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See detailEffects of manipulations to detect sliding hiatal hernia in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome
Broux, Olivier ULiege; Clercx, Cécile ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2018), 47

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See detailModelling soil water dynamic in rain-fed spring maize field with plastic mulching
Chen, Baoqing ULiege; Liu, Enke; Mei, Xurong et al

in Agricultural Water Management (2018)

Numerical solution of the Richards equation with Hydrus-2D model is a low cost and fast way to get information on spatio-temporal soil water dynamics. Previous researches with Hydrus-2D have developed two ... [more ▼]

Numerical solution of the Richards equation with Hydrus-2D model is a low cost and fast way to get information on spatio-temporal soil water dynamics. Previous researches with Hydrus-2D have developed two different approaches to represent the rainfall infiltration in irrigated field with plastic mulching: ‘BP’ – an approach comprised by bare strip boundary and plastic strip boundary without consideration of film side infiltration;‘BP + ’- an approach comprised by bare strip and plastic strip with integrating the process of film side infiltration by increasing the rainfall infiltration amount in bare strip. Nevertheless, the performance of these approaches has not yet been evaluated in rain-fed fields. Considering much more dominant role of rainfall infiltration in rain-fed agriculture, we tested an additional approach which comprised a bare strip, plastic strip and planting hole (BPH) to take into account the effect of the rainfall canopy redistribution and film side infiltration, and we compared its performance to the two existing approaches. Results suggested BP completely failed to reproduce the soil water content (SWC) in all soil layers of plastic strip and in the deep soil layers of bare strip. BP+ overestimated the SWC in 0–20 cm of the bare strip, while the performance of BPH was acceptable in different positions. After that, we compared the soil water distribution between no-mulched field (NM) and plastic mulched field (PM) with approach BPH. Our simulation showed that the highest SWC in PM occurred near the planting hole, SWC in the center zone of plastic strip was lower, while SWC in the bare strip was lowest. PM improves the soil water availability not only in the plastic strip but also in the bare strip as compared to NM. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Creative Economy as a Versatile Policy Script: Exploring the Role of Competing International Organizations
Vlassis, Antonios ULiege; De Beukelaer, Christiaan

in Media, Culture & Society (2018)

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See detailScience-fiction et jeu vidéo
Delbouille, Julie ULiege; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULiege; Jousten, Lison ULiege

in ReS Futurae : Revue d'Etudes sur la Science-Fiction (2018), 12

Lorsque Spacewar!, considéré comme un des premiers jeux vidéo, voit le jour en 1962 dans les salles du Massachussets Institute of Technology, il marque le début d’une longue relation entre ce médium et la ... [more ▼]

Lorsque Spacewar!, considéré comme un des premiers jeux vidéo, voit le jour en 1962 dans les salles du Massachussets Institute of Technology, il marque le début d’une longue relation entre ce médium et la science-fiction. À l’heure où l’informatique est encore fort peu micro, la thématique spatiale que ce précurseur exploite présente en effet un avantage certain : celui de déployer à l’écran un « espace dont la principale caractéristique est le vide [...] un lieu qui exige moins de puissance de calcul » (Triclot, 2011). De l’émergence de cette culture hacker dans les années 1960 à la production actuelle, le jeu vidéo a constamment puisé dans les ressorts propres à la science-fiction – que ce soit les accents cyberpunk d’un Deus Ex : Human Revolution (Square Enix, 2011), l’uchronie d’un Wolfenstein : The New Order (Bethesda Softworks, 2014) ou encore la dystopie constitutive d’un Bioshock (2K Games, 2007). Cette richesse spécifique a pourtant été peu interrogée. [less ▲]

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See detailBrentano’s epistemology of history: inner experience and the reality of the past
Boccaccini, Federico ULiege

in Perspectives on Science (2018)

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See detailPluton construction and deformation in the Sveconorwegian crust of SW Norway: magnetic fabric and U-Pb geochronology of the Kleivan and Sjelset granitic complexes
Bolle, Olivier ULiege; Diot, Hervé; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULiege et al

in Precambrian Research (2018), 305

The Kleivan and Sjelset granitic complexes are two composite plutons, containing both orthopyroxene and biotite (± hornblende) facies, emplaced in the Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) high-grade basement of ... [more ▼]

The Kleivan and Sjelset granitic complexes are two composite plutons, containing both orthopyroxene and biotite (± hornblende) facies, emplaced in the Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) high-grade basement of SW Norway. A structural study of these two plutons, based on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique and combined with high-precision U-Th-Pb zircon dating, is presented here. Geochronological data demonstrate a rapid emplacement of successive magmatic pulses in the Kleivan complex (from 936.94 ± 0.42 Ma to 935.62 ± 0.67 Ma) and, on the contrary, a non-negligible rest period (~3.2 Ma) in the construction of the Sjelset complex that was formed by two pulses emplaced, respectively, at 935.67 ± 0.37 Ma and 932.43 ± 0.75 Ma. Locally discordant magnetic fabrics in the latter pluton confirm this rather protracted construction time. Thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements supporting the AMS data indicate a magnetic mineralogy dominated by a multidomain, Ti-poor titanomagnetite, except in samples having a very low magnetic susceptibility. The susceptibility magnitudes, paramagnetic to ferromagnetic in agreement with the rock magnetic data, rely on the petrographic rock-types and on the alteration degree. Image analysis confirms that the magnetic fabric is usually coaxial with the shape fabric in both complexes, supporting the use of AMS as a proxy for the petrofabric orientation. Combined with micro- and macrostructural data, the magnetic fabric demonstrates that the Kleivan and Sjelset granitic complexes have their internal fabrics largely dominated by tectonic strain. Models of synfolding emplacement coeval with the last stage of Sveconorwegian contraction recorded in the area are proposed for the two plutons. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogenic volatile organic compound emissions from senescent maize leaves and a comparison with other leaf developmental stages
Mozaffar, Md Ahsan ULiege; Schoon, N.; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2018), 176

Plants are the major source of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) which have a large influence on atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. Therefore, understanding of BVOC emissions from all ... [more ▼]

Plants are the major source of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) which have a large influence on atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. Therefore, understanding of BVOC emissions from all abundant plant species at all developmental stages is very important. Nevertheless, investigations on BVOC emissions from even the most widespread agricultural crop species are rare and mainly confined to the healthy green leaves. Senescent leaves of grain crop species could be an important source of BVOCs as almost all the leaves senesce on the field before being harvested. For these reasons, BVOC emission measurements have been performed on maize (Zea mays L.), one of the most cultivated crop species in the world, at all the leaf developmental stages. The measurements were performed in controlled environmental conditions using dynamic enclosures and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The main compounds emitted by senescent maize leaves were methanol (31% of the total cumulative BVOC emission on a mass of compound basis) and acetic acid (30%), followed by acetaldehyde (11%), hexenals (9%) and m/z 59 compounds (acetone/propanal) (7%). Important differences were observed in the temporal emission profiles of the compounds, and both yellow leaves during chlorosis and dry brown leaves after chlorosis were identified as important senescence-related BVOC sources. Total cumulative BVOC emissions from senescent maize leaves were found to be among the highest for senescent Poaceae plant species. BVOC emission rates varied strongly among the different leaf developmental stages, and senescent leaves showed a larger diversity of emitted compounds than leaves at earlier stages. Methanol was the compound with the highest emissions for all the leaf developmental stages and the contribution from the younggrowing, mature, and senescent stages to the total methanol emission by a typical maize leaf was 61, 13, and 26%, respectively. This study shows that BVOC emissions from senescent maize leaves cannot be neglected and further investigations in field conditions are recommended to further constrain the BVOC emissions from this important C4 crop species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Far-wanderer: Proclus on the Transmigration of the Soul
Fortier, Simon ULiege

in Classical Quarterly (2018)

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See detailA Modal Frequency-Domain Generalised Force Matrix for the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULiege; Giannelis, N. F.; Vio, G. A.

