Publications of Michael Schyns
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See detailUne audience virtuelle pour l’entrainement de la fluence de parole lors d’une prise de parole en public : Etude pilote
Menjot, Pauline; Remacle, Angélique ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege et al

in Cahiers de l'ASELF (in press)

Contexte : Prendre la parole face à une audience est un défi pour beaucoup. Elle est considérée comme l’une des activités les plus craintes. L’anxiété liée à la prise de parole en public a un impact sur ... [more ▼]

Contexte : Prendre la parole face à une audience est un défi pour beaucoup. Elle est considérée comme l’une des activités les plus craintes. L’anxiété liée à la prise de parole en public a un impact sur les performances de communication, notamment sur la fluence de parole. La littérature met en évidence les bénéfices d’un entrainement ciblant les compétences communicationnelles liées à cette activité. Néanmoins, son implémentation dans des situations proches du monde réel reste complexe. Par conséquent, la réalité virtuelle pourrait être un outil novateur et pertinent pour ce type d’entrainement. Objectifs : Cette étude vise à valider l’utilisation d’une audience virtuelle pour l’entrainement de la prise de parole en public en évaluant sa capacité à susciter des réactions émotionnelles (en termes d’anxiété) et comportementales (en termes de disfluences). Méthodologie : Huit participants ont réalisé une présentation orale dans trois conditions : 1) face à un public réel (Vivo_Public), 2) devant un public virtuel (Virtuo_Public) et 3) dans une salle de conférence virtuelle sans public (Virtuo_Vide). Les disfluences et le niveau d’anxiété des participants ont été analysés. Le vécu de l’immersion dans l’environnement virtuel a quant à lui été évalué au moyen d’un questionnaire portant sur le sentiment de présence et les cybermalaises. Résultats : Les réactions comportementales, le sentiment de présence satisfaisant et l’absence de cybermalaises suggèrent que cet environnement virtuel est un outil prometteur pour l’entrainement à la prise de parole en public. Conclusion : Cette étude est la première étape d’un projet à long terme. Elle a permis de mettre en évidence les éléments positifs de cette audience virtuelle ainsi que ceux nécessitant une amélioration. D’autres études sont toutefois nécessaires pour améliorer cet environnement et confirmer statistiquement sa validité écologique. [less ▲]

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See detailA virtual audience for public speaking: A pilot study
Menjot, Pauline; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege et al

Poster (2020, December 01)

Background. Public speaking is one of the most feared activities, with approximately two-thirds of undergraduates afraid to speak in public (Ferreira Marinho et al., 2017). This form of anxiety has ... [more ▼]

Background. Public speaking is one of the most feared activities, with approximately two-thirds of undergraduates afraid to speak in public (Ferreira Marinho et al., 2017). This form of anxiety has consequences on communication performance (King & Finn, 2017), particularly on speech fluency (Goberman et al., 2011), and quality of speech can influence a speaker’s career success (Wörtwein et al., 2015). While the literature highlights the benefits of public speaking training on communication performance (Goberman et al., 2011), its implementation is complex. Therefore, virtual reality (VR) seems to be an innovative and relevant tool for clinicians. Aims. This study aims to validate the use of a virtual audience for public speaking by assessing its capacity to elicit emotional (i.e. anxiety) and behavioral (i.e. disfluencies) responses confirming its ecological validity. Methodology. Eight participants made an oral presentation in front of a virtual audience. Their speech disfluencies and anxiety were analyzed. They also completed questionnaires assessing the quality of VR based on the feeling of presence and side effects (i.e. cybersickness). Results. The emotional (anxiety) and behavioral responses (speech disfluencies), the sufficient feeling of presence, and the absence of cybersickness suggest that this virtual audience can be a relevant tool for public speaking training and rehabilitation. Conclusions. This pilot study is the first step in a long-term project. It highlights the positive points of a virtual audience as well as those requiring improvement. Further studies are needed to enhance this virtual environment and statistically confirm its ecological validity. References: - Ferreira Marinho, A. C., Mesquita de Medeiros, A., Côrtes Gama, A. C., & Caldas Teixeira, L. (2017). Fear of Public Speaking: Perception of College Students and Correlates. Journal of Voice, 31(1), 7-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.12.012 - Goberman, A. M., Hughes, S., & Haydock, T. (2011). Acoustic characteristics of public speaking: Anxiety and practice effects. Speech Communication, 53(6), 867–876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2011.02.005 - King, P. E., & Finn, A. N. (2017). A test of attention control theory in public speaking: cognitive load influences the relationship between state anxiety and verbal production. Communication Education, 66(2), 168–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2016.1272128 - Wörtwein, T., Chollet, M., Schauerte, B., Morency, L.-P., Stiefelhagen, R., & Scherer, S. (2015). Multimodal Public Speaking Performance Assessment. International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, 43–50. https://doi.org/10.1145/2818346.2820762 [less ▲]

