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See detailChronique musicale 2017
Morales, Jorge ULiege

in Seizième siècle (2018), XIV

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See detailModelling soil water dynamic in rain-fed spring maize field with plastic mulching
Chen, Baoqing ULiege; Liu, Enke; Mei, Xurong et al

in Agricultural Water Management (2018)

Numerical solution of the Richards equation with Hydrus-2D model is a low cost and fast way to get information on spatio-temporal soil water dynamics. Previous researches with Hydrus-2D have developed two ... [more ▼]

Numerical solution of the Richards equation with Hydrus-2D model is a low cost and fast way to get information on spatio-temporal soil water dynamics. Previous researches with Hydrus-2D have developed two different approaches to represent the rainfall infiltration in irrigated field with plastic mulching: ‘BP’ – an approach comprised by bare strip boundary and plastic strip boundary without consideration of film side infiltration;‘BP + ’- an approach comprised by bare strip and plastic strip with integrating the process of film side infiltration by increasing the rainfall infiltration amount in bare strip. Nevertheless, the performance of these approaches has not yet been evaluated in rain-fed fields. Considering much more dominant role of rainfall infiltration in rain-fed agriculture, we tested an additional approach which comprised a bare strip, plastic strip and planting hole (BPH) to take into account the effect of the rainfall canopy redistribution and film side infiltration, and we compared its performance to the two existing approaches. Results suggested BP completely failed to reproduce the soil water content (SWC) in all soil layers of plastic strip and in the deep soil layers of bare strip. BP+ overestimated the SWC in 0–20 cm of the bare strip, while the performance of BPH was acceptable in different positions. After that, we compared the soil water distribution between no-mulched field (NM) and plastic mulched field (PM) with approach BPH. Our simulation showed that the highest SWC in PM occurred near the planting hole, SWC in the center zone of plastic strip was lower, while SWC in the bare strip was lowest. PM improves the soil water availability not only in the plastic strip but also in the bare strip as compared to NM. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of PIV measurements using modal decomposition techniques, POD and DMD, to study flow structures and their dynamics within a stirred-tank reactor
de Lamotte, Anne ULiege; Delafosse, Angélique ULiege; Calvo, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2018)

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred ... [more ▼]

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred by two Rushton impellers at two rotating speeds, N = 150 and 300 rpm. POD identifies flow structures that optimally capture the total kinetic energy of the flow, while DMD identifies structures that significantly contribute to the dynamics of the flow. The experimental data, i.e. the instantaneous radial and axial velocity fields, come from 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow motion is turbulent, and it occurs over a wide range of length and time scales, from equipment-dependent large-scale coherent structures to the smallest-scale eddies where energy dissipation takes place. It thus provides an interesting benchmark case for the comparison between POD and DMD, which are based on energy and dynamic analysis, respectively. POD analysis reveals that the most energetic structures are related to the inherent periodic unsteadiness due to the relative motion between the rotating impeller blades and the non-moving baffles. Apart from the mean field, the first most energetic group of modes is related to trailing vortices induced by the Rushton turbines and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the blade passage frequency and its overtones. The second most energetic group of modes is related to vortical structures in the impeller stream and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the rotating speed. DMD analysis identifies flow structures that are found similar to these most energetic modes, although differences appear due to the fact that DMD isolates structures associated to a single frequency and their corresponding growth/decay rate. As in POD, the relative importance of each DMD mode can be estimated using an appropriately defined energy criterion. Comparison of the results from both modal decomposition methods points out their complementarity and their potential for describing the spatial and time characteristics of the flow within a stirred tank. [less ▲]

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis as a mechanism promoting intraspecific niche differentiation
Lejeune, Benjamin ULiege; Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Lepoint, Gilles ULiege et al

in Oikos (2018)

Organisms with complex life cycles are characterized by a metamorphosis that allows for a major habitat shift and the exploitation of alternative resources. However, metamorphosis can be bypassed in some ... [more ▼]

Organisms with complex life cycles are characterized by a metamorphosis that allows for a major habitat shift and the exploitation of alternative resources. However, metamorphosis can be bypassed in some species through a process called paedomorphosis, resulting in the retention of larval traits at the adult stage and is considered important at both micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In facultatively paedomorphic populations of newts, some individuals retain gills and a fully aquatic life at the adult stage (paedomorphs), while others undergo complete metamorphosis (metamorphs), allowing for a terrestrial life-stage. Because facultative paedomorphosis affects trophic structures and feeding mechanism of newts, one hypothesis is that it may be maintained as a trophic polymorphism, with the advantage to lessen intraspecific competition during the shared aquatic life-stage. Here, we tested this hypothesis combining stomach content data with stable isotope techniques, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, in facultatively paedomorphic alpine newts Ichthyosaura alpestris. Both stomach content and stable isotope analyses showed that paedomorphs had smaller trophic niches and were more reliant on pelagic resources, while metamorphs relied more on littoral resources, corresponding to a polyphenism along the littoral-pelagic axis and the extension of the population's trophic niche to otherwise ‘underused’ pelagic resources by paedomorphs. Interestingly, stable isotopes revealed that the trophic polyphenism was less marked in males than in females and potentially linked to sexual activity. Although paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are primarily seen as results of tradeoffs between the advantages of using aquatic versus terrestrial habitats, this study provides evidence that additional forces, such as intraspecific trophic niche differences between morphs and trophic niche expansion, may play an important role in the persistence of this dimorphism in heterogeneous environments. Moreover, the different patterns found in males and females show the importance of considering sex to understand the evolutionary ecology of trophic polymorphisms. [less ▲]

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See detailRandom size-assortative mating despite size-dependent fecundity in a Neotropical amphibian with explosive reproduction
Székely, Diana ULiege; Székely, Paul; Denoël, Mathieu ULiege et al

in Ethology (2018)

Sexual selection theory predicts that, when body size is correlated with fecundity, there should be fitness advantages for mate choice of the largest females. Moreover, because larger males are expected ... [more ▼]

Sexual selection theory predicts that, when body size is correlated with fecundity, there should be fitness advantages for mate choice of the largest females. Moreover, because larger males are expected to monopolize the largest females, this should result in an assortative mating based on body size. Although such patterns could be expected in both explosive and prolonged breeders, non-assortative mating should be more widespread in species under time constraints. However, patterns of sexual selection are largely unexplored in explosive breeding species, and contrasting patterns have been found previously. We expect that the active choice of partners may be particularly risky when the time period during which sexual partners are available is severely limited. Therefore, to avoid missing an entire reproductive act, males and females should pair irrespective of traits, such as body size. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the mating patterns of the Pacific horned toad, Ceratophrys stolzmanni, a short-lived fossorial species inhabiting Neotropical dry forests. This species is particularly adequate to test our prediction because it reproduces explosively over the course of a single night per year. Although the number of eggs laid was proportional to the size of females, and individuals of both sexes showed variation in body size, there was no assortative mating based either on size, body condition or age of mates. Egg size was not influenced by either female size or clutch size. The larger body size of females compared to males is likely due to fecundity selection, i.e. the selective pressure that enhances reproductive output. Although we cannot dismiss the possibility that individuals could select their partners based on other criteria than those related to size or age, the results fit well our prediction, showing that the explosive breeding makes improbable an active choice of partners in both sexes and therefore favours a random mating pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailContrasting cadmium resistance strategies in two metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri
Corso, Massimiliano; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULiege; Guzzo, Flavia et al

in New Phytologist (2018)

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See detailAdaptation to high zinc depends on distinct mechanisms in metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri
Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULiege; Corso, Massimiliano; Fataftha, Nazeer et al

in New Phytologist (2018)

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See detailEliciting cultural heritage values: landscape preferences versus representative images of the city
Ginzarly, Manal ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development (2018)

Purpose–In 2011, UNESCO recommended the application of a value-based landscape approach to cultural heritage conservation. In this framework, culture in its manifold expressions is considered as an ... [more ▼]

Purpose–In 2011, UNESCO recommended the application of a value-based landscape approach to cultural heritage conservation. In this framework, culture in its manifold expressions is considered as an embrace for the social, economic, and environmental pillars of sustainable development. There is a need to unveil the different cultural values generated from the interaction between people and their environment since these values will help cities maintain their unique identity and integrity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey method intended to assess the range of cultural values attributed by people to the historic urban landscape. Design/methodology/approach–This paper is an experimental inquiry that combines a qualitative and a quantitative approach. It is designed to distinguish the different interpretations and outlooks of people to the historic urban landscape. It integrates landscape preference studies with investigation on representative images of the city and assesses these in relation to activities, feelings, and valued aspects of landscapes. Findings–The main finding is that the most preferred scenes of the city are not the ones that represent best the city. Results exposed two sides of the historic urban landscape and related heritage values. The first is associated with the scenic beauty of the landscape and its aesthetic values, while the second is reflected in ordinary landscapes and everyday practices. Originality/value– This paper provides an insight on the different interpretations and meanings of the historic urban landscape throughout the city. It provides an empirical evidence that ordinary landscapes are of great heritage value as they surpass all aspects of human environmental interaction to contribute to the image that societies make of themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailBack to materialism Reflections on Marx’s conception of labour, praxis, cooperatives and libertarian socialism
Frère, Bruno ULiege

in International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society (2018)

From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism ... [more ▼]

From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism which alienate them. It is assumed that individuals accept the conditions forced upon them and no longer seek to rebel against a world which substantially impoverishes their labour, their spirit and their creativity. In this paper, I will try to show that by dint of favouring almost exclusively Marx's concept of alienation, there is a considerable risk that materialist thought will adopt only a negative path. Whilst I acknowledge Marx’s significance to materialism, I wish to argue that his stance should be combined with that of the anarchist and libertarian French thinker Proudhon. Proudhon has succeeded in presenting a conception of the worker as more than just alienated. Workers can also cooperate and experience a reciprocity seemingly at odds with the character of capitalism. Under Proudhon’s influence materialism takes a positive turn, enabling us to avoid falling into the utopianism that the theory of social economy employs to critique capitalism – a utopianism that renders its critique even less effective than that of Marx. [less ▲]

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See detailSeascape ecology in Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: Linking structure and ecological processes for management
Abadie, Arnaud; Pace, Matthew; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege et al

in Ecological Indicators (2018), 87

Seagrass meadows constitute marine habitats in shallow water temperate and tropical coastal areas worldwide that have a high ecological and economic importance. Amongst the 60 or so seagrass species, the ... [more ▼]

Seagrass meadows constitute marine habitats in shallow water temperate and tropical coastal areas worldwide that have a high ecological and economic importance. Amongst the 60 or so seagrass species, the endemic Mediterranean species Posidonia oceanica forms meadows that are arguably the most important shallow water coastal habitat in the region but which are subjected to high anthropogenic pressures. Because of the relatively large size of the plant, the meadows formed by this seagrass have high architectural and morphological complexity, which results in different morphotypes or seascapes. While numerous studies of P. oceanica architectural characteristics for continuous meadows of the seagrass are available, few works have addressed seascape ecological features and the influence of environmental factors (natural and anthropogenic) thereon. In the present review, we give an overview of P. oceanica meadow architectural and morphological characteristics and how these contribute to Mediterranean landscapes and seascapes. Studies addressing the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on morphometric features of different meadow types and landscape ecological characteristics of P. oceanica habitat are also reviewed, as well as their influence on ecosystem processes. Finally, by considering the available data and tools for seascape studies, we present a discussion on methods to assess seagrass seascapes within the framework of coastal management. Our review highlights several gaps in P. oceanica seascape ecology knowledge such as the lack of data on the spatial distribution of this engineer species, and the possibility to use modern techniques and procedures for analysing structural and ecosystemic data. [less ▲]