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2018), 76

The unsteady Vortex Lattice method is becoming an increasingly popular aerodynamic modelling method for incompressible aeroelastic problems, such as flexible low-speed aircraft, wind turbines and flapping ... [more ▼]

The unsteady Vortex Lattice method is becoming an increasingly popular aerodynamic modelling method for incompressible aeroelastic problems, such as flexible low-speed aircraft, wind turbines and flapping flight. It leads to discrete time aeroelastic state space equations, which must be solved in a time-marching framework. Eigenvalue or singular value decompositions of the discrete time equations can be used in order to perform stability analysis but such procedures must be accompanied by model order reduction because the size of the equations is large. This work proposes a modal frequency domain implementation of the Vortex Lattice method, resulting in a modal generalised force matrix. Model order reduction is implicit in the modal approach and stability analysis can be carried out using industry-standard flutter analysis techniques, such as the p-k method. The approach is validated by comparison to wind tunnel flutter data obtained from rectangular cantilever flat plate wings of different aspect ratios and sweep angles. It is found that the aeroelastic model predictions follow the experimental trends for both flutter speed and frequency but tend to be moderately conservative. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Poeleart, Christine; Ernens, Majorie et al

in Food Research International (2018)

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating ... [more ▼]

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. [less ▲]

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See detailA component method for cold-formed steel beam-to-column bolted gusset plate joints
Bucmys, Zilvinas; Daniunas, Alfonsas; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege et al

in Thin-Walled Structures (2018), 123

Cold-formed steel elements are being used more frequently on construction sites because of the good strength-to-cost ratio. However, insufficient studies are published examining the properties of these ... [more ▼]

Cold-formed steel elements are being used more frequently on construction sites because of the good strength-to-cost ratio. However, insufficient studies are published examining the properties of these constructions. This paper presents a study of cold formed steel bolted gusset plate connections. A “three springs” mechanical model to calculate joint stiffness is presented. Then the results predicted through the proposed model are validated through comparisons to experimental and finite element results. [less ▲]

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See detailBack to materialism Reflections on Marx’s conception of labour, praxis, cooperatives and libertarian socialism
Frère, Bruno ULiege

in International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society (2018)

From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism ... [more ▼]

From Marx to Althusser, the materialist approach has tended to assume that individuals (that is, workers, proletarians and other social actors), unconsciously reproduce the social structures of capitalism which alienate them. It is assumed that individuals accept the conditions forced upon them and no longer seek to rebel against a world which substantially impoverishes their labour, their spirit and their creativity. In this paper, I will try to show that by dint of favouring almost exclusively Marx's concept of alienation, there is a considerable risk that materialist thought will adopt only a negative path. Whilst I acknowledge Marx’s significance to materialism, I wish to argue that his stance should be combined with that of the anarchist and libertarian French thinker Proudhon. Proudhon has succeeded in presenting a conception of the worker as more than just alienated. Workers can also cooperate and experience a reciprocity seemingly at odds with the character of capitalism. Under Proudhon’s influence materialism takes a positive turn, enabling us to avoid falling into the utopianism that the theory of social economy employs to critique capitalism – a utopianism that renders its critique even less effective than that of Marx. [less ▲]

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See detailEliciting cultural heritage values: landscape preferences versus representative images of the city
Ginzarly, Manal ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development (2018)

Purpose–In 2011, UNESCO recommended the application of a value-based landscape approach to cultural heritage conservation. In this framework, culture in its manifold expressions is considered as an ... [more ▼]

Purpose–In 2011, UNESCO recommended the application of a value-based landscape approach to cultural heritage conservation. In this framework, culture in its manifold expressions is considered as an embrace for the social, economic, and environmental pillars of sustainable development. There is a need to unveil the different cultural values generated from the interaction between people and their environment since these values will help cities maintain their unique identity and integrity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey method intended to assess the range of cultural values attributed by people to the historic urban landscape. Design/methodology/approach–This paper is an experimental inquiry that combines a qualitative and a quantitative approach. It is designed to distinguish the different interpretations and outlooks of people to the historic urban landscape. It integrates landscape preference studies with investigation on representative images of the city and assesses these in relation to activities, feelings, and valued aspects of landscapes. Findings–The main finding is that the most preferred scenes of the city are not the ones that represent best the city. Results exposed two sides of the historic urban landscape and related heritage values. The first is associated with the scenic beauty of the landscape and its aesthetic values, while the second is reflected in ordinary landscapes and everyday practices. Originality/value– This paper provides an insight on the different interpretations and meanings of the historic urban landscape throughout the city. It provides an empirical evidence that ordinary landscapes are of great heritage value as they surpass all aspects of human environmental interaction to contribute to the image that societies make of themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation to high zinc depends on distinct mechanisms in metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri
Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULiege; Corso, Massimiliano; Fataftha, Nazeer et al

in New Phytologist (2018)

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See detailUnravelling the ‘ingredients’ of energy consumption: Exploring home-related practices in Belgium
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege; Holzemer, Laurence

in Energy Research & Social Science (2018), 39(May 2018), 19-28

To look at energy consumption through a different lens, we have developed the conceptual framework of habitual practices. The objective of the present paper is to propose an empirical application of this ... [more ▼]

To look at energy consumption through a different lens, we have developed the conceptual framework of habitual practices. The objective of the present paper is to propose an empirical application of this framework, with the aim of unravelling the constitutive ‘ingredients’ of energy-consuming practices. Therefore, we investigate whether discussing the relationship of people with their homes could help circumventing the methodological difficulties that inevitably arise when trying to approach less tangible (albeit crucial) elements such as norms and attached meanings. The empirical material comes from group conversations where participants discussed the extent to which a home has to be practical, comfortable and convivial in connection with a series of elements. The results confirm that this methodological setting generated useful insights for a finer understanding of energy-consuming practices and their underlying drivers. A related crucial finding is the role of key appliances – those with more contrasted use and attached meanings – which appear to mediate the interplay between comfort, conviviality, and practicality. A promising avenue for future research would thus be to further investigate the role of those key appliances as potential markers of wider tendencies in energy consumption and useful for designing segmentation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: A retrospective study by the European society for blood and marrow transplantation-lymphoma working party
Akhtar, S.; Montoto, S.; Boumendil, A. et al

in American Journal of Hematology (2018), 93(1), 40-46

Whilst autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is considered standard of care for relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma, the role of auto-SCT in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin ... [more ▼]

Whilst autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is considered standard of care for relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma, the role of auto-SCT in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is not well defined due to limited data. We report the first study on auto-SCT for NLPHL with a larger cohort. Eligible for this retrospective registry study were patients reported to the EBMT between 2003 and 2013, aged 18 or older with relapsed/refractory NLPHL who underwent first auto-SCT with disease chemosensitive to salvage therapy. NLPHL transformed to diffuse large B cell lymphoma were excluded. Sixty patients (83% male; median age 40 years) met the eligibility criteria. The median time between diagnosis and transplant was 21 months (IQR 13–58), and the median number of prior treatment lines was 2 (range 1–5), including rituximab in 63% of the patients. At auto-SCT, 62% of the patients were in complete remission (CR) and 38% in partial remission. Seventy-two percent of the patients received BEAM as high-dose therapy. With a median follow-up of 56 months (range 3–105), 5-year progression-free and overall survival (OS) were 66% and 87%, respectively. Univariate comparisons considering age, time from diagnosis to transplant, prior chemotherapy lines, and prior rituximab use failed to identify significant predictors for any survival endpoint except for being in CR at the time of auto-SCT (vs PR, P =.049) for OS. Auto-SCT in patients with relapsed/refractory NLPHL who are sensitive to salvage therapy gives excellent disease control and long-term survival independent of the time interval between diagnosis and transplant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabetes: Metformin - a cardiovascular moderator of DPP4 inhibitors?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Nature Reviews. Endocrinology (2018), 14(1), 8-9