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See detailSpeakInVR : Validation d'une audience virtuelle
Etienne, Elodie ULiege; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Remacle, Angélique ULiege et al

Speech/Talk (2020)

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See detailSPEAKinVR: validation of a virtual audience
Etienne, Elodie ULiege; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Remacle, Angélique ULiege et al

Conference (2020, April 30)

The main goal of this paper is to validate a virtual reality environment for public speaking training. Following Slater’s terminology (2003), there are two important concepts in VR: “immersion which ... [more ▼]

The main goal of this paper is to validate a virtual reality environment for public speaking training. Following Slater’s terminology (2003), there are two important concepts in VR: “immersion which stands for what the technology delivers from an objective point of view” and presence which is “the human reaction to immersion”, i.e., the participant’s subjective sense of being in the virtual place. The reactions of the audience can have a significant impact on the speaker’s emotions and performance. At a first level, our hypothesis is that interactivity has a positive impact on the presence feeling. At a higher level, as already shown by Chollet et al. (2015), interactivity in VR is also a major ingredient in the training process. It is therefore essential to know if the users perceive the interactions in the virtual environment as representative of the reality and how each one is interpreted. There are two main dimensions in the context of emotion and affect: arousal and valence. As defined by Chollet and Scherer (2017), “arousal can be understood as an audience member’s level of alertness, and valence corresponds to how positively or negatively the person feels toward the speaker or the presentation”. In their paper, they tried to understand how users perceive virtual audience based on the nonverbal behavior of audience members. Our first question is to investigate which attitudes the characters must display and how people perceive the individual members of the audience in terms of their states of arousal and valence. A second related question is linked to the level of reality used to represent the public. The characters in virtual environments, i.e. avatars, are most often synthetic images. In some cases, photorealistic representations are used but the level of animation is then generally extremely limited. In this context, our second research question investigates whether the use of fully rigged 3D photogrammetric models, i.e. with a skeleton we can animate, can significantly improve the user’s presence. [less ▲]

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See detailSPEAKInVR : Validation d’une audience virtuelle
Etienne, Elodie ULiege; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Remacle, Angélique ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2020, March 12)

Nowadays public speaking is one of the most important skills a person should develop. Such a skill is vital in many circumstances and in very different fields: the sales representative who presents a ... [more ▼]

Nowadays public speaking is one of the most important skills a person should develop. Such a skill is vital in many circumstances and in very different fields: the sales representative who presents a product to customers, the tourist guide visiting a city with a group, the manager who defends his project in front of stakeholders, the candidate during a job interview, the professor in front of students… Unfortunately, many firms complain about the too low level of this skill within their staff. The global theme of our work is to look for innovative solutions leading to an improvement of public speaking performances. The global project aims to help people to speak in public by training them in a realistic and interactive VR environment providing some feedbacks. Unity 3D engine was used to create a first basic version of the tool. 3D avatars have been designed and animated to represent some common audience postures, corresponding to different degrees of arousal and valence, and some classical situations as people typing on laptops or playing with smartphones. 3D photogrammetric versions of these avatars will soon be completed for testing increased realism. The objective of this presentation is to validate the virtual audience. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictive Maintenance of Technical Faults in Aircraft
Peters, Florian ULiege; Aerts, Stéphanie ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege

Conference (2020, January 30)

A key issue for handlers in the air cargo industry is arrival delays due to aircraft maintenance. This work focuses on a particular delay caused by technical faults called technical delays. Using real ... [more ▼]

A key issue for handlers in the air cargo industry is arrival delays due to aircraft maintenance. This work focuses on a particular delay caused by technical faults called technical delays. Using real data from a cargo handler company, different classification models that can predict technical delay occurrence are compared. A new decision tree extension is also proposed based on a study by Hoffait & Schyns (2017). The final results present a good starting point for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailComment placer l'humain au centre de mon projet en réalité augmentée ou virtuelle
Schyns, Michael ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

