willingness to pay for ND vaccination, and 87% of chicken keepers that vaccinated their chickens perceived the vaccine as effective. Vaccinators estimated that 56% of the chicken keepers who were contacted had actually paid for the vaccination of their chickens. The assessment grid highlighted four points in favor of the sustainability of this service, i.e. the general interest of chickens keepers, vaccine efficacy, vaccine availability and ease of use of the vaccine. Two weak points were identified, viz. the poor access of chicken keepers to information and the weak motivation of vaccinators. The vaccine coverage was calculated within the sample at 13.1%. Paid vaccination campaign for village chicken in Kongo Central obtained a performance score of 62.8%, with the highest score in Kwilu-Ngongo (73.1%) and the lowest in Kasangulu (52.4%). Two factors of adoption of vaccination were identified as statistically significant, i.e. chicken housing and territory. Significant differences appeared between territories in access to information for chicken keepers and in vaccinators motivation. The priorities for the improvement of this service appear to be awareness raising among chicken keepers and increasing vaccinators’ motivation. © 2019 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailThe good, the bad and the ugly: framing debates on nature in a One Health community
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Leyens, S. et al

in Sustainability Science (2019)

Originating in medical and veterinary spheres, the One Health concept stands as an open call for collaboration also between these disciplines or professions and those of environmental and social science ... [more ▼]

Originating in medical and veterinary spheres, the One Health concept stands as an open call for collaboration also between these disciplines or professions and those of environmental and social science. However, the communities of practice in question show uneasy or under-developed collaborations, due to a variety of factors. We argue that an important factor is the way issues are raised and questions are formulated, i.e., their framing. Based on complementary perspectives on health and knowledge, this overview provides an inter- and trans-disciplinary analysis of the role of the framing of « nature » in One Health discourses as a barrier or a facilitator to collaboration, as revealed by the scientific literature. We find that the lack of reflection by scientists about the framing under which they operate appears as a major factor of misunderstanding between disciplines, and a barrier for inter- and trans-disciplinary solutions to improve management of health risks and benefits. Hence, to build such solutions, framing will have to be a conscious and repeated step in the process, acknowledging and explaining the diversity of viewpoints and values. The interdisciplinary dialogues inherent in this process promote translation between scientific domains, policy-makers and citizens, with a critical but pluralistic recourse to various framings of health risks and benefits associated with nature, and a deep awareness of their practical and ethical consequences. © 2019, Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipatory innovation analysis along livestock value chains: Case of swine value chain in Benin
Govoeyi, Benoit ULiege; Ahounou, Serge G.; Agbokounou, Aristide Mahoutin et al

in Agricultural Systems (2019), 174

Rural poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a huge challenge despite the successive agricultural development policies, most of which have failed to involve stakeholders actively. The present rise of pork ... [more ▼]

Rural poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a huge challenge despite the successive agricultural development policies, most of which have failed to involve stakeholders actively. The present rise of pork demand in Benin calls for an assessment of the swine value chain (VC) to envision its development. A participatory approach is here proposed to join this assessment to a stimulation of innovation among stakeholders. The approach is divided in four stages: i) identification of actors and direct links along the VC, ii) characterisation of innovation practices, iii) identification of bottlenecks and opportunities using innovation system framework, and iv) measurement of agreement among VC actors about constraints and value-added sharing, using proportional piling tool. A second survey, two full years after the first one, assessed the impact of actions conducted with VC actors. A typological analysis of innovation practices was conducted to define “innovation profiles” among each of the three main categories of actors: swine stockbreeders (n = 134), pork butchers (n = 45) and input suppliers (n = 25). Three innovation profiles were retained for each category, which may be understood as covering 2 distinct innovator profiles and one non-innovator profile. The profiles qualified as “innovators” accounted for 82%, 84%, and 76%, respectively in stockbreeders, pork butchers and input suppliers. The lack of professionalisation appeared to actors as the main constraint. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) indicated that actors agreed to state that pork butchers gained the most part of the value-added, followed by input suppliers. The second survey showed favorable impacts of the approach and follow-up activities on exchanges and organisation within the VC. It is here advocated that the present participatory method, while characterising the value-chain in a rapid way, further sets the basis for the dialogue between actors and the stimulation of innovation along the VC, which can be further sustained through an exchange platform. © 2019 [less ▲]

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See detailCrossbreeding and consanguinity management in pig farms in the departments of Ouémé and Plateau in Benin
Dotché, I. O.; Idohou, S.; Dahouda, M. et al

in Veterinary World (2019), 12(11), 1816-1825

Background: The improvement in pig zootechnical performances is a common practice in Benin. This improvement of the performances is made by the choice of the best reproducers in farms and the ... [more ▼]