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See detailCatechol end-functionalized polylactide by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization
Sadaba, Naroa; Salsamendi, Maitane; Casado, Nerea et al

in Polymers (2018), 10(2), 155

There is a great interest in incorporating catechol moieties into polymers in a controlled manner due to their interesting properties, such as the promotion of adhesion, redox activity or bioactivity. One ... [more ▼]

There is a great interest in incorporating catechol moieties into polymers in a controlled manner due to their interesting properties, such as the promotion of adhesion, redox activity or bioactivity. One possibility is to incorporate the catechol as end-group in a polymer chain using a functional initiator by means of controlled polymerization strategies. Nevertheless, the instability of catechol moieties under oxygen and basic pH requires tedious protection and deprotection steps to perform the polymerization in a controlled fashion. In the present work, we explore the organocatalyzed synthesis of catechol end-functional, semi-telechelic polylactide (PLLA) using non-protected dopamine, catechol molecule containing a primary amine, as initiator. NMR and SEC-IR results showed that in the presence of a weak organic base such as triethylamine, the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide takes place in a controlled manner without need of protecting the cathechol units. To further confirm the end-group fidelity the catechol containing PLLA was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry and MALDI-TOF confirming the absence of side reaction during the polymerization. In order to exploit the potential of catechol moieties, catechol end-group of PLLA was oxidized to quinone and further reacted with aliphatic amines. In addition, we also confirmed the ability of catechol functionalized PLLA to reduce metal ions to metal nanoparticles to obtain well distributed silver nanoparticles. It is expected that this new route of preparing catechol-PLLA polymers without protection will increase the accessibility of catechol containing biodegradable polymers by ROP. [less ▲]

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See detailStress-induced unfolded protein response contributes to Zika virus-associated microcephaly.
Gladwyn-Ng, Ivan ULiege; Cordon-Barris, Lluis; Alfano, Christian ULiege et al

in Nature Neuroscience (2018), 21(1), 63-71

Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We ... [more ▼]

Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells. After intracerebral and intraplacental inoculation of ZIKV in mouse embryos, we show that it triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress in embryonic brains in vivo. This perturbs a physiological unfolded protein response within cortical progenitors that controls neurogenesis. Thus, ZIKV-infected progenitors generate fewer projection neurons that eventually settle in the cerebral cortex, whereupon sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of pharmacological inhibitors of unfolded protein response counteracts these pathophysiological mechanisms and prevents microcephaly in ZIKV-infected mouse embryos. Such defects are specific to ZIKV, as they are not observed upon intraplacental injection of other related flaviviruses in mice. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for the domains supporting the construct of intrinsic capacity.
Cesari, Matteo; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (2018)

Healthy ageing can be defined as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age”. Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable ... [more ▼]

Healthy ageing can be defined as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age”. Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable people to be and to do what they have reason to value) is determined by intrinsic capacity (i.e., the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual), the environment (i.e., all the factors in the extrinsic world that form the context of an individual’s life), and the interactions between the two. This innovative model recently proposed by the World Health Organization has the potential to substantially modify the way in which clinical practice is currently conducted, shifting from disease-centered towards function-centered paradigms. By overcoming the multiple limitations affecting the construct of disease, this novel framework may allow the worldwide dissemination of a more proactive and function-based approach towards achieving optimal health status. In order to facilitate the translation of the current theoretical model into practice, it is important to identify the inner nature of its constituting constructs. In this paper, we consider intrinsic capacity. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as background and taking into account available evidence, five domains (i.e., locomotion, vitality, cognition, psychological, sensory) are identified as pivotal for capturing the individual’s intrinsic capacity (and therefore also reserves) and, through this, pave the way for its objective measurement. [less ▲]

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See detail7‐Phenoxy-Substituted 3,4-Dihydro‐2H‐1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1- Dioxides as Positive Allosteric Modulators of α‐Amino-3-hydroxy-5- methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors with Nanomolar Potency
Goffin, Eric ULiege; Drapier, Thomas ULiege; Probst Larsen, Anja et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2018), 61

We report here the synthesis of 7-phenoxy- substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators (AMPApams). The impact of ... [more ▼]

We report here the synthesis of 7-phenoxy- substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators (AMPApams). The impact of substitution on the phenoxy ring and on the nitrogen atom at the 4-position was examined. At GluA2(Q) expressed in HEK293 cells (calcium flux experiment), the most potent compound was 11m (4- cyclopropyl-7-(3-methoxyphenoxy)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-ben- zothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, EC50 = 2.0 nM). The Hill coefficient in the screening and the shape of the dimerization curve in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments using isolated GluA2 ligand-binding domain (GluA2-LBD) are consistent with binding of one molecule of 11m per dimer interface, contrary to most benzothiadiazine dioxides developed to date. This observation was confirmed by the X-ray structure of 11m bound to GluA2-LBD and by NMR. This is the first benzothiadiazine dioxide AMPApam to reach the nanomolar range. [less ▲]

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See detailRegards en coin et mains tendues. Notes sur les collaborations (rêvées, effectives, avortées) de Rimbaud
Saint-Amand, Denis ULiege

in Parade Sauvage (2018), 28

On peut observer, au fil de la trajectoire littéraire d’Arthur Rimbaud, différents moments où la tentation de la collaboration se manifeste sous des formes variées : c’est tantôt une demande explicite de ... [more ▼]

On peut observer, au fil de la trajectoire littéraire d’Arthur Rimbaud, différents moments où la tentation de la collaboration se manifeste sous des formes variées : c’est tantôt une demande explicite de cooptation au consensus parnassien formulée à un aîné mieux doté en capital symbolique, tantôt la participation effective à un projet collectif ; ce sont à d’autres moments des échanges plus ou moins directs, sur le mode complice de la critique amicale, de l’influence, voire de l’innutrition ou sur celui, plus distant et moins bienveillant, de la parodie railleuse et de la caricature. Mais ces saillies collaboratives font long feu : d’une part, Rimbaud se révèle rapidement déçu par l’échange entre pairs ; d’autre part, il ne respecte pas toujours les codes et les attentes des sociabilités littéraires de son temps. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Poeleart, Christine; Ernens, Majorie et al

in Food Research International (2018)

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating ... [more ▼]

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaches to handling future use of the single-family housing stock
Berndgen-Kaiser, Andrea; Kohler, Tine; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULiege et al

in Open House International (2018), 43(03),

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as ... [more ▼]

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as well as increasing living and energy standards (Fina, Planinsek and Zakrzewski, 2009). According to the hypothesis of this paper, in several EU regions, single-family houses may face future challenges arising from oversupply and lack of adaptation to current demand. To examine this, the paper analyses the present situation and discusses the prognosis for the challenges described above regarding the three neighbouring north-western European countries Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands, based on available data and a review of country-specific characteristics of housing markets as well as national policies. Despite an impending mismatch between demand and supply, planning policies still support the emergence of new single-family houses. The comparison of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands shows the growing polarization between shrinking and growing regions and central and peripheral sites apparent at different stages in the three countries. While a high rate of vacancies is already registered for some regions in Germany (Effenberger, 2015), in the Netherlands this phenomenon can only be seen near the borders and in villages within the Randstadt conurbation (Hospers et al., 2015). In Belgium also, this phenomenon is not yet widespread, but in some suburban neighbourhoods dating from the 1950’s and 1960’s more and more single-family houses are becoming more difficult to sell, indicating an emerging mismatch between supply and demand (Chambre des Notaires de la Province de Liège, 2015). This article proposes some instruments which enable municipalities to intervene in single family housing neighbourhoods which are largely dominated by private ownership. These instruments are not yet widely established in single-family housing neighbourhoods but that may become important in the future [less ▲]

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See detailCould saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils ?
Davin, Marie ULiege; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali ULiege et al

in Chemosphere (2018), 194

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28°C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg.g- 1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailL’hôpital comme espace et comme territoire
Stiefel, Friedrich; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2018), 593(14), 324-326

Space is lived individually and collectively and can become a source of existential affectation, especially when the lived experience is modified by disease. The fact that the hospital is also a place of ... [more ▼]

Space is lived individually and collectively and can become a source of existential affectation, especially when the lived experience is modified by disease. The fact that the hospital is also a place of territorialisation can potentiate this affectation, with at times surprizing consequences. We aim –based on a reflection about the relationship patients and clinicians establish with the territory of the hospital- to identify some psychological and existential issues at stake with regard to space as a social construction. [less ▲]

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See detailExtended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.
Colleoni, Marco; Luo, Weixiu; Karlsson, Per et al

in Lancet Oncology (2018), 19(1), 127-138

BACKGROUND: In animal models of breast cancer, resistance to continuous use of letrozole can be reversed by withdrawal and reintroduction of letrozole. We therefore hypothesised that extended intermittent ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In animal models of breast cancer, resistance to continuous use of letrozole can be reversed by withdrawal and reintroduction of letrozole. We therefore hypothesised that extended intermittent use of adjuvant letrozole would improve breast cancer outcome compared with continuous use of letrozole in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We did the multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel, phase 3 SOLE trial in 240 centres (academic, primary, secondary, and tertiary care centres) in 22 countries. We enrolled postmenopausal women of any age with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-positive, and operable breast cancer for which they had undergone local treatment (surgery with or without radiotherapy) and had completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. They had to be clinically free of breast cancer at enrolment and without evidence of recurrent disease at any time before randomisation. We randomly assigned women (1:1) to treatment groups of either continuous use of letrozole (2.5 mg/day orally for 5 years) or intermittent use of letrozole (2.5 mg/day orally for 9 months followed by a 3-month break in years 1-4 and then 2.5 mg/day during all 12 months of year 5). Randomisation was done by principal investigators or designee at respective centres through the internet-based system of the International Breast Cancer Study Group, was stratified by type of previous endocrine therapy (aromatase inhibitors only vs selective oestrogen receptor modulators only vs both therapies), and used permuted block sizes of four and institutional balancing. No one was masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by the intention-to-treat principle using a stratified log-rank test. All patients in the intention-to-treat population who initiated protocol treatment during their period of trial participation were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00553410, and EudraCT, number 2007-001370-88; and long-term follow-up of patients is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Dec 5, 2007, and Oct 8, 2012, 4884 women were enrolled and randomised after exclusion of patients at a non-adherent centre, found to have inadequate documentation of informed consent, immediately withdrew consent, or randomly assigned to intervention groups in error. 4851 women comprised the intention-to-treat population that compared extended intermittent letrozole use (n=2425) with continuous letrozole use (n=2426). After a median follow-up of 60 months (IQR 53-72), disease-free survival was 85.8% (95% CI 84.2-87.2) in the intermittent letrozole group compared with 87.5% (86.0-88.8) in the continuous letrozole group (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26; p=0.31). Adverse events were reported as expected and were similar between the two groups. The most common grade 3-5 adverse events were hypertension (584 [24%] of 2417 in the intermittent letrozole group vs 517 [21%] of 2411 in the continuous letrozole group) and arthralgia (136 [6%] vs 151 [6%]). 54 patients (24 [1%] in the intermittent letrozole group and 30 [1%] in the continuous letrozole group) had grade 3-5 CNS cerebrovascular ischaemia, 16 (nine [<1%] vs seven [<1%]) had grade 3-5 CNS haemorrhage, and 40 (19 [1%] vs 21 [1%]) had grade 3-5 cardiac ischaemia. In total, 23 (<1%) of 4851 patients died while on trial treatment (13 [<1%] of 2417 patients in the intermittent letrozole group vs ten [<1%] of 2411 in the continuous letrozole group). INTERPRETATION: In postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, extended use of intermittent letrozole did not improve disease-free survival compared with continuous use of letrozole. An alternative schedule of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole, including intermittent administration, might be feasible and the results of the SOLE trial support the safety of temporary treatment breaks in selected patients who might require them. FUNDING: Novartis and the International Breast Cancer Study Group. [less ▲]