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See detailDiagnosis threat and underperformance: The threat must be relevant and implicit
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2018)

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See detailAnalysis of PIV measurements using modal decomposition techniques, POD and DMD, to study flow structures and their dynamics within a stirred-tank reactor
de Lamotte, Anne ULiege; Delafosse, Angélique ULiege; Calvo, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2018)

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred ... [more ▼]

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred by two Rushton impellers at two rotating speeds, N = 150 and 300 rpm. POD identifies flow structures that optimally capture the total kinetic energy of the flow, while DMD identifies structures that significantly contribute to the dynamics of the flow. The experimental data, i.e. the instantaneous radial and axial velocity fields, come from 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow motion is turbulent, and it occurs over a wide range of length and time scales, from equipment-dependent large-scale coherent structures to the smallest-scale eddies where energy dissipation takes place. It thus provides an interesting benchmark case for the comparison between POD and DMD, which are based on energy and dynamic analysis, respectively. POD analysis reveals that the most energetic structures are related to the inherent periodic unsteadiness due to the relative motion between the rotating impeller blades and the non-moving baffles. Apart from the mean field, the first most energetic group of modes is related to trailing vortices induced by the Rushton turbines and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the blade passage frequency and its overtones. The second most energetic group of modes is related to vortical structures in the impeller stream and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the rotating speed. DMD analysis identifies flow structures that are found similar to these most energetic modes, although differences appear due to the fact that DMD isolates structures associated to a single frequency and their corresponding growth/decay rate. As in POD, the relative importance of each DMD mode can be estimated using an appropriately defined energy criterion. Comparison of the results from both modal decomposition methods points out their complementarity and their potential for describing the spatial and time characteristics of the flow within a stirred tank. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm for computing non-concave multifractal spectra using the Sν spaces
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULiege; Esser, Céline ULiege; Nicolay, Samuel ULiege

in Communications in Nonlinear Science & Numerical Simulation (2018), 56

We present an implementation of a multifractal formalism based on the Sν spaces and show that it effectively gives the right Hölder spectrum in numerous cases. In particular, it allows to recover non ... [more ▼]

We present an implementation of a multifractal formalism based on the Sν spaces and show that it effectively gives the right Hölder spectrum in numerous cases. In particular, it allows to recover non-concave spectra, where other multifractal formalisms only lead to the concave hull of the spectra. [less ▲]

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See detailRasa3 controls turnover of endothelial cell adhesion and vascular lumen integrity by a Rap1-dependent mechanism
Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULiege; Orban, Tanguy ULiege; Martin, Maud et al

in PLOS Genetics (2018)

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets R-Ras and Rap1. Although catalytic inactivation or deletion of Rasa3 in mice leads to severe hemorrhages and embryonic lethality, the ... [more ▼]

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets R-Ras and Rap1. Although catalytic inactivation or deletion of Rasa3 in mice leads to severe hemorrhages and embryonic lethality, the biological function and cellular location of Rasa3 underlying these defects remains unknown. Here, using a combination of loss of function studies in mouse and zebrafish as well as in vitro cell biology approaches, we identify a key role for Rasa3 in endothelial cells and vascular lumen integrity. Specific ablation of Rasa3 in the mouse endothelium, but not in megakaryocytes and platelets, lead to embryonic bleeding and death at mid-gestation, recapitulating the phenotype observed in full Rasa3 knock-out mice. Reduced plexus/sprouts formation and vascular lumenization defects were observed when Rasa3 was specifically inactivated in mouse endothelial cells at the postnatal or adult stages. Similar results were obtained in zebrafish after decreasing Rasa3 expression. In vitro, depletion of Rasa3 in cultured endothelial cells increased β1 integrin activation and cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components, decreased cell migration and blocked tubulogenesis. During migration, these Rasa3-depleted cells exhibited larger and more mature adhesions resulting from a perturbed dynamics of adhesion assembly and disassembly which significantly increased their life time. These defects were due to a hyperactivation of the Rap1 GTPase and blockade of FAK/Src signaling. Finally, Rasa3-depleted cells showed reduced turnover of VE-cadherin-based adhesions resulting in more stable endothelial cell-cell adhesion and decreased endothelial permeability. Altogether, our results indicate that Rasa3 is a critical regulator of Rap1 in endothelial cells which controls adhesions properties and vascular lumen integrity; its specific endothelial cell inactivation results in occluded blood vessels, hemorrhages and early embryonic death in mouse, mimicking thus the Rasa3-/- mouse phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistically Bundled Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Delivery Chains Systems
Foster, Earnest; Faraz, Alireza ULiege; Heuchenne, Cédric ULiege

in European Journal of Industrial Engineering (2018)

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the proposed method is to provide supply chain decision makers with an easy to be managed tool monitoring the current functioning state of the delivery chain. The implementation of SPC control charts makes it possible to limit over-corrections to false alarm conditions and to maintain at an acceptable level the safety stock, with a consequent reduction of the overall management costs of the delivery chain. An illustrative example shows the proposed control chart implementation in a real delivery chain. [less ▲]

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See detailReview on the effects of potential prebiotics on controlling intestinal enteropathogens Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pig production
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2018), 102

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated ... [more ▼]

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated salmonellosis, and colibacillosis is the most important disease in piglets and swine. Attachment to host cells, translocation of effector proteins into host cells, invasion and replication in tissues are the vital virulence steps of these pathogens that help them to thrive in the intestinal environment and invade tissues. Feed contamination is an important source for Salmonella infection in pig production. Many on-farm feeding strategies intervene to avoid the introduction of pathogens onto the farm by contaminated feeds or to reduce infection pressure when pathogens are present. Among the latter, prebiotics could be effective at protecting against these enteric bacterial pathogens. Nowadays, a wide range of molecules can potentially serve as prebiotics. Here, we summarize the prevalence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in pigs, understanding of the mechanisms by which pathogens can cause disease, the feed related to pathogen contamination in pigs and detail the mechanisms on which prebiotics are likely to act in order to fulfil their protective action against these pathogens in pig production. Many different mechanisms involve the inhibition of Salmonella and E. coli by prebiotics such as coating the host surface, modulation of intestinal ecology, downregulating the expression of adhesin factors or virulence genes, reinforcing the host immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes
Simon, Antoine ULiege; Goffinet, Bernard; Magain, Nicolas et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (2018), 22

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli. We further produced a four-loci data matrix for 68 of them, representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships within this group, established species boundaries with morphological context, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our inferences resolve a robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta that arose from the diversification following a single recent (c. 11 Mya) colonization event. All but three species have a very restricted range, endemic to either the Mascarene archipelago or a single massif in Madagascar. The first genus of lichens to be studied with molecular data in this region underwent a recent radiation, exhibits micro-endemism, and thus exemplifies the biodiversity characteristics found in other taxa in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual cycle of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) related to phytoplankton succession in the Southern North Sea
Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Champenois, Willy ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.359

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See detailFirst-line vs second-line fulvestrant for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer: A post-hoc analysis of the CONFIRM study.
Di Leo, Angelo; Jerusalem, Guy ULiege; Torres, Roberto et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2018), 38

