Publications of Marie-Pierre HAYETTE
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See detailEvaluation of Two Rapid Antigenic Tests for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Nasopharyngeal Swabs
SEYNAEVE, Ysaline ULiege; Heylen, Justine ULiege; FONTAINE, Corentin ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical Medicine (2021), 10(13), 2774

(1) Background: In the current context of the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for fast, easyto- use, and sensitive diagnostic tools in addition to molecular methods. We have therefore decided to evaluate ... [more ▼]

(1) Background: In the current context of the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for fast, easyto- use, and sensitive diagnostic tools in addition to molecular methods. We have therefore decided to evaluate the performance of newly available antigen detection kits in “real-life” laboratory conditions.(2) Methods: The sensitivity and specificity of two rapid diagnostic tests (RDT)—the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip from Coris Bioconcept, Belgium (CoRDT), and the coronavirus antigen rapid test cassette from Healgen Scientific, LLC, USA (HeRDT)—were evaluated on 193 nasopharyngeal samples using RT-PCR as the gold standard. (3) Results: The sensitivity obtained for HeRDT was 88% for all collected samples and 91.1% for samples with Ct 31. For the CoRDT test, the sensitivity obtained was 62% for all collected samples and 68.9% for samples with Ct 31. (4) Conclusions: Despite the excellent specificity obtained for both kits, the poor sensitivity of the CoRDT did not allow for its use in the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19. HeRDT satisfied the World Health Organization’s performance criteria for rapid antigen detection tests. Its high sensitivity, quick response, and ease of use allowed for the implementation of HeRDT at the laboratory of the University Hospital of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of clinical and biological characteristics of HIV infected patients presenting Cryptococcus neorformans versus C. curvatus /C. laurentii meningitis
Zono, Bive ULiege; MOUTSCHEN, Michel ULiege; Situakibanza, Hippolyte et al

Poster (2021, June 12)

Clinical presentation of Cn meningitis is certainly more severe than that of Cc/Cl meningitis, but Cc/Cl infection should be considered in the management of HIVIP with meningeal syndrome because of the ... [more ▼]

Clinical presentation of Cn meningitis is certainly more severe than that of Cc/Cl meningitis, but Cc/Cl infection should be considered in the management of HIVIP with meningeal syndrome because of the diagnostic difficulty and the high MICs of antifungal agents required for the treatment of meningitis due to these cryptococcal species. [less ▲]

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See detailIN-HOUSE ASSAY SET UP FOR GENOTYPING AND RESISTANCE PROFILE OF HEPATITIS C (HCV) BY SEQUENCING THE NS5B (CENTRAL REGION) AND NS3 USING A SINGLE METHOD
Uwimbabazi, Jean-Claude ULiege; BONTEMS, Sébastien ULiege; HAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

Poster (2021, May 26)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health concern affecting approximately 185 million people worldwide (Childs-Kean, L.M et al.). There is a high variability between circulating ... [more ▼]

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health concern affecting approximately 185 million people worldwide (Childs-Kean, L.M et al.). There is a high variability between circulating strains of hepatitis C virus. This variability determines and influences the response and duration of treatment (Petruzziello, A. et al.). Currently, there is limited data available on the HCV viral strains in Rwanda and there is no systematic laboratory genotyping and sequencing tools for optimal management of patients in the country. The purpose of this work is to develop and set up an in-house method within the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in the CHU-Liege that allow simultaneous genotyping and Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) resistance profiling by direct sequencing the HCV NS3 and NS5B genes which is applicable to a wide range of genotypes. The developed tool will be subsequently transferred to Rwanda. This will aid in determining the HCV genotype among infected patients; ascertaining the epidemiological surveillance of circulating strains in Rwanda; and help in monitoring of patients under antiviral treatment in various health care facilities. The first objective was to validate the detection and identification of the common circulating HCV genotypes 1-6 using in-lab developed or literature cited primes. The second objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of the method and its capacity to monitor resistance of HCV to antiviral treatment especially to DAAs currently used in various clinical settings; and finally, to analyze clinical samples from patients routinely followed up in CHU of Liege. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical course and challenging management of early COVID-19 infection after heart transplantation: case report of two patients
TCHANA-SATO, Vincent ULiege; ANCION, Arnaud ULiege; TRIDETTI, Julien ULiege et al

in BMC Infectious Diseases (2021)