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See detailLa révolution vidéo en Afrique subsaharienne. Nigéria, Ethiopie et Côte d'Ivoire
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULiege

in Sociétés politiques comparées (2018), 43

Avec l’introduction de technologies analogiques et (plus tard) numériques, de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne ont vu l’émergence et la croissance rapide d’industries audiovisuelles commerciales ... [more ▼]

Avec l’introduction de technologies analogiques et (plus tard) numériques, de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne ont vu l’émergence et la croissance rapide d’industries audiovisuelles commerciales produisant des fi lms en format vidéo. L’industrie nigériane, Nollywood, est le cas d’étude qui a suscité le plus d’intérêt, contribuant à la formulation d’un modèle analytique qui a infl uencé notre compréhension d’autres exemples de production en cours sur le continent. Cet article propose une analyse comparative de l’histoire de la production vidéo dans trois pays d’Afrique subsaharienne (Nigéria, Ethiopie et Côte d’Ivoire), afi n de complexifi er notre approche de la production vidéo africaine au-delà du modèle de Nollywood. À partir des documents recueillis lors de recherches de terrain ethnographiques menées dans chacun de ces pays, il offre une contribution originale au débat actuel sur l’impact des technologies analogiques et numériques sur la transformation du cinéma africain, en mettant en évidence le rôle des contextes politique, économique et infrastructurel locaux sur le développement des industries vidéo en Afrique subsaharienne. [less ▲]

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See detailCreating effective biocontainment facilities and maintenance protocols for raising specific pathogen-free, severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) pigs
Powell, Ellis J; Charley, Sara; Boettcher, Adeline N et al

in Laboratory Animals (2018)

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See detailModalité et Sémantique. A propos de la réception de Hegel par William James
Lejeune, Guillaume ULiege

in Hegel-Studien (2018), 51

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See detailOverdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2018)

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See detailDual action of neuro-estrogens in the regulation of male sexual behavior
Cornil, Charlotte ULiege; de Bournonville, Catherine

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2018), 256

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term ... [more ▼]

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment. In parallel, neuro-estrogens are also able to produce much faster effects than previously anticipated. Our recent investigations in Japanese quail revealed an interesting dichotomy in the regulation of male sexual behavior by membrane- and nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling providing respectively an acute modulation of sexual motivation and a long-term control of the capacity to display the copulatory sequence. In parallel, a similar dichotomy applies to the regulation of brain aromatase whose expression depends on the transcriptional activity of testosterone metabolites while its enzymatic activity is rapidly regulated in a region- and context-dependent manner. Recent evidences suggest that rapid changes in sexual motivation result from rapid changes in local estrogen production. Together, these data support the idea that the acute regulation of some aspects of male sexual behavior depends not only on classical neurotransmitter systems, but also on rapid and spatially restricted changes in local estrogen availability. The existing literature suggests that this acute regulation by neuro-estrogens of the motivational aspects of behavior could be generalized to other systems such as singing behavior in songbirds. [less ▲]

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See detailPitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass; a need for a reference standard.
Buckinx, Fanny ULiege; Landi, Francesco; Cesari, francesco et al

in Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (2018)

Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the ... [more ▼]

Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean body mass. Thus, the objective measurement of sarcopenia is hampered by limitations intrinsic to assessment tools. The aim of this study was to review the methods to assess muscle mass and to reach consensus on the development of a reference standard. Methods: Literature reviews were performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. Results: A wide range of techniques can be used to assess muscle mass. Cost, availability, and ease of use can determine whether the techniques are better suited to clinical practice or are more useful for research. No one technique subserves all requirements but dual energy X-ray absorptiometry could be considered as a reference standard (but not a gold standard) for measuring muscle lean body mass. Conclusions: Based on the feasibility, accuracy, safety, and low cost, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry can be considered as the reference standard for measuring muscle mass. [less ▲]

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See detailFingerprinting archaeological glues using HS-SPME GC×GC-HRTOFMS: a new powerful method allows tracking glues back in time
Cnuts, Dries ULiege; Perrault, Katelynn ULiege; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULiege et al

in Archaeometry (2018)

The use of glues for stone tool hafting is an important innovation in human evolution. Compared to other organic remains, glues are preserved more frequently, though mainly in small spots. Reliable ... [more ▼]

The use of glues for stone tool hafting is an important innovation in human evolution. Compared to other organic remains, glues are preserved more frequently, though mainly in small spots. Reliable identification requires chemical molecular characterization, which is traditionally performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Current methods of extraction and derivatization prior to GC-MS are destructive and require relatively large samples, which is problematic for prehistoric glue residues. In this paper, we discuss the results of an experimental study using a new method (HS-SPME-GC×GC-HRTOFMS) that proves effective for identifying small quantities of compound glues. The method is non-destructive with an improved sensitivity in comparison to traditional GC-MS, and it has a high potential for prehistoric samples. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical and economic optimization of subcritical, wet expansion and transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems coupled with a biogas power plant
Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Dickes, Rémi ULiege; De Rosa, M. et al

in Energy Conversion and Management (2018), 157

Generally, >40% of the useful energy (cooling engine and exhaust gases) are wasted by a biogas power plant through the cooling radiator and the exhaust gases. An efficient way to convert this waste heat ... [more ▼]

Generally, >40% of the useful energy (cooling engine and exhaust gases) are wasted by a biogas power plant through the cooling radiator and the exhaust gases. An efficient way to convert this waste heat into work and eventually electricity is the use of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power system. Over the last few years, different architectures have been widely investigated (subcritical, wet expansion and trans-critical). Despite the promising performances, realistic economic and technical constraints, also related to the application, are required for a meaningful comparison between ORC technologies and architectures. Starting from the limited literature available, the aim of the present paper is to provide a methodology to compare sub-critical, trans-critical and wet expansion cycles and different types of expanders (both volumetric and turbomachinery) from both technical and economic point of view, which represent one of the main novel aspects of the present work. In particular, the paper focuses on the thermo-economic optimization of an ORC waste heat recovery unit for a 500 kWe biogas power plant located in a detailed regional market, which was not investigated yet. By means of a genetic algorithm, the adopted methodology optimizes a given economic criteria (Pay-Back Period, Net Present Value, Profitability Index and Internal Rate of Return) while respecting technical constraints (expander limitations) and thermodynamic constraints (positive pinch points in heat exchangers, etc.). The results show that optimal ORC solutions with a potential of energy savings up to 600 MWh a year and with a pay-back period lower than 3 years are achievable in the regional market analysed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing the determinants of built-up expansion and densification processes at the regional scale
Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Van Rompaey, Anton; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Urban Studies (2018)

An in-depth understanding of the main factors behind built-up development is a key prerequisite for designing policies dedicated to a more efficient land use. Infill development policies are essential to ... [more ▼]

An in-depth understanding of the main factors behind built-up development is a key prerequisite for designing policies dedicated to a more efficient land use. Infill development policies are essential to curb sprawl and allow a progressive recycling of low-density areas inherited from the past. This paper examines the controlling factors of built-up expansion and densification processes in Wallonia (Belgium). Unlike the usual urban/built-up expansion studies, our approach considers various levels of built-up densities to distinguish between different types of developments, ranging from low-density extensions (or sprawl) to high-density infill development. Belgian cadastral data for 1990, 2000, and 2010 were used to generate four classes of built-up areas, namely, non-, low-, medium- and high-density areas. A number of socioeconomic, geographic, and political factors related to built-up development were operationalized following the literature. We then used a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze the effects of these factors on the transitions between different densities in the two decades between 1990 and 2010. The findings indicate that all the controlling factors show distinctive variations based on density. More specifically, the centrality of zoning policies in explaining expansion processes is highlighted. This is especially the case for high-density expansions. In contrast, physical and neighborhood factors play a larger role in infill development, especially for dense infill development. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in ash and particle samples generated by an incineration plant for hospital and industrial waste in Northern of Algeria
Kerchich, Yacine; Moussaoui, Yacine; Scholl, Georges ULiege et al

in atmospheric pollution research (2018)

PCDD/Fs and dl-PCB in ash and flue gas emission samples, generated by an incineration plant of clinical and industrial waste, were investigated at the sole incineration waste plant currently operating in ... [more ▼]

PCDD/Fs and dl-PCB in ash and flue gas emission samples, generated by an incineration plant of clinical and industrial waste, were investigated at the sole incineration waste plant currently operating in Northern Algeria. We studied the incineration of six types of waste including bank notes, CD-ROM, clinical waste, sludge inks, expired pharmaceuticals and tobacco. For each of them, we collected gaseous emissions and ashes after incineration. Final extracts of the different wastes were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC–HRMS). Flue gas results indicated that the emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs, expressed in I-TEQs, were in the range of 22.78 – 1647.86 pg I-TEQ Nm-3, while for dl-PCB in flue gas, expressed in WHO-TEQs, levels reported were between 0.66 – 46.97 pg WHO-TEQ Nm-3. Regarding incinerator ashes, levels span from 1.68 to 879.56 pg I-TEQ g-1 for PCDD/Fs and 0.1 to 28.30 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 for dl-PCBs. The contribution of dl-PCBs to the sum TEQ was relatively low for all matrices analyzed. A positive and consistent correlation was obtained between the 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF concentration and I-TEQ PCDD/Fs values in flue gas and ash samples. XRF method was used to determine the major inorganic compounds that could be responsible of the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Constituents of the Leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii Gilg.
Douanla, Pascal D.; Tchuendem, Marguerite Hortence K.; Tchinda, Alembert T. et al

in Phytochemistry Letters (2018), 23(October 2017), 5--8

Two new compounds namely acetylcaloncobaside (1) and friedocaloncobic acid (2) were isolated from the leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii together with six known compounds. Their structures were determined by ... [more ▼]

Two new compounds namely acetylcaloncobaside (1) and friedocaloncobic acid (2) were isolated from the leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii together with six known compounds. Their structures were determined by standard spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR, EI-MS, and HRESIMS. The new compounds were established as kaempferol 4′,7-dimethoxy-3-O-(3″,4″,6″-O-triacetyl)-β-null-glucopyranoside (1) and 15β-hydroxy-3-oxo-28-friedelanoic acid (2). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, using the semi-automated in vitro model with parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of manipulations to detect sliding hiatal hernia in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome
Broux, Olivier ULiege; Clercx, Cécile ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2018), 47

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See detailThe effect of heating rates on functional properties of wheat and potato starch-water systems
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Doran, Lynn ULiege; Danthine, Sabine ULiege et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & -Technologie (2018), 88

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See detailA frame-semantic approach to the Source-Goal asymmetry: Synchronic and diachronic evidence from Ancient Greek
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege

in Constructions and Frames (2018)

Situated within the frame semantics paradigm, this paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works ... [more ▼]

Situated within the frame semantics paradigm, this paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works covering four text types, it is shown that (a) motion verbs display, regardless of their semantic class, preference for Goal PATHS compared to Source ones; (b) the frame that a verb belongs to affects the type of PATH chosen only to a certain degree and, in particular, to a degree that does not change the Source-Goal imbalance; (c) semantically incongruent motion verb-PATH combinations are naturally less frequent than congruent combinations, but within the category of incongruent combinations the tokens are distributed in a way that reflects the prevalence of Goals; (d) the number of markers for the encoding of Goal is higher than that of Source; and (e) Source and Goal markers interact with Place ones in an asymmetrical way: Goal markers come to encode Place and, similarly, Place markers come to express Goal. Conversely, the interaction of markers exhibiting Source–Place polysemy is unidirectional, in the sense that none of these markers was originally used to encode Place alone. Theoretical implications of the study are discussed and directions for future investigations are suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailContinental mapping of forest ecosystem functions reveals a high but unrealised potential for forest multifunctionality
van der Plas, F.; Ratcliffe, Sophia ULiege; Ruiz-Benito, P. et al

in Ecology Letters (2018), 21

Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial ... [more ▼]

Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial scales. Here, we combined a comprehensive dataset (28 ecosystem functions measured on 209 forest plots) with a forest inventory dataset (105,316 plots) to extrapolate and map relationships between various ecosystem multifunctionality measures across Europe. These multifunctionality measures reflected different management objectives, related to timber production, climate regulation and biodiversity conservation/recreation. We found that trade-offs among them were rare across Europe, at both local and continental scales. This suggests a high potential for 'win-win' forest management strategies, where overall multifunctionality is maximised. However, across sites, multifunctionality was on average 45.8-49.8% below maximum levels and not necessarily highest in protected areas. Therefore, using one of the most comprehensive assessments so far, our study suggests a high but largely unrealised potential for management to promote multifunctional forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULiege; Viehöver, Vera ULiege

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2018), 11

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See detailOccurrence of graft-versus-host disease increases mortality after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from Eurocord and the ALWP of the EBMT.
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Ruggeri, A.; Beohou, E. et al

in Journal of Internal Medicine (2018)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurrence and graft-versus-leukaemia effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. METHODS: Here, we evaluated the kinetics of relapse rate in correlation with GVHD occurrence after UCBT. The kinetics of relapse rate over time in correlation to GVHD occurrence were assessed by calculating the relapse rate per patient-year within sequential 90-day intervals. The impact of GVHD on relapse and mortality was further studied in multivariate Cox models handling GVHD as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS: The study included data from 1068 patients given single (n = 567) or double (n = 501) UCBT. The proportion of patients with grade II, III and IV acute GVHD was 20%, 7% and 4%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 42%, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 32%, and overall survival was 32% as well. Relapse rates declined gradually over time during the first 30 months after transplantation. There was a possible suggestion that grade II-IV acute (HR = 0.8, P = 0.1) and chronic (HR = 0.65, P = 0.1) GVHD decreased relapse risk. However, grade II-IV acute GVHD significantly increased early (the first 18 months after UCBT) mortality (HR = 1.3, P = 0.02), whilst chronic GVHD increased each early (HR = 2.7, P < 0.001) and late (HR = 4.9, P < 0.001) mortality after UCBT. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of grade II-IV acute or chronic GVHD each increases overall mortality after UCBT for AML mitigating the possible graft-versus-leukemia effect of GVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomic prediction of piglet response to infection with one of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates
Waide, Emily H; Tuggle, Christopher K; Serão, Nick VL et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2018)

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See detailInteractions between Zn2+ or ZnO with TiO2 to produce an efficient photocatalytic, superhydrophilic and aesthetic glass
Léonard, Géraldine ULiege; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULiege; Ramirez, Alfonso et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A : Chemistry (2018), 350

Zinc was coupled with titanium dioxide using different methods. SiO2 and Zn-SiO2 doped TiO2 films, on the one hand, and Zn doped TiO2 on the other hand, have been produced using controlled sol-gel ... [more ▼]

Zinc was coupled with titanium dioxide using different methods. SiO2 and Zn-SiO2 doped TiO2 films, on the one hand, and Zn doped TiO2 on the other hand, have been produced using controlled sol-gel processes by alcoholic, cogelation and aqueous ways. From these syntheses, films were deposited on soda lime glass. These samples were compared to ZnO samples but also to bilayer samples constituting one layer of TiO2 and one layer of ZnO. The physico-chemical properties of the films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, profilometry and UV-Vis absorption analyses. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated from the degradation of methylene blue under UV-A light, from the degradation of p-nitrophenol under visible light and from the degradation of H2O2 under halogen light (UV-A + visible light). Superhydrophilicity was evaluated from contact angle measurement after UV exposition and also from hysteresis effects. Finally, a haze measurement was performed to evaluate the impact of the coating on the aesthetic property of the coated glass. Aqueous films have better photocatalytic activity and superhydrophilicity than samples from alcoholic synthesis. The crystallization of the sample appears to be one key factor: alcoholic films required calcination to ensure the crystallization of TiO2, but the alkali migration from the glass support prevents this crystallisation, while aqueous synthesis promotes crystallized particles at low temperatures without alkali interference. It appears that the relative activity from one sample to another depends on the nature of the illumination and on the nature of the molecule to be degraded. Nevertheless, the sample with ZnO layer deposited on first TiO2 layer (ZnO 500 Alc/TiO2 100 AQ) composite is found to be the best sample, maintaining a high hydrophilicity similar to TiO2 and a good activity. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term care social insurance: How to avoid big losses?
Klimaviciute, Justina ULiege; Pestieau, Pierre ULiege

in International Tax and Public Finance (2018), 25(1), 99-139

Long-term care (LTC) needs are expected to rapidly increase in the next decades, and at the same time, the main provider of LTC, namely the family, is stalling. This calls for more involvement of the ... [more ▼]

Long-term care (LTC) needs are expected to rapidly increase in the next decades, and at the same time, the main provider of LTC, namely the family, is stalling. This calls for more involvement of the state that today covers <20% of these needs and most often in an inconsistent way. Besides the need to help the dependent poor, there is a mounting concern in the middle class that a number of dependent people are incurring costs that could force them to sell all their assets. In this paper, we study the design of a social insurance program that meets this concern. Following Arrow (Am Econ Rev 53:941–973, 1963), we suggest a policy that is characterized by complete insurance above a deductible amount. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis threat and underperformance: The threat must be relevant and implicit
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2018)

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See detailHigh diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes
Simon, Antoine ULiege; Goffinet, Bernard; Magain, Nicolas et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (2018), 22

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli. We further produced a four-loci data matrix for 68 of them, representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships within this group, established species boundaries with morphological context, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our inferences resolve a robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta that arose from the diversification following a single recent (c. 11 Mya) colonization event. All but three species have a very restricted range, endemic to either the Mascarene archipelago or a single massif in Madagascar. The first genus of lichens to be studied with molecular data in this region underwent a recent radiation, exhibits micro-endemism, and thus exemplifies the biodiversity characteristics found in other taxa in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. [less ▲]

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See detailUnravelling the ‘ingredients’ of energy consumption: Exploring home-related practices in Belgium
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Holzemer, Laurence

in Energy Research & Social Science (2018), 39(May 2018), 19-28

To look at energy consumption through a different lens, we have developed the conceptual framework of habitual practices. The objective of the present paper is to propose an empirical application of this ... [more ▼]

To look at energy consumption through a different lens, we have developed the conceptual framework of habitual practices. The objective of the present paper is to propose an empirical application of this framework, with the aim of unravelling the constitutive ‘ingredients’ of energy-consuming practices. Therefore, we investigate whether discussing the relationship of people with their homes could help circumventing the methodological difficulties that inevitably arise when trying to approach less tangible (albeit crucial) elements such as norms and attached meanings. The empirical material comes from group conversations where participants discussed the extent to which a home has to be practical, comfortable and convivial in connection with a series of elements. The results confirm that this methodological setting generated useful insights for a finer understanding of energy-consuming practices and their underlying drivers. A related crucial finding is the role of key appliances – those with more contrasted use and attached meanings – which appear to mediate the interplay between comfort, conviviality, and practicality. A promising avenue for future research would thus be to further investigate the role of those key appliances as potential markers of wider tendencies in energy consumption and useful for designing segmentation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailA thermodynamic model of nanofluid viscosity based on a generalized Maxwell-type constitutive equation
Lebon, Georgy ULiege; Machrafi, Hatim ULiege

in Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (2018), 253

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See detailReden und Rufe, a neglected genre? Towards a definition of the speech captions in private tombs
Motte, Aurore ULiege

in Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale (2018)

This paper aims at shedding light on a rather neglected corpus, the so-called ‘Reden und Rufe’. In this regard, I focus on the question of their identity as a literary genre. In seeking to define the ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at shedding light on a rather neglected corpus, the so-called ‘Reden und Rufe’. In this regard, I focus on the question of their identity as a literary genre. In seeking to define the identity of a literary genre, I first consider the structuralist approach of G. Genette and its possible applications to Ancient Egyptian texts (sections 1-2). In a second step, I apply his three criteria (modes, themes, and forms) to a workable sample of Reden und Rufe, in Old and Middle Kingdom private tombs, after having discussed the previous studies on the subject and the corpus dynamicity (section 3). I eventually offer a characterization of the Reden und Rufe, which appear to be subject to adaptations, either insertion in new kinds of ‘daily-life’ scenes or inception of a new literary genre, the harpist songs. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning curves of two different techniques for the intra-articular injection of the knee joint under fluoroscopic guidance.
Simoni, Paolo; MALAISE, Olivier ULiege; El Hachemi, Mounia et al

in Radiologia Medica (La) (2018)

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the learning curves of three beginner operators using two different techniques of intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the learning curves of three beginner operators using two different techniques of intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 177 consecutive patients (72 females (40.7%) and 105 males (59.3%), mean age 42.2 +/- 15.0 years) scheduled for a computed tomography (CT) arthrography and without joint effusion on the lateral X-rays were enrolled. They underwent an intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach. Patients were randomly assigned to three different operators, including a junior supervisor and two first-year residents in radiology who never performed an intra-articular injection of the knee before the present study. Procedures in lateral or supine position were randomly assigned to three operators. RESULTS: There was a higher rate of successful injections with the lateral position (92.1%) than with supine position (80.2%) (odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-14.0). A significant learning effect was observed for the supine position, while none was observed for the lateral position. Pain and time of fluoroscopy did not differ between the two procedures (p = 0.85 and p = 0.10, respectively). Junior supervisor had a higher rate of successful intra-articular injection compared with the other two operators (p = 0.0072). There was a statistically significant higher rate of extravasation with the supine position (66.3%) than with lateral position (19.7%) (p < 0.0001, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.06-0.25). CONCLUSION: The intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with the patient in lateral position is an easy technique for operators in training with a low rate of extravasation. Lateral position does not require a supplementary irradiation and does not increase the procedural pain. Personal operator's skill is an independent factor in determining the success of the training. [less ▲]

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See detailA fully coupled hydro-mechanical model for the modeling of coalbed methane recovery
Bertrand, François ULiege; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULiege; Collin, Frédéric ULiege

in Natural Gas science and Engineering (2018)

Most coal seams hold important quantities of methane which is recognized as a valuable energy resource. Coal reservoir is considered not conventional because methane is held adsorbed on the coal surface ... [more ▼]

Most coal seams hold important quantities of methane which is recognized as a valuable energy resource. Coal reservoir is considered not conventional because methane is held adsorbed on the coal surface. Coal is naturally fractured, it is a dual-porosity system made of matrix blocks and cleats (i.e fractures). In general, cleats are initially water saturated with the hydrostatic pressure maintaining the gas adsorbed in the coal matrix. Production of coalbed methane (CBM) first requires the mobilization of water in the cleats to reduce the reservoir pressure. Changes of coal properties during methane production are a critical issue in coalbed methane recovery. Indeed, any change of the cleat network will likely translate into modifications of the reservoir permeability. This work consists in the formulation of a consistent hydro-mechanical model for the CBM production modeling. Due to the particular structure of coal, the model is based on a dual-continuum approach to enrich the macroscale with microscale considerations. Shape factors are employed to take into account the geometry of the matrix blocks in the mass exchange between matrix and fractures. The hydro-mechanical model is fully coupled. For example, it captures the sorption-induced volumetric strain or the dependence of permeability on fracture aperture, which evolves with the stress state. The model is implemented in the finite element code Lagamine and is used for the modeling of one production well. A synthetic reservoir and then a real production case are considered. To date, attention has focused on a series of parametric analyses that can highlight the influence of the production scenario or key parameters related to the reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailReview on the effects of potential prebiotics on controlling intestinal enteropathogens Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pig production
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2018), 102