OBJECTIVES: The double-blind, phase III CONFIRM study (NCT00099437) evaluated fulvestrant 500 mg vs fulvestrant 250 mg in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive locally advanced/metastatic ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The double-blind, phase III CONFIRM study (NCT00099437) evaluated fulvestrant 500 mg vs fulvestrant 250 mg in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer (LA/MBC). This post-hoc analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of fulvestrant given either first-line or second-line for advanced disease. MATERIALS & METHODS: Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with fulvestrant 500 mg vs fulvestrant 250 mg was evaluated using unadjusted log-rank tests in patients treated in the first- (progression during or within 12 months after completing adjuvant endocrine therapy; n = 387) and second-line (following endocrine therapy for LA/MBC; n = 343) settings. RESULTS: First-line fulvestrant 500 mg significantly prolonged PFS vs fulvestrant 250 mg (median PFS 5.6 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.00; p = .047). Median PFS was numerically greater with second-line fulvestrant 500 mg vs fulvestrant 250 mg (7.9 vs 6.3 months; HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.64-1.02; p = .068). At data cut-off (75.5% maturity), median OS with first-line fulvestrant 500 mg was 23.2 vs 22.1 months with fulvestrant 250 mg (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.70-1.10; p = .251), and 29.2 vs 22.8 months, respectively, in the second-line (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.58-0.96; p = .020). The safety profile was broadly comparable between dose groups and across treatment lines, and consistent with the overall patient population. CONCLUSION: The superiority of fulvestrant 500 mg over fulvestrant 250 mg in patients with LA/MBC in CONFIRM was consistent in both the first- and second-line settings for PFS, and numerically greater in both settings for OS. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and biochemical parameters: new tools to screen barley root exudates allelopathic potential (*Hordeum vulgare* L. subsp. *vulgare*
Bouhaouel, Imen; Gfeller, Aurélie; Boudabous, Khaoula et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2018), 40(2), 1-14

Morphological markers/traits are often used in the detection of allelopathic stress, but optical signals including chlorophyll a fluorescence emission could be useful in developing new screening ... [more ▼]

Morphological markers/traits are often used in the detection of allelopathic stress, but optical signals including chlorophyll a fluorescence emission could be useful in developing new screening techniques. In this context, the allelopathic effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) root exudates (three modern varieties and three landraces) were assessed on the morphological (root and shoot length, biomass accumulation), physiological (Fv/Fm and F0), and biochemical (chlorophyll and protein contents) variables of great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth., syn. Bromus rigidus Roth. subsp. gussonii Parl.). All the measured traits were affected when great brome was grown in a soil substrate in which barley plants had previously developed for 30 days before being removed. The response of receiver plants was affected by treatment with activated charcoal, dependent on barley genotype and on the nature of the growing substrate. The inhibitory effect was lower with the addition of the activated charcoal suggesting the release of putative allelochemicals from barley roots into the soil. The barley landraces were more toxic than modern varieties and their effect was more pronounced in sandy substrate than in silty clay sand substrate. In our investigation, the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm were the most correlated variables with barley allelopathic potential. These two parameters might be considered as effective tools to quantify susceptibility to allelochemical inhibitors in higher plants. [less ▲]

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See detailLLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies
Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 473

Using new APEX and JCMT spectroscopy of the CO 2-1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous ... [more ▼]

Using new APEX and JCMT spectroscopy of the CO 2-1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, WISE, IRAS & Herschel, corrected for nuclear emission using multi-component spectral energy distribution (SED) fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star-formation rates (SFRs), molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1 - 3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests a connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion disks. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical and economic optimization of subcritical, wet expansion and transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems coupled with a biogas power plant
Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Dickes, Rémi ULiege; De Rosa, M. et al

in Energy Conversion and Management (2018), 157

Generally, >40% of the useful energy (cooling engine and exhaust gases) are wasted by a biogas power plant through the cooling radiator and the exhaust gases. An efficient way to convert this waste heat ... [more ▼]

Generally, >40% of the useful energy (cooling engine and exhaust gases) are wasted by a biogas power plant through the cooling radiator and the exhaust gases. An efficient way to convert this waste heat into work and eventually electricity is the use of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power system. Over the last few years, different architectures have been widely investigated (subcritical, wet expansion and trans-critical). Despite the promising performances, realistic economic and technical constraints, also related to the application, are required for a meaningful comparison between ORC technologies and architectures. Starting from the limited literature available, the aim of the present paper is to provide a methodology to compare sub-critical, trans-critical and wet expansion cycles and different types of expanders (both volumetric and turbomachinery) from both technical and economic point of view, which represent one of the main novel aspects of the present work. In particular, the paper focuses on the thermo-economic optimization of an ORC waste heat recovery unit for a 500 kWe biogas power plant located in a detailed regional market, which was not investigated yet. By means of a genetic algorithm, the adopted methodology optimizes a given economic criteria (Pay-Back Period, Net Present Value, Profitability Index and Internal Rate of Return) while respecting technical constraints (expander limitations) and thermodynamic constraints (positive pinch points in heat exchangers, etc.). The results show that optimal ORC solutions with a potential of energy savings up to 600 MWh a year and with a pay-back period lower than 3 years are achievable in the regional market analysed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for the domains supporting the construct of intrinsic capacity.
Cesari, Matteo; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (2018)

Healthy ageing can be defined as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age”. Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable ... [more ▼]

Healthy ageing can be defined as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age”. Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable people to be and to do what they have reason to value) is determined by intrinsic capacity (i.e., the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual), the environment (i.e., all the factors in the extrinsic world that form the context of an individual’s life), and the interactions between the two. This innovative model recently proposed by the World Health Organization has the potential to substantially modify the way in which clinical practice is currently conducted, shifting from disease-centered towards function-centered paradigms. By overcoming the multiple limitations affecting the construct of disease, this novel framework may allow the worldwide dissemination of a more proactive and function-based approach towards achieving optimal health status. In order to facilitate the translation of the current theoretical model into practice, it is important to identify the inner nature of its constituting constructs. In this paper, we consider intrinsic capacity. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as background and taking into account available evidence, five domains (i.e., locomotion, vitality, cognition, psychological, sensory) are identified as pivotal for capturing the individual’s intrinsic capacity (and therefore also reserves) and, through this, pave the way for its objective measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailL’hôpital comme espace et comme territoire
Stiefel, Friedrich; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2018), 593(14), 324-326

Space is lived individually and collectively and can become a source of existential affectation, especially when the lived experience is modified by disease. The fact that the hospital is also a place of ... [more ▼]

Space is lived individually and collectively and can become a source of existential affectation, especially when the lived experience is modified by disease. The fact that the hospital is also a place of territorialisation can potentiate this affectation, with at times surprizing consequences. We aim –based on a reflection about the relationship patients and clinicians establish with the territory of the hospital- to identify some psychological and existential issues at stake with regard to space as a social construction. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil seed bank characteristics in two central African forest types and implications for forest restoration
Douh, Chauvelin ULiege; Daïnou, Kasso ULiege; Joël Loumeto, J. et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2018), 409

This study evaluates the characteristics of soil seed bank in two types of central African rainforests: Celtis forest on clay soils and Manilkara forest on sandy soils. In each study site, 30 samples were ... [more ▼]