La VR/AR/XR a connu un renouveau récemment avec du matériel plus performant et plus accessible. Beaucoup de questions se posent encore alors que les experts reconnaissent un potentiel énorme pour ces ... [more ▼]

La VR/AR/XR a connu un renouveau récemment avec du matériel plus performant et plus accessible. Beaucoup de questions se posent encore alors que les experts reconnaissent un potentiel énorme pour ces technologies (Apple’s CEO Tim Cook: “[Augmented Reality] I regard it as a big idea like the smartphone ” ). Cela amène à deux démarches de notre part. D’une part, mon service teste de nouvelles technologies et approches pour rendre les environnements créés plus réalistes, confortables et performants. D’autre part, notre équipe analyse l’impact réel de la RV/AR/XR sur les processus d’apprentissage et de gestion des entreprises. Sur cette base, nous tentons d’optimiser les environnements pour un retour maximum. Trois questions sont en particulier soulevées dans cette présentation: Comment augmenter les capacités d’apprentissage ? Comment faire pour que l’humain reste au centre d’un projet d’AR/VR ? Comment le succès de toute technologie se définit par le fait qu’elle devient invisible ? [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of decision-making processes in daily physically active behaviors using a virtual reality set-up
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege et al

Poster (2018, August)

Background: Energy expenditure provided by physical activity (PA) can be significantly increased by daily behaviors (stair use, walking). However, factors from the environment, and motivational and ... [more ▼]

Background: Energy expenditure provided by physical activity (PA) can be significantly increased by daily behaviors (stair use, walking). However, factors from the environment, and motivational and volitional processes, tend to impact the decisions when an active solution (stairs) is available at the same time as an inactive solution (elevator). The aim of this study is to identify the decision-making processes implicated in daily PA when time and effort to reach an objective (e.g., a meeting) vary. Methods: 150 healthy adults will be randomized to one of three experiments after filling out questionnaires measuring habits regarding PA, motivational, and volitional factors of PA adoption. Experiment 1 is a first-person 3D interactive movie where 3 actors are waiting at the point-of-decision, where peers’ behaviors and availability of the inactive solution vary. Experiment 2 is a virtual replication of a business school, where previous knowledge of the building and disposition of the stairs (hidden/visible) vary. Experiment 3 is a virtual modified version of the business school where a stairwell and an escalator provide access to the first floor, using implicit (steps on the floor) and explicit (motivational messages) as point-of-decision prompts. Expected results: Results will be analyzed in line with the integrated behavior change model (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2014) and the naturalistic decision-making theory (Klein, 2015). Current stage of work: Participants will be contacted for experimentations from February to June 2018. Discussion: Real time decision-making processes will be linked to processes of change regarding PA, allowing for recommendations for future interventional designs. [less ▲]

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See detailA tailored two-phase constructive heuristic for the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem with transportation constraints
Paquay, Célia ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege

in European Journal of Operational Research (2018), 267(1), 52-64

This paper considers the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem which consists in packing a set of cuboid boxes into containers of various shapes with minimising unused space. The problem ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem which consists in packing a set of cuboid boxes into containers of various shapes with minimising unused space. The problem is extended to air cargo where bins are Unit Load Devices, especially designed for fitting in aircraft. We developed a fast constructive heuristic able to manage the different constraints met in transportation. The heuristic is split into two distinct phases. The first phase deals with the packing of boxes into identical bins using an extension of the Extreme Points. During this phase, the fragility, stability and orientations of the boxes are taken into account as well as the special shape of the bins and their weight capacity. The second phase takes into account the multiple types of available bins. If necessary, the best found loading pattern is finally enhanced with respect to weight distribution in a post processing. After parametrisation, computational experiments have been performed on data sets especially designed for this application. The heuristic requires really short computational times to achieve promising results. [less ▲]

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See detailUNITÉ DE RECHERCHE LIÈGE – QUÉBEC SUR LE NUMÉRIQUE EN SANTÉ GLOBALE, EN ENSEIGNEMENT ET EN FORMATION CONTINUE UNIVERSITAIRE
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Bouchard, Stéphane; Billen, Roland ULiege et al

Speech/Talk (2018)

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are ... [more ▼]