Background: There are limited data on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant patients, especially in heart transplant recipients, with only a few case reports and case series ... [more ▼]

Background: There are limited data on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant patients, especially in heart transplant recipients, with only a few case reports and case series described so far. Heart transplant recipients may be at particular high risk due to their comorbidities and immunosuppressed state. Case presentation: This report describes the clinical course and the challenging management of early COVID-19infection in two heart transplant recipients who tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the perioperative period of the transplant procedure. The two patients developed a severe form of the disease and ultimately died despite the initiation of an antiviral monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine coupled with the interruption of mycophenolate mofetil. Conclusions: These two cases illustrate the severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 in the perioperative period of a heart transplant. Thorough screening of donors and recipients is mandatory, and the issue of asymptomatic carriers needs to be addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolated pelvic bone involvement as a presentation of alveolar echinococcosis.
Cambier, Audrey ULiege; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULiege; LEONARD, Philippe ULiege et al

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2021), 21(8), 1192

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See detailClinical decision support tool for diagnosis of COVID-19 in hospitals
Saegerman, Claude ULiege; GILBERT, Allison ULiege; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(3 March),

Background The coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidities, severe acute respiratory failures and subsequently emergency departments’ (EDs) overcrowding ... [more ▼]

Background The coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidities, severe acute respiratory failures and subsequently emergency departments’ (EDs) overcrowding in a context of insufficient laboratory testing capacities. The development of decision support tools for real-time clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is of prime importance to assist patients’ triage and allocate resources for patients at risk. Methods and principal findings From March 2 to June 15, 2020, clinical patterns of COVID-19 suspected patients at admission to the EDs of Liège University Hospital, consisting in the recording of eleven symptoms (i.e. dyspnoea, chest pain, rhinorrhoea, sore throat, dry cough, wet cough, diarrhoea, headache, myalgia, fever and anosmia) plus age and gender, were investigated during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Indeed, 573 SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by qRT-PCR before mid-June 2020, and 1579 suspected cases that were subsequently determined to be qRT-PCR negative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. Using multivariate binary logistic regression, two most relevant symptoms of COVID-19 were identified in addition of the age of the patient, i.e. fever (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66; 95% CI: 2.97–4.50), dry cough (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39–2.12), and patients older than 56.5 y (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.67–2.58). Two additional symptoms (chest pain and sore throat) appeared significantly less associated to the confirmed COVID-19 cases with the same OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56–0.94). An overall pondered (by OR) score (OPS) was calculated using all significant predictors. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated and the area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68–0.73) rendering the use of the OPS to discriminate COVID-19 confirmed and unconfirmed patients. The main predictors were confirmed using both sensitivity analysis and classification tree analysis. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was observed between the OPS and the cycle threshold (Ct values) of the qRT-PCR. Conclusion and main significance The proposed approach allows for the use of an interactive and adaptive clinical decision support tool. Using the clinical algorithm developed, a web-based user-interface was created to help nurses and clinicians from EDs with the triage of patients during the second COVID-19 wave. Copyright: © 2021 Saegerman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV using finger-stick whole-blood multiplex immunochromatographic rapid test: A pilot feasibility study in sub-Saharan Africa.
Tonen-Wolyec, Serge; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Batina-Agasa, Salomon et al