This study evaluates the characteristics of soil seed bank in two types of central African rainforests: Celtis forest on clay soils and Manilkara forest on sandy soils. In each study site, 30 samples were collected per soil layers (litter, 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm depth). The species diversity and abundance of the soil seed bank were estimated after soil samples were brought to germination. We globally observed 297 seedlings of 53 species for the Celtis forest and 222 seedlings of 39 species for the Manilkara forest. The total densities of germinated seeds were 330 seedlings m−2 and 247 seedlings m−2, respectively. Herbaceous species dominated with percentages of 41.0 and 45.3%, respectively in the Manilkara forest and the Celtis forest. Both forest types displayed a regeneration potential through the soil seed bank. However, this potential seems higher in the Celtis forest. Pioneer taxa were more abundant in the soil seed bank of the Celtis forest (13 woody pioneer species) than the Manilkara forest (9 woody pioneer species). The values of Sorensen similarity index between the standing tree vegetation and the soil seed bank in each site were relatively low: 11.0% for the Celtis forest and 8.8% for the Manilkara forest. But these similarity values were higher when only the pioneer species were considered: 46.8% in the Celtis forest and 38.9% in the Manilkara forest. The highest species richness were obtained in the first two soil layers (0–10 cm depth) while 21.8% and 21.4% of the species were exclusively found in the deepest layer (10–20 cm) in the Celtis forest and the Manilkara forest, respectively. Among the timber species found in the forest, only three were observed in the soil seed bank of the two sites: Nauclea diderrichii, Erythrophleum suaveolens and Staudtia kamerunensis. N. diderrichii was particularly abundant in the soil seed stock of the two sites (14.4–34.4 seeds m−2). Results suggested that to improve regeneration of timber species, planting in open forest habitats with seedlings coming from tree nursery should be more efficient. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailDispersal capacity of Haematopota spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans using a mark–release–recapture approach in Belgium
Lempereur, Laetitia ULiege; Sohier, Charlotte; Smeets, François et al

in Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2018)

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See detailPhase Change Materials for Non-Volatile Memory devices: From Technological Challenges to Materials Science Issues
Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Francoise et al

in Semiconductor Science and Technology (2018)

Abstract Chalcogenide Phase-Change Materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, are showing outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and ... [more ▼]

Abstract Chalcogenide Phase-Change Materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, are showing outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as Phase-Change Material memories or Phase-Change Random Access Memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidate among emerging Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large scale integration means incorporation of the phase-change material into more and more confined structures and raises material science issues to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other material science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of phase-change materials. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the phase-change material. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has hindered up-to-now the development of ultra-high multilevel storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these issues is provided from a material science point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of heating rates on functional properties of wheat and potato starch-water systems
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Doran, Lynn ULiege; Danthine, Sabine ULiege et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & -Technologie (2018), 88

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See detailThe impact of human activities and lifestyles on the interlinked microbiota and health of humans and of ecosystems
Flandroy, Lucette; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Berg, Gabriele et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 627

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See detailRadio drama and its avatars in the work of Caryl Phillips
Ledent, Bénédicte ULiege

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2018)

Between 1984 and 2016 Caryl Phillips wrote nine radio plays which were all broadcast on the BBC. Meant for a different circuit of communication than his novels, essays and published stage plays ... [more ▼]

Between 1984 and 2016 Caryl Phillips wrote nine radio plays which were all broadcast on the BBC. Meant for a different circuit of communication than his novels, essays and published stage plays, Phillips’s radio plays might be dismissed as minor writing, yet they constitute a fascinating, under-investigated body of texts which are worth exploring alongside the rest of his work. Thematically, Phillips’s radio drama covers similar ground to his fiction and essays. Starting from this sense of familiarity, this article examines the formal and communicative specificities at play in Phillips’s contributions to the radio drama genre. Focusing on two radio plays entitled Crossing the River (1985) and A Kind of Home: James Baldwin in Paris (2004), this piece discusses which features of this marginal genre inform Phillips’s radio-dramatic characterization of protagonists with complex identities, but also, more generally, how these aspects infuse his formally experimental fiction. [less ▲]

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See detailOutbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in southwest Niger
Souley Kouato, Bachir ULiege; Fana, EM; King, DP et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

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See detailRegards en coin et mains tendues. Notes sur les collaborations (rêvées, effectives, avortées) de Rimbaud
Saint-Amand, Denis ULiege

in Parade Sauvage (2018), 28

On peut observer, au fil de la trajectoire littéraire d’Arthur Rimbaud, différents moments où la tentation de la collaboration se manifeste sous des formes variées : c’est tantôt une demande explicite de ... [more ▼]

On peut observer, au fil de la trajectoire littéraire d’Arthur Rimbaud, différents moments où la tentation de la collaboration se manifeste sous des formes variées : c’est tantôt une demande explicite de cooptation au consensus parnassien formulée à un aîné mieux doté en capital symbolique, tantôt la participation effective à un projet collectif ; ce sont à d’autres moments des échanges plus ou moins directs, sur le mode complice de la critique amicale, de l’influence, voire de l’innutrition ou sur celui, plus distant et moins bienveillant, de la parodie railleuse et de la caricature. Mais ces saillies collaboratives font long feu : d’une part, Rimbaud se révèle rapidement déçu par l’échange entre pairs ; d’autre part, il ne respecte pas toujours les codes et les attentes des sociabilités littéraires de son temps. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM): A new measure of everyday memory functioning in school-age children
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege; Lejeune, Caroline et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2018), 7

We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed ... [more ▼]

We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM’s four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity. Finally, comparisons between Q-MEM profiles of children with learning disabilities and typically developing children revealed significant differences. Therefore, the Q-MEM is a promising measure for identifying memory problems in children. [less ▲]

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See detailEn quoi la «littératie» en santé intéresse-t-elle le clinicien de terrrrain? Un cadre stimulant pour réfléchir à l’efficacité pratique des soins
Henrard, Gilles ULiege; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULiege; Belche, Jean Luc ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2018)

‘Health literacy’ refers to the ability to find, understand and use health information. It is a relatively new concept, which is becoming increasingly important but remains little known by clinicians ... [more ▼]

‘Health literacy’ refers to the ability to find, understand and use health information. It is a relatively new concept, which is becoming increasingly important but remains little known by clinicians. Still, insufficient levels of health literacy in our patients are common, underestimated and negatively associated with numerous health indicators. A set of practical tools are already available to the clinician. The aim of this article is to present the concept to clinicians and emphasize how it could revitalize reflection on the effectiveness of our interventions in the field. Physicians could take a leadership role in putting the concept of health literacy on the agenda for health care quality improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy-Logic Controlled Genetic Algorithm for the Rail-Freight Crew-Scheduling Problem
Khmeleva, E.; Hopgood, Adrian ULiege; Tipi, L. et al

in KI - Künstliche Intelligenz (2018), 32(1), 6175

This article presents a fuzzy-logic controlled genetic algorithm designed for the solution of the crew-scheduling problem in the rail-freight industry. This problem refers to the assignment of train ... [more ▼]

This article presents a fuzzy-logic controlled genetic algorithm designed for the solution of the crew-scheduling problem in the rail-freight industry. This problem refers to the assignment of train drivers to a number of train trips in accordance with complex industrial and governmental regulations. In practice, it is a challenging task due to the massive quantity of train trips, large geographical span and significant number of restrictions. While genetic algorithms are capable of handling large data sets, they are prone to stalled evolution and premature convergence on a local optimum, thereby obstructing further search. In order to tackle these problems, the proposed genetic algorithm contains an embedded fuzzy-logic controller that adjusts the mutation and crossover probabilities in accordance with the genetic algorithm's performance. The computational results demonstrate a 10% reduction in the cost of the schedule generated by this hybrid technique when compared with a genetic algorithm with fixed crossover and mutation rates. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dorsal attention network reflects both encoding load and top-down control during working memory
Majerus, Steve ULiege; Péters, Frédéric; Bouffier, Marion ULiege et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2018), 30

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See detailA frame-semantic approach to the Source-Goal asymmetry: Synchronic and diachronic evidence from Ancient Greek
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege

in Constructions and Frames (2018)

Situated within the frame semantics paradigm, this paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works ... [more ▼]