Background: The improvement in pig zootechnical performances is a common practice in Benin. This improvement of the performances is made by the choice of the best reproducers in farms and the crossbreeding between the different breeds. Aim: This study aims to characterize practices related to consanguinity management in pigs reared in Ouémé and Plateau. Materials and Methods: Crossbreeding and consanguinity data were collected from 60 farms in these two departments. Frequencies and averages were calculated and compared between departments, genetic types, and origin of progenitors. Results: The majority of the investigated pig farmers in both departments were married men of primary or secondary education level. Most of them cross animals without a specific crossbreeding scheme. These crossings were performed to a greater extent (p<0.05) in Ouémé (94.28%) than in Plateau (52%). In general, farmers cross improved animals of high breeding values with the crossbred ones. These crossings were mainly performed to improve zootechnical performances. Renewing animals were commonly chosen from the farm or were provided from nearby farms. The majority of pig breeders in Ouémé (100%) and Plateau (86.67%) obtained reproductive animals from nearby farms. Males and females were sometimes bought from the same farm or from farms that pig breeders have sold reproductive animals in the previous years. In the case of selection within their own farm, male and female progenitors are separated at puberty by the majority of the breeders of Plateau (42.11%) and Ouéme (50%). Inbred mating was reported by breeders. More than half of breeders mate animals having a parental link in both departments. The mating was performed between animals of the same mother in 37.93% of farms in Ouémé and in 45.46% in Plateau. The main consanguinity consequences mentioned by the breeders were the high mortality at birth and weaning, piglets’ weakness at the birth, the slow growth, and the decrease in litter size. Sows with at least one parent from external farm had a litter size at birth and weaning and a live-born piglets’ number significantly higher than sows with both parents from the same farm. Conclusion: Rigorous monitoring of crossing and the filial links are necessary for pig farms for ensuring the improvement of zootechnical performances. Dotché, et al. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. [less ▲]

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See detailA basic characterization of small-holders ’ goat production systems in Laghouat area, Algeria
Laouadi, Mourad; Tennah, Safia; Kafidi, Nacereddine et al

in Pastoralism (2018)

In order to investigate the practices of goat breeding and establish a classification of goat herds, a survey was conducted with 106 goat breeders in the semi-arid region of Laghouat. Two indigenous ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the practices of goat breeding and establish a classification of goat herds, a survey was conducted with 106 goat breeders in the semi-arid region of Laghouat. Two indigenous breeds were encountered in this survey: the Arabia and the Mekatia; the Arabia being found as the dominant. The results show that breeders choose the breeding goats with a goal of generating more income in cash from the sale of products. The goat milk marketing chain appears to be weak. The milk produced is primary used for home consumption. A multivariate analysis categorized the goat farming of Laghouat region into three groups corresponding to three different farming systems: cluster 1 (pastoral system), cluster 2 (mixed crop-livestock system) and cluster 3 (small herds in zero grazing system). The in-depth study of the goals and contexts of goat farming in Laghouat will allow policy makers to design strategies for sustainable development of goat breeding in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailWalking at the edge of social and biomedical sciences: a fascina ng yet tricky trek!
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege; Leyens, S.; Thys, S. et al

Conference (2018, May)

Complex health problems call for interdisciplinarity. However, major divides remain between disciplines, resulting in projects being split into work-packages, mostly running in silos. This communication ... [more ▼]

Complex health problems call for interdisciplinarity. However, major divides remain between disciplines, resulting in projects being split into work-packages, mostly running in silos. This communication considers lessons learnt by scientists experiencing for more than a decade interdisciplinary research. It proposes a framework for further analysis and calls for dialogue to increase added value of interdisciplinarity with a focus on social sciences and biomedical sciences. Indeed, these disciplines handle distinct topics, adopting disciplinary viewpoints requiring very different temporal and spatial scales of study. Hereafter we consider some general and common, though disputable and not exclusive, distinctions between social and natural sciences. The gaps between qualitative or quantitative research processes are a recurrent barrier. Hence, the necessary dialogue remains challenged by the diversity of practices, beliefs and epistemologies. Social sciences mostly rely on a constructivist, inductive and interpretative approach, while biomedicine provides experimental facts based on hypothetico-deductivist methods, and modeling and statistical approaches call for mathematical translation and analysis of reality. Often, debates crystalize around the conception of quality in science. Qualitative research addresses meaning, implying subjective interpretation of data collected within a defined context. On the other hand, quantitative approaches call for representativity of samples to generalize results to populations. Also, experimental science will focus on statistical significance and repeatability within controlled conditions to decontextualize knowledge. Therefore, disciplines diverge about the aptness of truth assessment, the perceived usefulness of knowledge and importance of research questions. Tradeoffs need to be made between reductionism and holism, addressing the various scales of study of disciplines. Further fostered by technical jargons and evolving conceptual frameworks, this misunderstanding leads to severe shortfalls in collaborations. Beyond the sharing of experience, a rigorous analysis of barriers, benefiting from insights from philosophy of science, is needed in order to get more value from interdisciplinary collaboration. Research impact highlights: Interdisciplinary research is needed to address complex health problems. Yet, major gaps are dividing disciplines, based on profound epistemological divergences. This causes major shortfalls in projects joining social and biomedical sciences. Based on the sharing of experience gained through participation to interdisciplinary research in diverse contexts, the present communication aims at proposing a reflection integrating insights from philosophy of science to propose further analysis and ways forward. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Bridging Role of Socio-economic Reasoning in “One Health”
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULiege

in Bulletin des Séances de l'Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer (2018), 64

The “One Health” concept refers to an integrative approach of health issues, emphasizing the strong interdependencies between human health, animal health and environmental health. This approach defends ... [more ▼]

The “One Health” concept refers to an integrative approach of health issues, emphasizing the strong interdependencies between human health, animal health and environmental health. This approach defends the need for interdisciplinarity, transdis- ciplinarity, and intersectorality in health risk management. As regards public and animal health, the role of economics has often been restricted to an accountancy role, mobilizing diversely sophisticated tools to model the cost of diseases, of their control, and of welfare systems. However, as a conceptual framework of decision analysis, economics may bring a lot more to health risk management. This paper deals with the foundations of a so-called socio-economic reasoning, stressing this wider contribution to “One Health” analysis and implementation. Referring to recent applications, this article advocates how the socio- economic framework may constitute an interdisciplinary bridge, linking technical and social sciences. [less ▲]

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