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated ... [more ▼]

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated salmonellosis, and colibacillosis is the most important disease in piglets and swine. Attachment to host cells, translocation of effector proteins into host cells, invasion and replication in tissues are the vital virulence steps of these pathogens that help them to thrive in the intestinal environment and invade tissues. Feed contamination is an important source for Salmonella infection in pig production. Many on-farm feeding strategies intervene to avoid the introduction of pathogens onto the farm by contaminated feeds or to reduce infection pressure when pathogens are present. Among the latter, prebiotics could be effective at protecting against these enteric bacterial pathogens. Nowadays, a wide range of molecules can potentially serve as prebiotics. Here, we summarize the prevalence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in pigs, understanding of the mechanisms by which pathogens can cause disease, the feed related to pathogen contamination in pigs and detail the mechanisms on which prebiotics are likely to act in order to fulfil their protective action against these pathogens in pig production. Many different mechanisms involve the inhibition of Salmonella and E. coli by prebiotics such as coating the host surface, modulation of intestinal ecology, downregulating the expression of adhesin factors or virulence genes, reinforcing the host immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailDelayed initiation of breastfeeding i Bukavu, South Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study
Kambale, Richard Mbusa; Buliga, Jérémie Bismwa; Isia, nancy Francisca et al

in International Breastfeeding Journal (2018), 13

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See detailThe Far-wanderer: Proclus on the Transmigration of the Soul
Fortier, Simon ULiege

in Classical Quarterly (2018)

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See detailSingle- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.
DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence et al

in Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association (2018)

Background: There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the ... [more ▼]

Background: There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. Methods: We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Brochner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. Results: The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and >/=300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Conclusion: Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). [less ▲]

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See detailPhase Change Materials for Non-Volatile Memory devices: From Technological Challenges to Materials Science Issues
Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Francoise et al

in Semiconductor Science and Technology (2018)

Abstract Chalcogenide Phase-Change Materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, are showing outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and ... [more ▼]

Abstract Chalcogenide Phase-Change Materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, are showing outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as Phase-Change Material memories or Phase-Change Random Access Memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidate among emerging Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large scale integration means incorporation of the phase-change material into more and more confined structures and raises material science issues to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other material science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of phase-change materials. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the phase-change material. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has hindered up-to-now the development of ultra-high multilevel storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these issues is provided from a material science point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailLLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies
Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 473

Using new APEX and JCMT spectroscopy of the CO 2-1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous ... [more ▼]

Using new APEX and JCMT spectroscopy of the CO 2-1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, WISE, IRAS & Herschel, corrected for nuclear emission using multi-component spectral energy distribution (SED) fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star-formation rates (SFRs), molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1 - 3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests a connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion disks. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of antithymocyte globulin doses in reduced intensity conditioning before allogeneic transplantation from matched sibling donor for patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the acute leukemia working party of European group of Bone Marrow Transplantation.
Devillier, Raynier; Labopin, Myriam; Chevallier, Patrice et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2018)

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is commonly used for graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation (Allo-HSCT). However, its use is still controversial in matched ... [more ▼]

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is commonly used for graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation (Allo-HSCT). However, its use is still controversial in matched sibling donor (MSD) Allo-HSCT, notably after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). ATG dose may influence the outcome, explaining in part the discordant conclusions in MSD Allo-HSCT. We, therefore, analyzed the impact of ATG doses in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission undergoing RIC Allo-HSCT from a MSD. We analyzed 234 patients from the EBMT registry and compared outcome according to given ATG dose (high dose: >/= 6 mg/kg, n = 39 or low dose: < 6 mg/kg, n = 195). No difference was found in the cumulative incidence of acute (grade 2-4: high dose vs. low dose: 21% vs. 13%, p = 0.334; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.20, p = 0.712) and chronic GVHD (extensive: high dose vs. low dose: 19% vs. 18%, p = 0.897; adjusted HR: 1.01, p = 0.980). In contrast, high dose of ATG significantly increased the incidence of relapse (52% vs. 26%, p = 0.011; adjusted HR: 1.31, p = 0.001) leading to impaired outcome (HR progression-free survival (PFS): 1.23, p = 0.002; HR overall survival (OS): 1.17, p = 0.029; HR GVHD and relapse-free survival (GRFS): 1.20, p = 0.005). We conclude that an ATG dose <6 mg/kg is sufficient for GVHD prophylaxis, while higher doses impair disease control and outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM): A new measure of everyday memory functioning in school-age children
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege; Lejeune, Caroline et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2018), 7

We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed ... [more ▼]

We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM’s four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity. Finally, comparisons between Q-MEM profiles of children with learning disabilities and typically developing children revealed significant differences. Therefore, the Q-MEM is a promising measure for identifying memory problems in children. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbivalences littéraires de la libido sciendi
Saint-Amand, Denis ULiege

in Revue d'Histoire du XIXe Siècle (2018), 57(2018/2),

Sous la Monarchie de Juillet, Balzac revendique volontiers une perspective didactique et s’autorise des digressions encyclopédiques pour instruire son lecteur ; quelques décennies plus tard, dans Bouvard ... [more ▼]

Sous la Monarchie de Juillet, Balzac revendique volontiers une perspective didactique et s’autorise des digressions encyclopédiques pour instruire son lecteur ; quelques décennies plus tard, dans Bouvard et Pécuchet, Flaubert se moque pour sa part d’une prétention au savoir universel tenue pour naïve. Entre ces deux extrêmes, le champ littéraire français est dynamisé par une série de productions ambivalentes, oscillant entre la fascination balzacienne et la satire flaubertienne, se déployant entre reprises de genres associés à un mode d’énonciation savant (la physiologie, le dictionnaire ou le manuel) et (dé)figurations d’un personnel scientifique (en particulier le savant, présenté quelquefois comme un alter ego de l’écrivain maudit, à la fois génial et marginal). C’est sur ces zones grises de la libido sciendi littéraire, se manifestant volontiers dans la petite presse et sur des imprimés extra-livresques, que nous souhaitons nous pencher dans la présente contribution, en questionnant les mécanismes de reprise et mise à distance de formes et de figures qui se déploient dans l’univers des lettres et contribuent à nourrir l’imaginaire social de l’époque. [less ▲]

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See detailA discrete-event simulation approach to evaluate the effect of stochastic parameters on offshore wind farms assembly strategies
Tekle Muhabie, Y.; Rigo, Philippe ULiege; Cepeda, M. et al

in Ocean Engineering (2018), 149

The wind industry is facing new challenges due to the planned construction of thousands of offshore wind turbines all around the world. However, with their increasing distance from the shore, greater ... [more ▼]

The wind industry is facing new challenges due to the planned construction of thousands of offshore wind turbines all around the world. However, with their increasing distance from the shore, greater water depths, and increasing sizes of the plants, the industry has to face the challenge to develop sustainable installation procedures. Important limiting factors for offshore wind farm installation are the weather conditions and installation strategies. In this context, the focus of this research is the investigation of the most effective approach to installing offshore wind farms at sea, including the effects of weather conditions. This target is achieved through the implementation of a discrete-event simulation approach which includes the analysis of the environmental conditions, distance matrix, vessel characteristics, and assembly scenarios. The model maps the logistics chain in the offshore wind industry. A deterministic and a probabilistic metocean data method have been compared and cross validated. The results point to a good agreement between the two considered models, while highlighting the huge risks to the time and cost of the installation due to the stochastic nature of the weather. We suggest that simulations may improve and reduce these risks in the planning process of offshore wind farms. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailSurfactin protects wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici and activates both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses
Le Mire, Géraldine ULiege; Siah, Ali; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle et al

in Agriculture (2018), 8

Natural elicitors induce plant resistance against a broad spectrum of diseases, and are currently among the most promising biocontrol tools. The present study focuses on the elicitor properties of the ... [more ▼]

Natural elicitors induce plant resistance against a broad spectrum of diseases, and are currently among the most promising biocontrol tools. The present study focuses on the elicitor properties of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactin on wheat, in order to stimulate the defenses of this major crop against the challenging fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. The protection efficacy of surfactin extracted from the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 was investigated through greenhouse trials. Surfactin protected wheat by 70% against Z. tritici, similarly to the chemical reference elicitor Bion®50WG. In vitro biocidal assays revealed no antifungal activities of surfactin towards the pathogen. A biomolecular RT-qPCR based low-density microarray tool was used to study the relative expression of 23 wheat defense genes. Surfactin significantly induced wheat natural defenses by stimulating both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways. Surfactin was successfully tested as an elicitor on the pathosystem wheat–Z. tritici. These results promote further sustainable agricultural practices and the reduction of chemical inputs. [less ▲]

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See detailSex differences in behavioral and neurochemical effects of gonadectomy and aromatase inhibition in rats.
Kokras, N; Pastromas, N; Papasava, D et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2018), 87

Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been as- sociated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we ... [more ▼]

Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been as- sociated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham- operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity. Half of the subjects were subsequently exposed to the stressful procedure of the forced swim test (FST), which is also a test of antidepressant activity. Aromatase activity was analyzed in the hypothalamus and tes- tosterone and corticosterone were assayed in the blood serum of all rats. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were analyzed for monoamine (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin), as well as amino acid (GABA, glutamate, glycine, taurine, alanine and histidine) levels. The observed decrease in hypothalamic aromatase activity confirmed the efficacy of letrozole treatment in both sexes. Moreover, letrozole enhanced testosterone levels in sham-operated females. In the open field test, females were overall more active and explorative than males and gonadectomy eliminated this sex difference. In the FST, females exhibited overall higher immobility than males and gonadectomy further enhanced this passive behavior in both sexes. However, sustained ar- omatase inhibition had no effect on open field and FST behaviors. Head shakes during FST, which were fewer in females than in males, were reduced by castration in males and by letrozole treatment in ovariectomized fe- males, suggesting a role of testosterone and extra-gonadal estrogens in the expression of this behavior. Sustained aromatase inhibition also decreased noradrenaline and the dopaminergic turnover rates [DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA] in the hippocampus and PFC of male and female rats, irrespectively of gonadectomy. Moreover, letrozole treatment enhanced the serotonergic turnover [5HIAA/5HT] rate in the hippocampus of males and females, irrespectively of gonadectomy. Amino acid levels were not influenced by letrozole, but sex differences were demonstrated with higher levels in the PFC of females vs. males. Present findings suggest that the neu- ropsychiatric effects of aromatase inhibition can be attributed to the inhibition of extragonadal estrogen synthesis, presumably in the brain, and could be further associated with serotonergic and catecholaminergic changes in brain regions involved in mood and cognition. Importantly, present data could be linked with the neurobiology of affective side-effects in post-menopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailL'adornisme français des années 1950
Franck, Thomas ULiege

in Cahiers du GRM (2017), 12

Cette contribution entend analyser la réception de la théorie critique d’Adorno dans le champ intellectuel français de la deuxième moitié des années 1950, plus précisément dans la revue Arguments (1956 ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution entend analyser la réception de la théorie critique d’Adorno dans le champ intellectuel français de la deuxième moitié des années 1950, plus précisément dans la revue Arguments (1956-1962). En analysant les particularités rhétoricio-conceptuelles d’une sociabilité réunie autour d’une revue, elle tente de montrer l’importance de l’interrelation des discours philosophique et littéraire dans la constitution d’une théorie critique française. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle point incremental forming: state-of-the-art and prospects
Duflou, Joost; Habraken, Anne ULiege; Cao, Jian et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2017)