Situated within the frame semantics paradigm, this paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works covering four text types, it is shown that (a) motion verbs display, regardless of their semantic class, preference for Goal PATHS compared to Source ones; (b) the frame that a verb belongs to affects the type of PATH chosen only to a certain degree and, in particular, to a degree that does not change the Source-Goal imbalance; (c) semantically incongruent motion verb-PATH combinations are naturally less frequent than congruent combinations, but within the category of incongruent combinations the tokens are distributed in a way that reflects the prevalence of Goals; (d) the number of markers for the encoding of Goal is higher than that of Source; and (e) Source and Goal markers interact with Place ones in an asymmetrical way: Goal markers come to encode Place and, similarly, Place markers come to express Goal. Conversely, the interaction of markers exhibiting Source–Place polysemy is unidirectional, in the sense that none of these markers was originally used to encode Place alone. Theoretical implications of the study are discussed and directions for future investigations are suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailContinental mapping of forest ecosystem functions reveals a high but unrealised potential for forest multifunctionality
van der Plas, F.; Ratcliffe, Sophia ULiege; Ruiz-Benito, P. et al

in Ecology Letters (2018), 21

Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial ... [more ▼]

Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial scales. Here, we combined a comprehensive dataset (28 ecosystem functions measured on 209 forest plots) with a forest inventory dataset (105,316 plots) to extrapolate and map relationships between various ecosystem multifunctionality measures across Europe. These multifunctionality measures reflected different management objectives, related to timber production, climate regulation and biodiversity conservation/recreation. We found that trade-offs among them were rare across Europe, at both local and continental scales. This suggests a high potential for 'win-win' forest management strategies, where overall multifunctionality is maximised. However, across sites, multifunctionality was on average 45.8-49.8% below maximum levels and not necessarily highest in protected areas. Therefore, using one of the most comprehensive assessments so far, our study suggests a high but largely unrealised potential for management to promote multifunctional forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS. [less ▲]

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See detailCreating effective biocontainment facilities and maintenance protocols for raising specific pathogen-free, severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) pigs
Powell, Ellis J; Charley, Sara; Boettcher, Adeline N et al

in Laboratory Animals (2018)

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See detailDual action of neuro-estrogens in the regulation of male sexual behavior
Cornil, Charlotte ULiege; de Bournonville, Catherine

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2018), 256

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term ... [more ▼]

Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment. In parallel, neuro-estrogens are also able to produce much faster effects than previously anticipated. Our recent investigations in Japanese quail revealed an interesting dichotomy in the regulation of male sexual behavior by membrane- and nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling providing respectively an acute modulation of sexual motivation and a long-term control of the capacity to display the copulatory sequence. In parallel, a similar dichotomy applies to the regulation of brain aromatase whose expression depends on the transcriptional activity of testosterone metabolites while its enzymatic activity is rapidly regulated in a region- and context-dependent manner. Recent evidences suggest that rapid changes in sexual motivation result from rapid changes in local estrogen production. Together, these data support the idea that the acute regulation of some aspects of male sexual behavior depends not only on classical neurotransmitter systems, but also on rapid and spatially restricted changes in local estrogen availability. The existing literature suggests that this acute regulation by neuro-estrogens of the motivational aspects of behavior could be generalized to other systems such as singing behavior in songbirds. [less ▲]

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See detailOverdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege et al

in Applied Neuropsychology: Child (2018)

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See detailModalité et Sémantique. A propos de la réception de Hegel par William James
Lejeune, Guillaume ULiege

in Hegel-Studien (2018), 51

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See detailFrom transplant to novel cellular therapies in multiple myeloma: EMN guidelines and future perspectives.
Gay, Francesca; Engelhardt, Monika; Terpos, Evangelos et al

in Haematologica (2018)

Survival of myeloma patients has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation and novel agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies ... [more ▼]

Survival of myeloma patients has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation and novel agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies. Compared to bortezomib- and lenalidomide-based regimens alone, the addition of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous transplantation significantly improves progression-free survival; although an overall survival benefit was not observed in all trials. Moreover, follow-up of recent trials is still too short to show any difference in survival. In the light of these findings, novel agent-based induction followed by autologous transplantation is considered the standard upfront treatment for eligible patients (level of evidence: 1A). Post-transplant consolidation and maintenance treatment can further improve patient outcome (1A). The availability of several novel agents has led to the development of multiple combination regimens as salvage treatment options. In this context, the role of salvage autologous transplantation and allotransplant have not been extensively evaluated. In case of prolonged remission after upfront autologous transplantation, another autologous transplantation at relapse can be considered (2B). Patients who experience early relapse and/or have high-risk features have a poor prognosis and may be considered as candidates for clinical trials that - in young and fit patients - may also include an allograft in combination with novel agents (2B). Ongoing studies are evaluating the role of novel cellular therapies, such as inclusion of antibody-based triplets and quadruplets and Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells: despite preliminary encouraging results, longer follow-up and larger patient numbers are needed before their clinical use can be widely recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailHyper-réflexivité et perspective en première personne : un apport décisif de la psychopathologie phénoménologique contemporaine à la compréhension de la schizophrénie
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Valentiny, Caroline et al

in Evolution Psychiatrique (2018), 83(1), 77-85

Objectives: This paper aims to summarize the hypothesis, which originates in the field of phenomenological psychopathology, of schizophrenic hyperreflexivity, and to discuss the methodological context ... [more ▼]

Objectives: This paper aims to summarize the hypothesis, which originates in the field of phenomenological psychopathology, of schizophrenic hyperreflexivity, and to discuss the methodological context enabling these highly subjective manifestations to emerge. Starting from the seminal hypothesis developed by contemporary psychopathology, that the schizophrenic patients appear to experience a consciousness that finds itself being forced to question phenomena which should be intuitively self-evident, the idea of this present paper is to complete the usual interpretation of schizophrenia as deficit by the hypothesis of an excess functioning of consciousness. Methods: First-person perspective is a qualitative approach completing third-person interpretation, traditional in the field of psychiatry – which consists in the attribution, from an external position, of clinical signs noted independently of the perception expressed by the patient. This first-person perspective focuses on the subjective experience expressed by the individual. To understand schizophrenia according to this perspective, the words of several schizophrenic patients have been collected as part of a clinical device. We used the EASE scale (Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience) with this aim in mind. This scale offers a phenomenologically oriented semi-structured exploration of a set of difficulties revealing anomalies of subjective experience, considered as troubles of self-awareness. EASE has been developed on the basis of self-descriptions by patients suffering from schizophrenic spectrum troubles. This tool allows the co-construction of a language between patient and clinician, focused on the patient’s particular experience and the unique phenomena he endures. Results: Besides the hyperreflexivity phenomena, the qualitative analysis of collected descriptions highlight two important features of schizophrenic being-in-the-world. First a problem of common sense, which addresses the issue of intersubjectivity and the opportunity, for schizophrenic patients, to share a social world. Then the existence of an intercorporeality trouble, since the schizophrenic hyperreflexivity experiences are accompanied by a loss of “common body”, body being the scene where intersubjectivity is performed. Employing EASE, and the ensuing first-person perspective, is relevant in a psychotherapeutic approach; on one hand in the process of acknowledgement of the disease (which has to be made by the patient as well as by the clinician), on the other hand in the communication with families of schizophrenic patients. Conclusions: The phenomenological interpretation offered by the application of a first-person perspective in the understanding of schizophrenic patients experience, as well as the interest showed in the hyperreflexivity phenomenon, suggest an outlook of schizophrenia which isn’t reduced to a deficit interpretation anymore (without denying the latter), and which uncovers not a weakening, but a surprising intensification of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiotherapy-activated cancer-associated fibroblasts promote tumor progression through paracrine IGF-1R activation.
Tommelein, Joke; De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine et al

in Cancer Research (2018)

Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the management of rectal cancer (RC), a tumor characterized by desmoplastic stroma containing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although CAF are ... [more ▼]

Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the management of rectal cancer (RC), a tumor characterized by desmoplastic stroma containing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although CAF are abundantly present, the effects of RT to CAF and its impact on cancer cells are unknown. We evaluated the damage responses of CAF to RT and investigated changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth, transcriptome, metabolome, and kinome in response to paracrine signals emerging from irradiated CAF. RT to CAF induced DNA damage, p53 activation, cell cycle arrest, and secretion of paracrine mediators including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Subsequently, RT-activated CAF promoted survival of CRC cells as well as a metabolic switch favoring glutamine consumption through IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation. RT followed by IGF-1R neutralization in orthotopic CRC models reduced the number of mice with organ metastases. Activation of the downstream IGF-1R mediator mTOR was significantly higher in matched (intrapatient) samples and in unmatched (interpatient) samples from RC patients after neoadjuvant chemoRT. Taken together, our data support the notion that paracrine IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling initiated by RT-activated CAF worsen CRC progression, establishing a preclinical rationale to target this activation loop to further improve clinical responses and patient survival. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning curves of two different techniques for the intra-articular injection of the knee joint under fluoroscopic guidance.
Simoni, Paolo; MALAISE, Olivier ULiege; El Hachemi, Mounia et al

in Radiologia Medica (La) (2018)

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the learning curves of three beginner operators using two different techniques of intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the learning curves of three beginner operators using two different techniques of intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 177 consecutive patients (72 females (40.7%) and 105 males (59.3%), mean age 42.2 +/- 15.0 years) scheduled for a computed tomography (CT) arthrography and without joint effusion on the lateral X-rays were enrolled. They underwent an intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach. Patients were randomly assigned to three different operators, including a junior supervisor and two first-year residents in radiology who never performed an intra-articular injection of the knee before the present study. Procedures in lateral or supine position were randomly assigned to three operators. RESULTS: There was a higher rate of successful injections with the lateral position (92.1%) than with supine position (80.2%) (odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-14.0). A significant learning effect was observed for the supine position, while none was observed for the lateral position. Pain and time of fluoroscopy did not differ between the two procedures (p = 0.85 and p = 0.10, respectively). Junior supervisor had a higher rate of successful intra-articular injection compared with the other two operators (p = 0.0072). There was a statistically significant higher rate of extravasation with the supine position (66.3%) than with lateral position (19.7%) (p < 0.0001, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.06-0.25). CONCLUSION: The intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with the patient in lateral position is an easy technique for operators in training with a low rate of extravasation. Lateral position does not require a supplementary irradiation and does not increase the procedural pain. Personal operator's skill is an independent factor in determining the success of the training. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic models of disordered mesoporous materials for small-angle scattering analysis and more
Gommes, Cédric ULiege

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2018), 257

Small-angle scattering of either x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental techniques that can be used to study the structure of porous materials on the entire range from 1 to 100 nm ... [more ▼]

Small-angle scattering of either x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental techniques that can be used to study the structure of porous materials on the entire range from 1 to 100 nm, which makes it particularly suited for mesoporous materials. Because the information in scattering patterns is a correlation function, models are generally needed to convert data into structurally meaningful information. In this paper, we discuss five stochastic models that capture qualitatively different disordered structures, notably concerning the connectivity and the tortuosity of the phases. The models are two variants of the Boolean model, a dead leaves model, as well as two clipped Gaussian field models. The paper is illustrated with the SAXS analysis of a polymer xerogel, of a fumed silica as well as of a mesoporous alumina, and the fitted models are compared with pore size distributions derived from nitrogen adsorption. In the case of the xerogel and silica it is possible to pinpoint a single model that describes the structure best. In the case of the alumina, however, the scattering cannot discriminate the models. Even so, the models are useful because they enable one to quantitate the structural ambiguity of the SAXS data. [less ▲]

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See detailSeascape ecology in Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: Linking structure and ecological processes for management
Abadie, Arnaud; Pace, Matthew; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege et al

in Ecological Indicators (2018), 87

Seagrass meadows constitute marine habitats in shallow water temperate and tropical coastal areas worldwide that have a high ecological and economic importance. Amongst the 60 or so seagrass species, the ... [more ▼]

Seagrass meadows constitute marine habitats in shallow water temperate and tropical coastal areas worldwide that have a high ecological and economic importance. Amongst the 60 or so seagrass species, the endemic Mediterranean species Posidonia oceanica forms meadows that are arguably the most important shallow water coastal habitat in the region but which are subjected to high anthropogenic pressures. Because of the relatively large size of the plant, the meadows formed by this seagrass have high architectural and morphological complexity, which results in different morphotypes or seascapes. While numerous studies of P. oceanica architectural characteristics for continuous meadows of the seagrass are available, few works have addressed seascape ecological features and the influence of environmental factors (natural and anthropogenic) thereon. In the present review, we give an overview of P. oceanica meadow architectural and morphological characteristics and how these contribute to Mediterranean landscapes and seascapes. Studies addressing the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on morphometric features of different meadow types and landscape ecological characteristics of P. oceanica habitat are also reviewed, as well as their influence on ecosystem processes. Finally, by considering the available data and tools for seascape studies, we present a discussion on methods to assess seagrass seascapes within the framework of coastal management. Our review highlights several gaps in P. oceanica seascape ecology knowledge such as the lack of data on the spatial distribution of this engineer species, and the possibility to use modern techniques and procedures for analysing structural and ecosystemic data. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaches to handling future use of the single-family housing stock
Berndgen-Kaiser, Andrea; Kohler, Tine; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULiege et al

in Open House International (2018), 43(03),

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as ... [more ▼]

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as well as increasing living and energy standards (Fina, Planinsek and Zakrzewski, 2009). According to the hypothesis of this paper, in several EU regions, single-family houses may face future challenges arising from oversupply and lack of adaptation to current demand. To examine this, the paper analyses the present situation and discusses the prognosis for the challenges described above regarding the three neighbouring north-western European countries Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands, based on available data and a review of country-specific characteristics of housing markets as well as national policies. Despite an impending mismatch between demand and supply, planning policies still support the emergence of new single-family houses. The comparison of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands shows the growing polarization between shrinking and growing regions and central and peripheral sites apparent at different stages in the three countries. While a high rate of vacancies is already registered for some regions in Germany (Effenberger, 2015), in the Netherlands this phenomenon can only be seen near the borders and in villages within the Randstadt conurbation (Hospers et al., 2015). In Belgium also, this phenomenon is not yet widespread, but in some suburban neighbourhoods dating from the 1950’s and 1960’s more and more single-family houses are becoming more difficult to sell, indicating an emerging mismatch between supply and demand (Chambre des Notaires de la Province de Liège, 2015). This article proposes some instruments which enable municipalities to intervene in single family housing neighbourhoods which are largely dominated by private ownership. These instruments are not yet widely established in single-family housing neighbourhoods but that may become important in the future [less ▲]