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(4), 0249701

BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections remains disproportionately high in sub-Saharan Africa, with high rates of co-infections. Multiplex rapid diagnostic tests for HIV, HBV and HCV ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections remains disproportionately high in sub-Saharan Africa, with high rates of co-infections. Multiplex rapid diagnostic tests for HIV, HBV and HCV serological testing with high analytical performances may improve the "cascade of screening" and quite possibly the linkage-to-care with reduced cost. Based on our previous field experience of HIV self-testing, we herein aimed at evaluating the practicability and acceptability of a prototype finger-stick whole-blood Triplex HIV/HCV/HBsAg self-test as a simultaneous serological screening tool for HIV, HBV, and HCV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentric study consisting of face-to-face, paper-based, and semi-structured questionnaires with a home-based and facility-based recruitment of untrained adult volunteers at risk of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections recruited from the general public was conducted in 2020 in urban and rural areas in the DRC. The practicability of the Triplex self-test was assessed by 3 substudies on the observation of self-test manipulation including the understanding of the instructions for use (IFU), on the interpretation of Triplex self-test results and on its acceptability. RESULTS: A total of 251 volunteers (mean age, 28 years; range, 18-49; 154 males) were included, from urban [160 (63.7%)] and rural [91 (36.3%)] areas. Overall, 242 (96.4%) participants performed the Triplex self-test and succeeded in obtaining a valid test result with an overall usability index of 89.2%. The correct use of the Triplex self-test was higher in urban areas than rural areas (51.2% versus 16.5%; aOR: 6.9). The use of video IFU in addition to paper-based IFU increased the correct manipulation and interpretation of the Triplex self-test. A total of 197 (78.5%) participants correctly interpreted the Triplex self-test results, whereas 54 (21.5%) misinterpreted their results, mainly the positive test results harboring low-intensity band (30/251; 12.0%), and preferentially the HBsAg band (12/44; 27.3%). The rates of acceptability of reuse, distribution of the Triplex self-test to third parties (partner, friend, or family member), linkage to the health care facility for confirmation of results and treatment, and confidence in the self-test results were very high, especially among participants from urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows evidence for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa on good practicability and high acceptability of a prototype Triplex HIV/HCV/HBsAg self-test for simultaneous diagnosis of three highly prevalent chronic viral infections, providing the rational basis of using self-test harboring four bands of interest, i.e. the control, HIV, HCV, and HBsAg bands. The relatively frequent misinterpretation of the Triplex self-test points however the necessity to improve the delivery of this prototype Triplex self-test probably in a supervised setting. Finally, these observations lay the foundations for the potential large-scale use of the Triplex self-test in populations living in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Plasmodium falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance markers in pfk13-propeller, pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes in isolates from treatment failure patients in Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018-2019.
Yobi, Doudou M.; Kayiba, Nadine K.; Mvumbi, Dieudonné M. et al

in Malaria Journal (2021), 20(1), 144

BACKGROUND: The national policy for malaria treatment of the Democratic Republic of Congo recommends two first-line artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria: artesunate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The national policy for malaria treatment of the Democratic Republic of Congo recommends two first-line artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria: artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. This study investigated the presence of markers associated with resistance to the current first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from treatment failure patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: From November 2018 to November 2019, dried blood spots were taken from patients returning to health centres for fever within 28 days after an initial malaria treatment in six sentinel sites of the National Malaria Control Programme across Democratic Republic of Congo. The new episode of malaria was first detected by a rapid diagnostic test and then confirmed by a real-time PCR assay to define treatment failure. Fragments of interest in pfk13 and pfcrt genes were amplified by conventional PCR before sequencing and the Pfmdr1 gene copy number was determined by a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Out of 474 enrolled patients, 364 (76.8%) were confirmed positive by PCR for a new episode of P. falciparum malaria, thus considered as treatment failure. Of the 325 P. falciparum isolates obtained from 364 P. falciparum-positive patients and successfully sequenced in the pfk13-propeller gene, 7 (2.2%) isolates carried non-synonymous mutations, among which 3 have been previously reported (N498I, N554K and A557S) and 4 had not yet been reported (F506L, E507V, D516E and G538S). Of the 335 isolates successfully sequenced in the pfcrt gene, 139 (41.5%) harboured the K76T mutation known to be associated with chloroquine resistance. The SVMNT haplotype associated with resistance to amodiaquine was not found. None of the isolates carried an increased copy number of the pfmdr1 gene among the 322 P. falciparum isolates successfully analysed. CONCLUSION: No molecular markers currently known to be associated with resistance to the first-line ACT in use were detected in isolates of P. falciparum from treatment failure patients. Regular monitoring through in vivo drug efficacy and molecular studies must continue to ensure the effectiveness of malaria treatment in Democratic Republic of Congo. [less ▲]

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See detailA phylodynamic workflow to rapidly gain insights into the dispersal history and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages
Dellicour, Simon; Durkin, Keith ULiege; Hong, Samuel et al

in Molecular Biology and Evolution (2020)

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data ... [more ▼]