Incremental sheet metal forming in general and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) specifically have gone through a period of intensive development with growing attention from research institutes ... [more ▼]

Incremental sheet metal forming in general and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) specifically have gone through a period of intensive development with growing attention from research institutes worldwide. The result of these efforts is significant progress in the understanding of the underlying forming mechanisms and opportunities as well as limitations associated with this category of flexible forming processes. Furthermore, creative process design efforts have enhanced the process capabilities and process planning methods. Also, simulation capabilities have evolved substantially. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the body of knowledge with respect to Single Point Incremental Forming. Without claiming to be exhaustive, each section aims for an up-to-date state-of-the-art review with corresponding conclusions on scientific progress and outlook on expected further developments. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the performance of five screening methods for sarcopenia.
Locquet, Médéa ULiege; Beaudart, Charlotte ULiege; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege et al

in Clinical Epidemiology (2017), 10

Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was ... [more ▼]

Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was to compare the performance of five screening tools for identifying elders at risk of sarcopenia against five diagnostic definitions. Subjects and methods: We gathered cross-sectional data of elders from the SarcoPhAge (“Sarco”penia and “Ph”ysical Impairment with Advancing “Age”) study. Lean mass was measured with X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a dynamometer and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. Performances of screening methods were described using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC), according to five diagnostic definitions of sarcopenia. For each screening tool, optimal cutoff points were computed using two methods. Results: A total of 306 subjects (74.8±5.9 years, 59.5% women) were included. The prevalence of sarcopenia varied from 5.7% to 16.7% depending on the definition. The best sensitivity (up to 100%) and the best NPV (up to 99.1%) were obtained with the screening test of Ishii et al, regardless of the definition applied. The highest AUC (up to 0.914) was also demonstrated by the instrument of Ishii et al. The most specific tool was the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP; up to 91.1%). All NPVs were above 87.0%, and all PPVs were below 51.0%. New cutoffs related to each screening instrument were also proposed to better discriminate sarcopenic individuals from non-sarcopenic individuals. Conclusion: Screening instruments for sarcopenia can be relevantly used in clinical practice to make sure to identify individuals who do not suffer from the syndrome. The screening test of Ishii et al showed better properties in terms of distinguishing those at risk of sarcopenia from those who were not at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondria affects photosynthetic electron transport and photo-sensitivity in a green alga
Larosa, Véronique ULiege; Meneghesso, Andrea; La Rocca, Nicoletta et al

in Plant Physiology (2017)

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See detailL'affaire Achbita : suite mais pas fin
Kéfer, Fabienne ULiege

in Semaine sociale Lamy (2017), (1796),

Le texte compare les réactions des Cours de cassation belge et française, d'une part, et des doctrines belge et française, d'autre part, dans les affaires Achbita et Bougnaoui, après les arrêts prononcés ... [more ▼]

Le texte compare les réactions des Cours de cassation belge et française, d'une part, et des doctrines belge et française, d'autre part, dans les affaires Achbita et Bougnaoui, après les arrêts prononcés par la CJUE. [less ▲]

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See detailСУДЬИ, ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ ВЛАСТЬ И ОБЩИЙ ИНТЕРЕС
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

in PПравоведение-Pravovedenie (2017), 3

The article is devoted to the new status of judges in the system of separation of powers and the important role they play in the implementation of political power. The author finds the reasons for these ... [more ▼]

The article is devoted to the new status of judges in the system of separation of powers and the important role they play in the implementation of political power. The author finds the reasons for these changes in raising the level of legitimacy of judges while maintaining their constitutional and legal status. In the author’s opinion, legitimacy and social acceptability of actions of a political actor is based simultaneously on the person’s ideas about their duty to obey and their voluntary participation in solving common problems. As conditions of the power legitimacy, the author notes its ability to create legal norms, to proclaim moral values and to stabilize the political system. Having examined specific judicial decisions of the courts of France, Belgium and Canada, as well as the Court of Justice of the European Union over the past twenty years, the author comes to the conclusion about the availability of all three conditions of legitimacy of modern judges as political representatives of the people. They are closer to private persons than other political actors because they do not operate with abstract categories, but rather respond to specific complaints of citizens. At the same time, the author warns that there is a risk of preference of individual interests to the general interest in the judicial procedure which can lead to the rupture of social relations in a democratic society. Finally, he concludes that the careful attitude to the role of the judge as a political representative is very important. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammation-Generated Extracellular Matrix Fragments Drive Lung Metastasis
BEKAERT, Sandrine; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Detry, Benoit et al

in Cancer Growth and Metastasis (2017), 10

Mechanisms explaining the propensity of a primary tumor to metastasize to a specific site still need to be unveiled, and clinical studies support a link between chronic inflammation and cancer ... [more ▼]

Mechanisms explaining the propensity of a primary tumor to metastasize to a specific site still need to be unveiled, and clinical studies support a link between chronic inflammation and cancer dissemination to specific tissues. Using different mouse models, we demonstrate the role of inflammation-generated extracellular matrix fragments ac-PGP (N-acetyl-proline-glycine-proline) on tumor cells dissemination to lung parenchyma. In mice exposed to cigarette smoke or lipopolysaccharide, lung neutrophilic inflammation produces increased levels of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) that contributes to collagen breakdown and allows the release of ac-PGP tripeptides. By silencing CXCR2 gene expression in tumor cells, we show that these generated ac-PGP tripeptides exert a chemotactic activity on tumor cells in vivo by binding CXCR2. [less ▲]

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See detailRéfugiés kurdes de Turquie en Loire-Atlantique depuis les années 1970
Rondeau, Coline ULiege

in Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l'Ouest (2017), 124(4), 155-180

The present article will analyse the migration journeys of asylum-seeking Kurds who left Turkey for France after the 1980 coup. After several changes and temporary camps, these women and men finally ... [more ▼]

The present article will analyse the migration journeys of asylum-seeking Kurds who left Turkey for France after the 1980 coup. After several changes and temporary camps, these women and men finally settled in Loire-Atlantique, a department of western France generally considered as a “low immigration area”. Their journeys and migration patterns will gradually show growing correlation and links with those of former economic migrants from Turkey in the 1970s, whether Turks or Turkey-based Kurds. This observation then triggers further questioning and investigations related to the relations between these first generations of migrants and the more recent Kurd refugees. Building on the analysis of these two migration backgrounds, this study examines the various migration strategies developed by the Kurds. As they settled in this area, we will look at the identification of links between territory and identity, and understanding if, how, and why, these Kurds tended to express – or hide – their identity in Loire-Atlantique. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical analysis of valuation and strategical orientation of merger and acquisition deals in the pharmaceutical industry
Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa ULiege; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege

in Expert Reviews of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (2017)

Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing major shifts due to changing macro and micro factors. As the industry is highly capital intensive and patents are expiring, the outlook is on ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing major shifts due to changing macro and micro factors. As the industry is highly capital intensive and patents are expiring, the outlook is on generating inorganic growth, mainly through M&A. Using the income valuation approach, one analyses two completed deals in 2016 above 1bn USD. Thereafter one outlines the main motives behind M&A deals and concluded by discussing whether M&A harms medical innovations. Areas covered: The paper is based on empirical study questioning existing literature in order to critically analyse valuation and the strategical orientation of pharmaceutical companies Expert commentary: Pharmaceutical companies understand the changing market conditions and favour their expertise. The restructuring of the industry moves to small niche companies (I.e. Biopharma or biotech companies) researching key innovations and big companies purchasing them to develop them, create clinical trials and distribute them as this is a costly manner Conclusion: One can expect more M&A deals during the next years focusing on value rather than volume. Pharmaceutical players resilient to the market changes may survive if they change their business model from a traditional vertical one to outsourcing and diversification including external players. [less ▲]

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See detailEdible cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira: actual state of the art in cultivation methods, genetics and application in medicine
Furmaniak, Magda; Misztak, Agnieszka; Franczuk, Martyna et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2017)

The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains ... [more ▼]

The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation, or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions. Factors like the light intensity and quality, the nitrogen source, or different modes of growth (auto-, hetero-, or mixotrophic) have been studied in detail. The scaling-up of the biomass production using photobioreactors, either closed or open, was also investigated to increase the production of useful compounds. The richness of nutrients contained in the genus Arthrospira can be used for promising applications in the biomedical domain. Ingredients such as the calcium spirulan, immulina, C-phycocyanin, and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) show a strong biological activity. Recently, its use in the fight against cancer cells was documented in many publications. The health-promoting action of “Spirulina” has been demonstrated in the case of cardiovascular diseases and age-related conditions. Some compounds also have potent immunomodulatory properties, promoting the growth of beneficial gut microflora, acting as antimicrobial and antiviral. Products derived from Arthrospira were shown to successfully replace biomaterial scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Supplementation with the cyanobacterium also improves the health of livestock and quality of the products of animal origin. They were also used in cosmetic preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A promising approach for targeted therapies
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Felice, Florence ULiege; Roels, Elodie ULiege et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2017), 18(12), 2735

This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in ... [more ▼]

This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in healthy and pathological conditions. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis. Existing published data suggesting that the lung microbiome may represent a therapeutic target, via antibiotic administration, immunization against pathogenic organisms, or treatment directed at gastroesophageal reflux. Taken altogether, published literature suggests that the lung microbiome might serve in the future as a prognostic biomarker, a therapeutic target, and/or provide an explanation for disease pathogenesis in IPF. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Modelling of Photovoltaic Units in Response to Voltage Disturbances
Chaspierre, Gilles ULiege

in Revue E Tijdschrift (2017), 1-2-3-4-2016

The objective of this work was to build a simplified mathematical model of distributed photovoltaic (PV) units representing small-scale systems accounting for residential installations. These ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work was to build a simplified mathematical model of distributed photovoltaic (PV) units representing small-scale systems accounting for residential installations. These installations are generally connected to the Low Voltage (LV) network but can be aggregated to a Medium Voltage (MV) bus through equivalent impedance accounting for the distribution feeder and the transformer. The model represents reliably the dynamic behavior of small-scale PV units in response to grid voltage disturbances according to new connection requirements. It focuses on grid interactions through the electronic interface and does not propose a detailed mathematical representation of each physical component of the system. Therefore, the mathematical model is based on recent/near future grid requirements and ancillary services that should be provided by PV units to support the grid during a fault. The proceedings of this work can be divided in three parts. First, one third of the time has consisted in the review of the literature and grid codes to make out a list of PV model specifications. The most important specifications are the Low Voltage Ride- Through (LVRT) capability, the voltage support through reactive current injection and the active-reactive strategy during a fault. During the second third of the time, the dynamic model of PV units has been built based on existing elaborated models that have been improved in order to implement the PV model specifications. Finally, the remaining time has been devoted to dynamic simulations using a 75-bus MV test network where PV units have been attached to each node next to static and dynamic loads. The external transmission system has been represented by its Thevenin equivalent defined by its short circuit power. First, simulations have been made in order to validate the model. Then different scenarios interesting from a System Operator point of view have been investigated in order to see how the units react in particular fault/low voltage situations. The figure 1 shows the fast increase in PV units installed capacity around the world that clearly illustrates the needs in the introduction of new PV units grid requirements and in new models implementing these requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-assembly of smart mesoscopic objects
Metzmacher, Jean ULiege; Poty, Martin ULiege; Lumay, Geoffroy ULiege et al

in European Physical Journal E : Soft Matter and Biological Physics (2017), 40

Self-assembly due to capillary forces is a common method for generating 2D mesoscale structures made of identical particles floating at some liquid-air interface. We show herein how to create soft ... [more ▼]