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are: for the University of Liège, Anne-Marie ETIENNE, Professor and Vice-Dean for Education and for the Université du Québec en Outaouais, Stéphane BOUCHARD, Professor and Holder of the Canada Research Chair in Cyberpsychology Clinical. As part of the strategic plan of the University of Liège, the global project of digital use is part of two major societal challenges namely education and digital technology, health and society. This global digital use project focuses on teaching, research and citizenship missions and on the individual, his community and the society in which he lives. The specific objectives of this collaboration are to (1) Develop support tools for the university community, (2) Offer awakening or support workshops in complementarity with the community and (3) Ensure a monitoring mandate and knowledge sharing. Exchanges between the two partners can be carried out along different axes, namely initial training and continuing training; the development of joint research projects or mobility through exchanges of students, teachers, researchers, technicians and experts. [less ▲]

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See detailMIP-based constructive heuristics for the three-dimensional Bin Packing Problem with transportation constraints
Paquay, Célia ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege et al

in International Journal of Production Research (2018), 56(4), 1581-1592

This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers ... [more ▼]

This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers additional constraints encountered in real world air transportation situations, such as cargo stability and the particular shape of containers. This MBSBPP has already been formulated as a Mixed Integer linear Programming problem, but as yet only poor results have been achieved for even fairly small problem sizes. The goal of the work this paper describes is to develop heuristics that are able to quickly provide good initial feasible solutions for the MBSBPP. Three methodologies are considered, which are based on the decomposition of the original problem into easier subproblems: the matheuristics Relax-and-Fix, Insert-and-Fix and Fractional Relax-and-Fix. They have been parametrised on real data sets and then compared to each other. In particular, two of these techniques show promising results in reasonable computational times. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial issue: Twelfth Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems (MAPSP 2015)
Crama, Yves ULiege; Goossens, Dries; Leus, Roel et al

in Journal of Scheduling (2017), 20(6), 543-711

This special issue of the Journal of Scheduling contains ten papers presented at the Twelfth Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems (MAPSP 2015), held from June 8 to June ... [more ▼]

This special issue of the Journal of Scheduling contains ten papers presented at the Twelfth Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems (MAPSP 2015), held from June 8 to June 12, 2015, in La Roche-en-Ardenne, Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailInstances for the 3D Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem
Paquay, Célia ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2017)

The subject of this work is to solve the problem of packing a set of shipments (various cuboid boxes) into containers of various shapes without wasting loading space. All the boxes have to be loaded and ... [more ▼]

The subject of this work is to solve the problem of packing a set of shipments (various cuboid boxes) into containers of various shapes without wasting loading space. All the boxes have to be loaded and few are identical. As it is the case for all the packing problems, the packing has to satisfy geometry constraints: the items cannot overlap and have to lie entirely inside the bins. The richness of our application is to manage additional and common constraints: the bin weight capacity, the rotations of the boxes, the stability and the fragility of the boxes and the uniformity of the weight distribution inside the ULDs. The last constraint is crucial in air transportation: when ULDs are packed inside the airplane, the centre of gravity is computed assuming each ULD has a centre of gravity close to the geometrical centre of its basis. This type of constraints can be adapted to road transportation for the axle weight limits, which plays a key role since the weigh-in-motion systems become more common. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly detection of university students in potential difficulty
Hoffait, Anne-Sophie ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailA Mixed Integer Programming formulation for the three dimensional bin packing problem deriving from an air cargo application
Paquay, Célia ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege

in International Transactions in Operational Research (2016), 23(1-2), 187-213

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin ... [more ▼]

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problems. The approach includes an extensive set of constraints encountered in real-world applications in the three-dimensional case: the stability, the fragility of the items, the weight distribution and the possibility to rotate the boxes. It also includes the specific situation in which containers are truncated parallelepipeds. This is typical in the field of air transportation. While most papers on cutting and packing problems describe ad-hoc procedures, this paper proposes a mixed integer linear program. The validity of this model is tested on small instances. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULiege

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 12th Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems
Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Crama, Yves ULiege; Goossens, Dries et al

Book published by KU Leuven (2015)

This volume contains abstracts of talks presented at the 12th Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems (MAPSP 2015), held from June 8 to June 12, 2015, in La Roche-en-Ardenne ... [more ▼]

This volume contains abstracts of talks presented at the 12th Workshop on Models and Algorithms for Planning and Scheduling Problems (MAPSP 2015), held from June 8 to June 12, 2015, in La Roche-en-Ardenne, Belgium. MAPSP is a biennial workshop dedicated to all theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling, planning, and timetabling. The abstracts in this volume include 5 invited talks by Onno Boxma, Michel Goemans, Willem-Jan van Hoeve, Rolf Niedermeier, and Stephan Westphal, plus 88 contributed talks. [less ▲]

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