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data presents a unique opportunity to gain real-time insights into the pandemic, but also a daunting computational hurdle if analysed with gold-standard phylogeographic methods. We here describe and apply an analytical pipeline that is a compromise between fast and rigorous analytical steps. As a proof of concept, we focus on Belgium, one of the countries with the highest spatial density of sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes. At the global scale, our analyses confirm the importance of external introduction events in establishing transmission chains in the country. At the country scale, our spatially-explicit phylogeographic analyses highlight an impact of the national lockdown of mid-March on the dispersal velocity of viral lineages. Our pipeline has the potential to be quickly applied to other countries or regions, with key benefits in complementing epidemiological analyses in assessing the impact of intervention measures or their progressive easement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lack of K13-propeller mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Yobi, Doudou; Kayiba, Nadine; Mvumbi, Dieudonné et al

in PLoS ONE (2020), 15(8),

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria since ... [more ▼]

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria since 2005 in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and a regular surveillance of the ACT efficacy is required to ensure the treatment effectiveness. Mutations in the propeller domain of the pfk13 gene were identified as molecular markers of artemisinin resistance (ART-R). This study investigated the pfk13-propeller gene polymorphism in clinical isolates of P. falciparum collected in the DRC. In 2017, ten geographical sites across DRC were selected for a cross-sectional study that was conducted first in Kinshasa from January to March, then in the nine other sites from September to December. Dried blood samples were collected from patients attending health centers for fever where diagnosis of Malaria was first made by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) available on site (SD Bioline malaria Ag Pf or CareStart Malaria Pf) or by thick blood smear and then confirmed by a P. falciparum real-time PCR assay. A pfk13-propeller segment containing a fragment that codes for amino acids at positions 427-595 was amplified by conventional PCR before sequencing. In total, 1070 patients were enrolled in the study. Real-time PCR performed confirmed the initial diagnosis of P. falciparum infection in 806 samples (75.3%; 95% CI: 72.6%- 77.9%). Of the 717 successfully sequenced P. falciparum isolates, 710 (99.0%; 95% CI: 97.9% - 99.6) were wild-type genotypes and 7 (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 2.1%) carried non-synonymous (NS) mutations in pfk13-propeller including 2 mutations (A578S and V534A) previously detected and 2 other (M472I and A569T) not yet detected in the DRC. Mutations associated with ART-R in Southeast Asia were not observed in DRC. However, the presence of other mutations in pfk13-propeller gene calls for further investigations to assess their implication in drug resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the new Id-Fungi plates from Conidia for MALDI-TOF MS identification of filamentous fungi and comparison with conventional methods as identification tool for dermatophytes from nails, hair and skin samples
SACHELI, Rosalie ULiege; Henri, Anne-Sophie ULiege; SEIDEL, Laurence ULiege et al

in Mycoses (2020)

Objectives: We first compare the efficiency of mould/dermatophytes identification by MALDI-TOF MS using a new medium called Id-Fungi plates (IDFP) from Conidia® and two different databases. For the second ... [more ▼]

Objectives: We first compare the efficiency of mould/dermatophytes identification by MALDI-TOF MS using a new medium called Id-Fungi plates (IDFP) from Conidia® and two different databases. For the second purpose, we evaluated a new version of the medium supplemented with cycloheximide, Id-Fungi plates Plus (IDFPC) for the direct inoculation of nails, hair and skin samples and compared the efficiency of MALDI-TOF MS identification of dermatophytes to classical methods based on culture and microscopy. Methods: A total of 71 strains have been cultured IDFP and Sabouraud gentamicin plates (SGC2) and were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. For the evaluation of the combination IDFPC/ MALDI-TOF MS as a method of identification for dermatophytes, 428 samples of hair nails and skin were cultivated in parallel on IDFPC and Sabouraud + cycloheximide medium (SAB-ACTI ). Results: For Aspergillus sp. and non-Aspergillus moulds, the best performances were obtained on IDFP after maximum 48h growth, following protein extraction. For dermatophytes, the best condition was using the IDFP at 72h, after extended direct deposit. Regarding the direct inoculation of nails, hair skin on IDFPC, 129/428 (30.1%) showed a positive culture against 150/428 (35%) on SAB-ACTI medium. Among the 129 positive strains the identification by MALDI-TOF MS was correct for 92/129 (71.4%). Conclusion: The IDFP allows the generation of better spectra by MALDI-TOF MS compared to SGC2. It facilitates sampling and deposit. Regarding the use of IDFPC, this medium seems less sensitive than SAB-ACTI but among positive strains, the rate of correct identification, by MALDI-TOF MS is satisfactory. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability and target attainment of fluconazole in critically ill patients
Van Daele, Ruth; Wauters, Joost; Brüggemann, Roger J. et al

Poster (2020, April 21)