Self-assembly due to capillary forces is a common method for generating 2D mesoscale structures made of identical particles floating at some liquid-air interface. We show herein how to create soft entities that deform or not the liquid interface as a function of the strength of some applied magnetic field. These smart floating objects self-assemble or not depending on the application of an external field. Moreover, we show that the self-assembling process can be reversed opening ways to rearrange structures. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre mutation et métissage Co-construction d’une ethnographie émancipatrice et féministe
Vivas Romero, Maria ULiege

in Émulation Revue des Jeunes Chercheuses et chercheurs en sciences sociales (2017), (22), 35-50

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See detailManagement of Respiratory Infections with Use of Procalcitonin: Moving toward More Personalized Antibiotic Treatment Decisions.
Wirz, Yannick; Branche, Angela; Wolff, Michel et al

in ACS infectious diseases (2017), 3(12), 875-879

Due to overlap of clinical findings and low sensitivity of bacterial diagnostic tests, differentiation between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections remains challenging, ultimately leading to ... [more ▼]

Due to overlap of clinical findings and low sensitivity of bacterial diagnostic tests, differentiation between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections remains challenging, ultimately leading to antibiotic overuse in this population of patients. Addition of procalcitonin, a blood biomarker expressed by epithelial cells in response to bacterial infections, to the clinical assessment leads to a reduction in inappropriate antibiotic initiation. Procalcitonin also provides prognostic information about the resolution of illness, and significant decreases over time are a strong signal for the discontinuation of antibiotics. Current evidence from randomized trials indicates that procalcitonin-guided antibiotic stewardship results in a reduction in antibiotic use and antibiotic side effects, which importantly translates into improved survival of patients with respiratory infections. Inclusion of procalcitonin into antibiotic stewardship algorithms thus improves the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients presenting with respiratory illnesses and holds great promise to mitigate the global bacterial resistance crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-depth study of moderately young but extremely red, very dusty substellar companion HD 206893B
Delorme, P.; Schmidt, T.; Bonnefoy, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 608

Context. The substellar companion HD 206893b has recently been discovered by direct imaging of its disc-bearing host star with the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument ... [more ▼]

Context. The substellar companion HD 206893b has recently been discovered by direct imaging of its disc-bearing host star with the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument. <BR /> Aims: We investigate the atypical properties of the companion, which has the reddest near-infrared colours among all known substellar objects, either orbiting a star or isolated, and we provide a comprehensive characterisation of the host star-disc-companion system. <BR /> Methods: We conducted a follow-up of the companion with adaptive optics imaging and spectro-imaging with SPHERE, and a multi-instrument follow-up of its host star. We obtain a R = 30 spectrum from 0.95 to 1.64 μm of the companion and additional photometry at 2.11 and 2.25 μm. We carried out extensive atmosphere model fitting for the companions and the host star in order to derive their age, mass, and metallicity. <BR /> Results: We found no additional companion in the system in spite of exquisite observing conditions resulting in sensitivity to 6 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] (2 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) at 0.5'' for an age of 300 Myr (50 Myr). We detect orbital motion over more than one year and characterise the possible Keplerian orbits. We constrain the age of the system to a minimum of 50 Myr and a maximum of 700 Myr, and determine that the host-star metallicity is nearly solar. The comparison of the companion spectrum and photometry to model atmospheres indicates that the companion is an extremely dusty late L dwarf, with an intermediate gravity (log g 4.5-5.0) which is compatible with the independent age estimate of the system. <BR /> Conclusions: Though our best fit corresponds to a brown dwarf of 15-30 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] aged 100-300 Myr, our analysis is also compatible with a range of masses and ages going from a 50 Myr 12 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planetary-mass object to a 50 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] Hyades-age brown dwarf. Even though this companion is extremely red, we note that it is more probable that it has an intermediate gravity rather than the very low gravity that is often associated with very red L dwarfs. We also find that the detected companion cannot shape the observed outer debris disc, hinting that one or several additional planetary mass objects in the system might be necessary to explain the position of the disc inner edge. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under Programs ID 097.C-0865(D) (SPHERE GTO, SHINE Program) and Program ID: 082.A-9007(A) (FEROS) 098.C-0739(A), 192.C-0224(C) (HARPS). This work has made use of the SPHERE Data Centre. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between stereotype threat, subjective aging, and memory in older adults
Marquet, Manon ULiege; Missotten, Pierre ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition (2017)

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a ... [more ▼]

This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under high threat perceived more threat than people under low threat. This could be explained by an effect of age stereotypes in the high-threat group: the more positive age stereotypes held by participants, the more they perceived threat, which in turn decreased their memory performance and made them feel mentally older. We hypothesized that age group identity is stronger in people with more positive age stereotypes, which increase perceived threat. [less ▲]

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See detailLa quantité contre la qualité? Les professionnels de l'emploi entre "esprit gestionnaire" et relation de service
Remy, Céline ULiege; Lavitry, Lynda

in Revue Française de Socio-Economie (2017), 19

L’article explore les liens et les zones de tension entre les politiques de mesure de la performance et la qualité de l’accompagnement à l’emploi telle qu’elle est définie dans les pratiques et discours ... [more ▼]

L’article explore les liens et les zones de tension entre les politiques de mesure de la performance et la qualité de l’accompagnement à l’emploi telle qu’elle est définie dans les pratiques et discours des agents et prestataires des services publics de l’emploi en France et en Belgique francophone. L’objectif est de démontrer que le pilotage du travail des intermédiaires de l’emploi par les indicateurs de mesure donne lieu à des pratiques, parfois clandestines, de mise en conformité avec le rendement statistique de leur activité. Mais parallèlement, les excès d’une quantification perçue comme abusive ou dangereuse pour leur ethos professionnel poussent une partie d’entre eux à agir en contradiction avec ces principes gestionnaires et ce, au nom de l’intérêt du demandeur d’emploi et de la prise en compte de la qualité des emplois, tendances que l’on décèle dans les deux pays étudiés. [less ▲]

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See detailEcology, behaviour and management of the European catfish
Cucherousset, Julien; Horky, Pavel; Slavik, Ondrej et al

in Review in Fish Biology and Fisheries (2017)

The extreme body sizes of megafishes associated with their high commercial values and recreational interests have made them highly threatened in their native range worldwide by humaninduced impacts such ... [more ▼]

The extreme body sizes of megafishes associated with their high commercial values and recreational interests have made them highly threatened in their native range worldwide by humaninduced impacts such as overexploitation. Meanwhile, some megafishes have been introduced outside of their native range. A notable example is the European catfish (Silurus glanis), one of the few siluriforms native to Eastern Europe. It is among the 20 largest freshwater fish worldwide, attaining a total length over 2.7 m and a documented mass of 130 kg. Its distinct phylogeny and extreme size imply many features that are rare among other European fish, including novel behaviours (massive aggregations, beaching), consumption of large bodied prey, fast growth rates, long lifespan, high fecundity, nest guarding and large egg sizes. The spread of the species is likely to continue due to illegal introductions, primarily for recreational angling, coupled with natural range extension associated with climate change. Here, the most recentknowledge on the current distribution and the ecology of the species are reviewed. A series of key research questions are identified that should stimulate new research on this intriguing, yet largely unknown, species and, more generally, on the ecology of freshwater invaders. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximizing neotissue growth kinetics in a perfusion bioreactor: An in silico strategy using model reduction and Bayesian optimization
Mehrian, Mohammad ULiege; Guyot, Y.; Papantoniou, I. et al

in Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2017)

In regenerative medicine, computer models describing bioreactor processes can assist in designing optimal process conditions leading to robust and economically viable products. In this study, we started ... [more ▼]

In regenerative medicine, computer models describing bioreactor processes can assist in designing optimal process conditions leading to robust and economically viable products. In this study, we started from a (3D) mechanistic model describing the growth of neotissue, comprised of cells, and extracellular matrix, in a perfusion bioreactor set-up influenced by the scaffold geometry, flow-induced shear stress, and a number of metabolic factors. Subsequently, we applied model reduction by reformulating the problem from a set of partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. Comparing the reduced model results to the mechanistic model results and to dedicated experimental results assesses the reduction step quality. The obtained homogenized model is 105 fold faster than the 3D version, allowing the application of rigorous optimization techniques. Bayesian optimization was applied to find the medium refreshment regime in terms of frequency and percentage of medium replaced that would maximize neotissue growth kinetics during 21 days of culture. The simulation results indicated that maximum neotissue growth will occur for a high frequency and medium replacement percentage, a finding that is corroborated by reports in the literature. This study demonstrates an in silico strategy for bioprocess optimization paying particular attention to the reduction of the associated computational cost. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of phenolic organohalogens in human serum from a Belgian population and assessment of parameters affecting the human contamination
Dufour, Patrice ULiege; PIRARD, Catherine ULiege; CHARLIER, Corinne ULiege

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 599-600

Many in vitro or in vivo studies highlighted the potential deleterious effects of phenolic organohalogenated compounds (POHs) on the health, particularly on the thyroid system homeostasis, however few ... [more ▼]

Many in vitro or in vivo studies highlighted the potential deleterious effects of phenolic organohalogenated compounds (POHs) on the health, particularly on the thyroid system homeostasis, however few large scale human epidemiological studies have been carried out, especially in Europe. Further studies monitoring the human contamination by POHs, the sources of exposure and the influence of these compounds on thyroid health are still needed. Therefore we determined the concentrations of 16 POHs (pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 4 bromophenols (BPs), 3 hydroxy-polybromodiphenylethers (OH-PBDEs) and 7 hydroxy-polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs)) in serum from 274 people aged from 18 to 76 years old living in Liege (Belgium) and the surrounding area. A questionnaire about their alimentary habits, life style and home environment was also administered to the volunteers. The predominant compound measured in the population was PCP (median concentration of 593.0 pg mL−1). 4-OH-CB 107, 4-OH-CB 146 and 4-OH-CB 187 were detected in all samples and contributed for 75% of the sum of OH-PCBs (ΣOH-PCBs). The median measured in our population for ΣOH-PCBs was 143.7 pg mL−1. TBBPA and 2,4,6-tribromophenol were detected in 31% and 63.8% of the samples respectively while the detection frequency observed for the other BPs and the OH-PBDEs was close to zero. We computed multivariate regression models in order to assess the influence of demographic and lifestyle parameters on the PCP and ΣOH-PCBs contamination levels. Significant correlation was found between the PCP concentration and sex, smoker status, sea fish consumption and level of education, although the model seemed to be a poor (R2 = 0.14) predictor of the PCP concentration. The model computed for ΣOHPCBs was more explanatory (R2 = 0.61) and involved age, BMI and sea fish consumption. Finally, we assessed the parameters affecting the ΣOH-PCBs/ΣPCBs ratio. The model proposed involved age, BMI, smoker status and parent PCB level, and explained 41% of the variability of the ΣOH-PCBs/ΣPCBs ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit de l’Union européenne face à l’économie collaborative
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2017), (4), 697-722

La présente contribution a pour objectif de proposer un état de lieux de l’incidence du droit de l’Union européenne sur le développement, la promotion et la règlementation de l’économie collaborative au ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution a pour objectif de proposer un état de lieux de l’incidence du droit de l’Union européenne sur le développement, la promotion et la règlementation de l’économie collaborative au sein du marché intérieur. Pour ce faire, cet article se divise en deux parties. Dans la première partie, le phénomène de l’économie collaborative ainsi que les approches réglementaires envisagées par les institutions de l’Union européenne pour mieux encadrer cette économie seront analysés. Nous soulignerons que l’Union européenne décide pour l’instant de ne pas proposer de nouveaux instruments de réglementation, préférant plutôt interpréter les instruments et dispositions déjà existants du droit de l’Union européenne. S’inscrivant dans cette approche, la deuxième partie de la contribution dressera une cartographie des dispositions pertinentes du droit de l’Union européenne qui gouvernent l’économie collaborative, en proposant des lignes directrices supplémentaires qui devraient permettre d’encore mieux intégrer l’économie collaborative dans le cadre juridique de l’Union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailLes communs fonciers à l’ère d’internet au Cambodge, une approche par les conflits
Mellac, Marie; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULiege

in Netcom (2017), 31(1/2), 129-152

Résumé - Depuis les années 2000, la vie politique cambodgienne est marquée par des conflits majeurs provoqués par la destruction de communs fonciers, ruraux et urbains. Ces conflits jaillissent dans un ... [more ▼]

Résumé - Depuis les années 2000, la vie politique cambodgienne est marquée par des conflits majeurs provoqués par la destruction de communs fonciers, ruraux et urbains. Ces conflits jaillissent dans un contexte où la violence et les relations clientélistes propres à l’exercice du pouvoir d’Etat cambodgien limitent la formation de contre-pouvoirs. Des espaces de résistance existent néanmoins et les possibilités d’internet les transforment ou les amplifient. A travers les conflits fonciers, cet article examine les mobilisations du web et montre qu’elles apportent une dimension informationnelle aux dynamiques sociales de protection des communs fonciers. La mise à disposition de données et informations foncières sur internet par des acteurs de la société civile bouscule le rôle central de l’Etat en la matière. Toutefois, le lien entre les interventions du numérique et la gouvernance foncière ne va pas de soi et reste une piste à explorer. Abstract - Since the years 2000, political life in Cambodia has been deeply marked by land conflicts, brought about by the destruction of rural and urban commons. These conflicts occur in a context where violence and patronage, which are at the core of Cambodian State formation practises, limit approaches to counter power. However, spaces of resistance exist and are actively transformed by the internet. Through the prism of land conflicts, this article examines how different mobilizations of the Web bring an informational dimension to the social dynamics of protecting land-based commons. The release of land-related data and information on the internet by civil society actors shakes up the central role of the State as data gatekeeper. Yet, the link between these intervention on the Web and land governance is not obvious and remain to be explored. Keywords - Land tenure ; Commons ; Internet ; Governance ; Conflict [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters estimation of growth in Polled Nellore cattle via random regression models
Coutinho de Barros, Isabella; Souza Carneiro, Paulo Luiz; REIS MOTA, Rodrigo ULiege et al

in Livestock Research for Rural Development (2017), 29(12),

In genetic breeding programs, body weight is measured overtime, and is historically the main source of information from animals. Random Regression Models (RRM) have been frequently used in beef cattle ... [more ▼]

In genetic breeding programs, body weight is measured overtime, and is historically the main source of information from animals. Random Regression Models (RRM) have been frequently used in beef cattle evaluations, but can significantly contribute to genetic progress in all species of economic importance. To our knowledge, there are no scientific studies using RRM to evaluate Polled Nellore. We aimed to estimate genetic parameters by using RRM as a way to provide basis for guidelines development of growth of this breed. The models included direct genetic and maternal genetic, permanent environmental and maternal permanent environmental as random, contemporary groups as fixed and cow age at calving as covariate effects. The residual variances were modeled from homogeneous to six heterogeneous classes. The model of orders 4, 2, 2 and 2 for direct additive genetic, maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and permanent environmental had greater performance according to statistical criteria (smaller AIC and BIC values). Estimates of direct additive genetic increased over time (range 0-5,000 Kg2) and the heritability estimates were up to 0.73 along the growth curve. Maternal heritability estimates were low, with values close to zero. Genetic correlations between ages ranged from moderate (0.60) to high (0.97). Random regression models may be an alternative to describe the changes in body weight variances throughout lifetime. [less ▲]

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See detailThe LBTI Fizeau imager - I. Fundamental gain in high-contrast imaging
Patru, F.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472

We show by numerical simulations a fundamental gain in contrast when combining coherently monochromatic light from two adaptive optics (AO) telescopes instead of using a single stand-alone AO telescope ... [more ▼]

We show by numerical simulations a fundamental gain in contrast when combining coherently monochromatic light from two adaptive optics (AO) telescopes instead of using a single stand-alone AO telescope, assuming efficient control and acquisition systems at high speed. A contrast gain map is defined as the normalized point spread functions (PSFs) ratio of a single Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) aperture over the dual Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) aperture in Fizeau mode. The global gain averaged across the AO-corrected field of view is improved by a factor of 2 in contrast in long exposures and by a factor of 10 in contrast in short exposures (i.e. in exposures, respectively, longer or shorter than the coherence time). The fringed speckle halo in short exposures contains not only high-angular resolution information, as stated by speckle imaging and speckle interferometry, but also high-contrast imaging information. A high-gain zone is further produced in the valleys of the PSF formed by the dark Airy rings and/or the dark fringes. Earth rotation allows us to exploit various areas in the contrast gain map. A huge-contrast gain in narrow zones can be achieved when both a dark fringe and a dark ring overlap on to an exoplanet. Compared to a single 8-m LBT aperture, the 23-m LBTI Fizeau imager can provide a gain in sensitivity (by a factor of 4), a gain in angular resolution (by a factor of 3) and, as well, a gain in raw contrast (by a factor of 2-1000 varying over the AO-corrected field of view). [less ▲]

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See detailThe LBTI Fizeau imager – II. Sensitivity of the PSF and the MTF to adaptive optics errors and to piston errors
Patru, F.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472

We show numerical simulations with monochromatic light in the visible for the LBTI Fizeau imager, including opto-dynamical aberrations due here to adaptive optics (AO) errors and to differential piston ... [more ▼]

We show numerical simulations with monochromatic light in the visible for the LBTI Fizeau imager, including opto-dynamical aberrations due here to adaptive optics (AO) errors and to differential piston fluctuations, while other errors have been neglected. The achievable Strehl by the LBTI using two AO is close to the Strehl provided by a single standalone AO system, as long as other differential wavefront errors are mitigated. The LBTI Fizeau imager is primarily limited by the AO performance and by the differential piston/tip–tilt errors. Snapshots retain high-angular resolution and high-contrast imaging information by freezing the fringes against piston errors. Several merit functions have been critically evaluated in order to characterize point spread functions and the modulation transfer functions for high-contrast imaging applications. The LBTI Fizeau mode can provide an image quality suitable for standard science cases (i.e. a Strehl above 70 per cent) by performing both at a time: an AO correction better than ≈λ/18 RMS for both short and long exposures, and a piston correction better than ≈λ/8 RMS for long exposures or simply below the coherence length for short exposures. Such results, which can be applied to any observing wavelength, suggest that AO and piston control at the LBTI would already improve the contrast at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the LBTI Fizeau imager can be used for high-contrast imaging, providing a high-Strehl regime (by both AO systems), a cophasing mode (by a fringe tracker) and a burst mode (by a fast camera) to record fringed speckles in short exposures. [less ▲]

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See detailB stars seen at high resolution by XMM-Newton
Cazorla, Constantin ULiege; Nazé, Yaël ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 608(A54), 1-15

We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear ... [more ▼]

We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear soft, with temperatures of 0.2-0.6 keV, and moderately bright (log [L[SUB]X[/SUB]/L[SUB]BOL[/SUB]] -7) with lower values for later type stars. In line with previous studies, we also find an absence of circumstellar absorption, negligible line broadening, no line shift, and formation radii in the range 2-7 R[SUB]⋆[/SUB]. From the X-ray brightnesses, we derived the hot mass-loss rate for each of our targets and compared these values to predictions or values derived in the optical domain: in some cases, the hot fraction of the wind can be non-negligible. The derived X-ray abundances were compared to values obtained from the optical data, with a fair agreement found between them. Finally, half of the sample presents temporal variations, either in the long-term, short-term, or both. In particular, HD 44743 is found to be the second example of an X-ray pulsator, and we detect a flare-like activity in the binary HD 79351, which also displays a high-energy tail and one of the brightest X-ray emissions in the sample. Based on observations collected with the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailHyperoxalurie primaire de type 1 : de l'enfance à l'âge adulte, comment gérer adéquatement l'adhésion au traitement médical?
LEFLOT, Marie ULiege; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; COLLARD, Laure ULiege et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2017)

We report the cases of three young patients suffering from type 1 primary hyperoxaluria, a metabolic genetic disorder characterized by intracellular accumulation of oxalate and which may result in ... [more ▼]

We report the cases of three young patients suffering from type 1 primary hyperoxaluria, a metabolic genetic disorder characterized by intracellular accumulation of oxalate and which may result in endstage renal disease with systemic impairment. A number of effective conservative therapeutic means are available for early management of affected children particularly when he is growing older. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of conservative therapy, compliance represents a major and daily challenge. Monitoring therapeutic compliance is thus an important task for physicians in charge of this disease. A better understanding of non-compliance causes is required to improve the follow-up of patients for whom treatment education must be a priority. [less ▲]

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See detailDe margarine van Van Ostaijen
Spinoy, Erik ULiege

in Zuurvrij (2017), (33), 44-52

This article opposes the dominant autonomist, decontextualized readings of Paul van Ostaijen's poetry volume Bezette Stad, arguing that the text is highly referential and should therefore be studied by ... [more ▼]

This article opposes the dominant autonomist, decontextualized readings of Paul van Ostaijen's poetry volume Bezette Stad, arguing that the text is highly referential and should therefore be studied by replacing it into its historic and cultural context. [less ▲]

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See detailEls Witte, parmi les historiens et leur Cité
Genin, Vincent ULiege

in Contemporanea (2017), XXXIX(4),

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See detailBrentano e il pensiero come atto mentale
Boccaccini, Federico ULiege

in Rivista di filosofia (2017), CVIII(3), 365-380

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See detailAbnormally adherent and invasive placenta: a spectrum disorder in need of a name
Collins, Sally; CHANTRAINE, Frédéric ULiege; Morgan, Terry et al

in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2017)

There is little doubt that the worldwide Cesarean delivery epidemic has led to an increased incidence of abnormally adherent and invasive placentation. The significant impact that this disorder has on ... [more ▼]

There is little doubt that the worldwide Cesarean delivery epidemic has led to an increased incidence of abnormally adherent and invasive placentation. The significant impact that this disorder has on maternal morbidity and mortality has led to a flurry of publications in the literature concerning all aspects of the condition. These papers have arisen from many sources, notably pathologists, epidemiologists, obstetricians and radiologists. [less ▲]

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See detailA 3U CubeSat to Collect UV Photometry of Bright Massive Stars
Desselle, Richard ULiege; Kintziger, Christian ULiege; Rochus, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Small Satellites (2017), 6(3), 635-650

Following the amazing progresses in miniaturizing essential components of spacecraft, the last decade has witnessed an important development of nano- and micro-satellites. Beyond the mere technological ... [more ▼]

Following the amazing progresses in miniaturizing essential components of spacecraft, the last decade has witnessed an important development of nano- and micro-satellites. Beyond the mere technological experiment, these small satellites are now considered as important complements of much larger and more sophisticated probes to do scientific research. In this context we have conducted a feasibility study of a near-UV telescope on-board a 3U CubeSat. The scientific purpose of this payload will be to collect time series of photometric measurements of bright, mainly massive, stars down to an optical magnitude of V=5. This paper presents the optimized optical design of the payload and its associated detector. We further discuss the system accommodation and integration as well as a preliminary mission analysis. A photometric budget taking into account the characteristics of the target stars and the payload performances is also presented. With this feasibility study we demonstrate that it is possible to do a robust science mission using a very small satellite and for a limited cost. [less ▲]

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