Background: Fluconazole is an antifungal drug frequently used in the intensive care unit (ICU) but few data are available regarding its exposure in this population. A subanalysis of the DALI-study raised ... [more ▼]

Background: Fluconazole is an antifungal drug frequently used in the intensive care unit (ICU) but few data are available regarding its exposure in this population. A subanalysis of the DALI-study raised some concerns considering variability in exposure and inadequate target attainment in critically ill patients. We aimed to determine fluconazole variability and target attainment at the ICU. Materials/methods: All adult, critically ill patients treated with intravenous fluconazole between May and September 2019 were included, provided that the DNR code was <2 and written informed consent was obtained. The administered dose was left at the discretion of the treating clinician. Trough samples were collected during a maximum period of 15 days. Samples were analysed using an UPLC-DAD analytic method. The intra-and intersubject variability of fluconazole trough concentrations was calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean*100. Moreover, the difference between the maximum and minimum fluconazole concentration within each patients was determined. For target attainment, the fAUC/MIC from clinical data amounts to 100 corresponding with trough levels >10-15 mg/L, as recommended by EUCAST and ECIL-6. The limit for toxicity was set on 50 mg/L. Results: Seventeen patients were included, resulting in 95 fluconazole trough levels. Patients had a median APACHE-II score of 18 [16-23] and administered dose of 5.1 [4.1-7.5] mg/kg/day. The median fluconazole trough level was 26.6 [19.7-35.3] mg/L. In Figure 1, fluconazole trough concentrations are depicted in function of the dose. The mean intra-and intersubject variability (CV%) were 18,4% and 34,5%, respectively. The median difference between the maximum and minimum concentration for the 14 patients with >1 measured fluconazole level, was 14,8 [6,6-18,9] mg/L. In two patients, this difference was more than 2-fold. All trough levels were >10mg/L and 85/95 (89%) samples were >15mg/L. None of the levels exceeded the upper limit of 50 mg/L. Conclusions: As shown in the DALI-study, a considerable intra-and intersubject variability in fluconazole levels was observed at the ICU. Despite this variability, all fluconazole trough levels were above the lower limit of 10 mg/L and most of them >15 mg/L. No toxic concentrations were observed. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticentre validation of a EUCAST method for the antifungal susceptibility testing of microconidia-forming dermatophytes
Arendrup, Maiken; Jorgensen, Karin; Guinea, Jesus et al

Poster (2020, April)

Background: Terbinafine resistance is increasingly reported in Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale rendering susceptibility testing important particularly in non-responding cases. We ... [more ▼]

Background: Terbinafine resistance is increasingly reported in Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale rendering susceptibility testing important particularly in non-responding cases. We performed a multicentre evaluation of a recently proposed modified EUCAST method implementing medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide (CC) to avoid contamination. Materials/methods: A blinded panel of wild-type and squalene epoxidase (SQLE) target gene mutant T. rubrum and T. interdigitale strains were distributed to 10 European laboratories. Susceptibility to terbinafine, itraconazole, voriconazole and amorolfine) were performed according to the E.Def 9.3.1 method with and without addition of chloramphenicol and cycloheximide (final concentrations 50 mg/L and 300 mg/L, respectively). Plates were incubated at 25 °C (one laboratory used 30 °C) for 5-7 days until sufficient growth. MICs were determined visually (ignoring trailing growth for itraconazole) and spectrophotometrically with 90% and 50% endpoints yielding a total of 7,829 MICs. A. flavus ATCC 204304 and A. flavus CNM-CM1813 were included as controls. Results: 100%/96% (voriconazole) and 84%/84% (itraconazole) MIC determinations fell within the QC ranges for the two QC strains, respectively, and 96%/92% terbinafine MICs fell in a 0.25-1 mg/L 3 two-fold-dilution range suggesting a high interlaboratory reproducibility. Across the six methods, the number of terbinafine MEs varied from 2 (2.6%) to 5 (6.6%) for T. rubrum and between 0 and 2 (2.0%) for T. interdigitale (lowest for the CC-method (2.6%-4.4%/ 0-1% for T. rubrum/T. interdigitale). The difference between the modes for the wt and mutant population were ≥7 two-fold-dilutions in all cases (Table). If excluding a I121M/V237I T. rubrum mutant, and two mixed T. interdigitale strains, the number of VMEs were CC visual: T. rubrum: 1/77 (1.3%), CC spec-90%: 3/68 (4.4%) and CC spec-50%: 1/76 (1.3%), and none for T. interdigitale. The activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and amorolfine were quite uniform against T. rubrum and T. interdigitale, but unacceptably wide MIC ranges were found for the visual and spec-90% inhibition methods for itraconazole (data not shown). Conclusions: Although none of the laboratories perform dermatophyte testing at a regular basis an acceptable interlaboratory agreement and good separation between SQLE wt and mutants were found, suggesting a robust performance of the proposed method. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo: high variability of chloroquinoresistance and lack of amodiaquinoresistance
Yobi, Doudou; Kayiba, Nadine; Mvumbi, Dieudonné et al

in Malaria Journal (2020), 19(121),

Background: The loss of chloroquine (CQ) efectiveness has led to its withdrawal from national policies as a frst-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in several endemic countries, such as the ... [more ▼]

Background: The loss of chloroquine (CQ) efectiveness has led to its withdrawal from national policies as a frst-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in several endemic countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The K76T mutation on the pfcrt gene has been identifed as a marker of CQ resistance and the SVMNT haplotype in codons 72–76 on the same gene has been associated with resistance to amodiaquine (AQ). In the DRC, the prevalence of K76T has decreased from 100% in 2000 to 63.9% in 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of K76T mutations in circulating strains of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 years after CQ withdrawal in the DRC and to investigate the presence of the SVMNT haplotype. Methods: In 2017, ten geographical sites across the DRC were selected. Dried blood samples were collected from patients attending health centres. Malaria was frst detected by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) available on site (SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf or CareStart Malaria Pf) or thick blood smear and then confrmed by a P. falciparum species-specifc real-time PCR assay. A pfcrt gene segment containing a fragment that encodes amino acids at positions 72–76 was amplifed by conventional PCR before sequencing. Results: A total of 1070 patients were enrolled. Of the 806 PCR-confrmed P. falciparum positive samples, 764 were successfully sequenced. The K76T mutation was detected in 218 samples (28.5%; 95% CI 25.4%–31.9%), mainly (96%) with the CVIET haplotype. Prevalence of CQ resistance marker was unequally distributed across the country, ranging from 1.5% in Fungurume to 89.5% in Katana. The SVMNT haplotype, related to AQ resistance, was not detected. Conclusion: Overall, the frequency of the P. falciparum CQ resistance marker has decreased signifcantly and no resistance marker to AQ was detected in the DRC in 2017. However, the between regions variability of CQ resistance remains high in the country. Further studies are needed for continuous monitoring of the CQ resistance level for its prospective re-use in malaria management. The absence of the AQ resistance marker is in line with the use of this drug in the current DRC malaria treatment policy. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian national survey on tinea capitis: epidemiological considerations and highlight of terbinafine resistant T. mentagrophytes with a mutation on SQLE gene
SACHELI, Rosalie ULiege; Harag, Saadia; Dehavay, Florence et al

in Journal of Fungi (2020)

Background: In this last decade, a huge increase in African anthropophilic strains causing tinea capitis has been observed in Europe. The Belgian National Reference Center for Mycosis (NRC) conducted a ... [more ▼]

Background: In this last decade, a huge increase in African anthropophilic strains causing tinea capitis has been observed in Europe. The Belgian National Reference Center for Mycosis (NRC) conducted a surveillance study on tinea capitis in 2018 to learn the profile of circulating dermatophytes. Methods: Belgian laboratories were invited to send all dermatophyte strains isolated from the scalp with epidemiological information. Strain identification was confirmed by ITS (Iinternal Ttranscribed Sspacer) sequencing. Mutation in the squalene epoxidase (SQLE) gene was screened by PCR. Results: The main population affected by tinea capitis was children from 5–9 years. Males were more affected than females. The majority of the strains were collected in the Brussels area followed by the Liege area. Among known ethnic origins, African people were more affected by tinea capitis than European people. The major aetiological agent was Microsporum audouinii, followed by Trichophyton soudanense. One strain of Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been characterized to have a mutation on the squalene epoxidase gene and to be resistant to terbinafine. Conclusions: African anthropophilic dermatophytes are mainly responsible for tinea capitis in Belgium. People of African origin are most affected by tinea capitis. The monitoring of terbinafine resistance among dermatophytes seems necessary as we have demonstrated the emergence of resistance in T. mentagrophytes. [less ▲]

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