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See detailBonding to CAD-CAM Composites: An Interfacial Fracture Toughness Approach
Eldafrawy, Maher ULiege; Ebroin, Marie ULiege; Gailly, Patrick ULiege et al

in Journal of Dental Research (2018)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the interfacial fracture toughness (IFT) of composite cement with dispersed filler (DF) versus polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) computer-aided design ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the interfacial fracture toughness (IFT) of composite cement with dispersed filler (DF) versus polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite blocks after 2 different surface pretreatments using the notchless triangular prism (NTP) test. Two DFs (Cerasmart [CRT] and Lava Ultimate [LVA]), 2 PICNs (Enamic [ENA] and experimental PICN [EXP]), and e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (EMX, control) prism samples were bonded to their counterparts with Variolink Esthetic DC composite cement after either hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) or gritblasting (GR). Both procedures were followed by silanization. All samples (n = 30 per group) were thermocycled (10,000 cycles) and tested for their IFT in a water bath at 36°C. Moreover, representative samples from each group were subjected to a developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) measurement by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. EXP-HF gave the highest IFT (1.85 ± 0.39 MPa·m1/2), followed by EMX-HF and ENA-HF, while CRT-HF gave the lowest (0.15 ± 0.22 MPa·m1/2). PICNs gave significantly better results with HF, and DF showed better results with GR. A 2-way analysis of variance indicated that there were significantly higher IFT and Sdr for PICNs than for DF. A positive correlation (r2 = 0.872) was found between IFT and Sdr. SEM characterization showed the specific microstructure of the surface of etched PICNs, indicating the presence of a retentive polymerbased honeycomb structure. Etching of the typical double-network microstructure of PICNs causes an important increase in the Sdr and IFT, while DF should be gritblasted. DF exhibited significantly lower Sdr and IFT values than PICNs. The present results show the important influence of the material class and surface texture, and consequently the micromechanical bond, on the adhesive interface performance of CAD-CAM composites [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis, treatment, and response assessment in solitary plasmacytoma: updated recommendations from a European Expert Panel.
Caers, Jo ULiege; Paiva, B.; Zamagni, E. et al

in Journal of Hematology & Oncology (2018), 11(1), 10

Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone ... [more ▼]

Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone marrow aspiration can detect a low monoclonal plasma cell infiltration which indicates a high risk of early progression to an overt myeloma disease. Before treatment initiation, whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed to exclude the presence of additional malignant lesions. For decades, treatment has been based on high-dose radiation, but studies exploring the potential benefit of systemic therapies for high-risk patients are urgently needed. In this review, a panel of expert European hematologists updates the recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma. [less ▲]

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See detailRussia and its shared neighbourhoods: a comparative analysis of Russia-EU and Russia-China relations in the EU's Eastern neighbourhood and Central Asia
Samokhvalov, Vsevolod ULiege

in Contemporary Politics (2018), 24(1), 30-45

This article examines the conditions under which great powers succeed or fail to shape a cooperative security agenda in their shared neighbourhoods. It compares Russia's interactions with the EU and with ... [more ▼]

This article examines the conditions under which great powers succeed or fail to shape a cooperative security agenda in their shared neighbourhoods. It compares Russia's interactions with the EU and with China in their respective shared neighbourhoods: the EU's Eastern Neighbourhood region and Central Asia. The article applies a synthetic framework. It analyses how the interplay between three factors–ideas, capabilities and circumstantial factors such, as the personalities of leading politicians,–shape the process of interaction between great powers. It starts from a comparison of the images of the two regions in Russia's mind-set because such images provide cognitive lenses through which powers make sense of political developments in shared neighbourhoods. The article then moves to show how change in the balance of power (soft and hard) created enabling conditions for competition/collaboration. Finally, the article shows how specific circumstantial factors led to or shaped the Russian-European conflict. At the same time, similar factors prevented Russian-Chinese conflict in Central Asia. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. [less ▲]

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See detailEarthquakes as collapse precursors at the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in the Belgium Ardennes
Camelbeeck, Thierry; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie et al

in Geomorphology (2018), 308

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See detailLight and oxygen induce chain scission of conjugated polymers in solution
Caubergh, Stéphane ULiege; Louis, Boris; Larsson, Per-Olof et al

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2018), 20

Conjugated polymers have been widely studied as flexible, versatile semiconductors in organic electronics. However, the material stability is one of the problems limiting their applications. Thus ... [more ▼]

Conjugated polymers have been widely studied as flexible, versatile semiconductors in organic electronics. However, the material stability is one of the problems limiting their applications. Thus, understanding the degradation process of conjugated polymers is crucial. In this work, we monitored the chain scission of the model polymer MEH-PPV in solutions under different conditions by assessing its molecular weight using Gel permeation chromatography and optical spectral measurements. We showed that changes in the UV-VIS spectrum can be seen only when the degradation has already progressed substantially. Fluorescence spectrum was found to be almost totally insensitive to the degradation stage of the polymers. We demonstrate that chain scission in solutions happens even in the dark leading to a decrease of about 15% of the molecular weight after just one day of storage. If exposed to room-light, the chain length decreases about 10 times over one day of exposure. Using stronger light intensity or enriching the solution with oxygen accelerates the degradation process dramatically. The rate of the reaction follows approximately a square root dependence with light intensity and oxygen concentration. We conclude that some extent of polymer degradation is difficult to avoid in common laboratory practices since to prevent it one needs to work in oxygen free atmosphere in the dark. Preparation of polymer films from partially degraded solutions might lead not only to losing the connection between the molecular weight and the opto-electronic properties but also to unintentional doping of the semiconductor by products of chains scission reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe semantic map model. State of the art and future avenues for linguistic research
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Language and Linguistic Compass (2018)

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying both cross-linguistic and language-specific questions. The goal ... [more ▼]

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying both cross-linguistic and language-specific questions. The goal of the present contribution is to give a comprehensive overview of the model. After an introduction concerning the different types of semantic maps, we present the method used for plotting semantic maps and we discuss the different types of maps and their respective advantages, focusing on the kinds of linguistic generalizations captured. After an overview of the literature, we sketch future avenues for research in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailThe soundscape of Arctic Charr spawning grounds in lotic and lentic environments: can passive acoustic monitoring be used to detect spawning activities?
Bolgan, Marta ULiege; O'Brien, Joanne; Chorazyczewska, Emilia et al

in Bioacoustics (2018), 27(1), 57-85

The aims of this study were to (i) assess the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) for detecting Arctic Charr at their spawning grounds and (ii) characterize the overall acoustic soundscape of ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were to (i) assess the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) for detecting Arctic Charr at their spawning grounds and (ii) characterize the overall acoustic soundscape of these sites. PAM was carried out over three Arctic Charr spawning grounds in the UK, one lotic and two lentic. 24-h cycles of recordings were collected prior to and during the Arctic Charr spawning season, which was determined from data returns by simultaneous net monitoring. Acoustic analysis consisted of manual quantification of sound sources, Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI) calculation and spectral analysis in 1/3 octave band (SPL; dB re 1 μPa). In the lotic spawning ground, prior to the beginning of Arctic Charr spawning, SPL and ACI showed a restricted range of variation throughout the 24-h, while during spawning the night values of SPL and ACI were found to significantly increase, concurrently with the rate of gravel noise induced by fish spawning activities and fish air passage sounds. Both prior to and during the Arctic Charr run, the lentic soundscape was characterized by diel variation due to the daytime presence of anthropogenic noise and the night-time presence of insect calls, while only a few occurrences of fish air passage sounds and gravel noise were recorded. These findings suggest that PAM over Arctic Charr spawning grounds could provide meaningful information to be used in developing management plans for this threatened species, such as determining the location and time of arrival, diel pattern and length of spawning activities. [less ▲]

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See detailA thermodynamic model of nanofluid viscosity based on a generalized Maxwell-type constitutive equation
Lebon, Georgy ULiege; Machrafi, Hatim ULiege

in Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (2018), 253

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See detailInteractions between Zn2+ or ZnO with TiO2 to produce an efficient photocatalytic, superhydrophilic and aesthetic glass
Léonard, Géraldine ULiege; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULiege; Ramirez, Alfonso et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A : Chemistry (2018), 350

Zinc was coupled with titanium dioxide using different methods. SiO2 and Zn-SiO2 doped TiO2 films, on the one hand, and Zn doped TiO2 on the other hand, have been produced using controlled sol-gel ... [more ▼]

Zinc was coupled with titanium dioxide using different methods. SiO2 and Zn-SiO2 doped TiO2 films, on the one hand, and Zn doped TiO2 on the other hand, have been produced using controlled sol-gel processes by alcoholic, cogelation and aqueous ways. From these syntheses, films were deposited on soda lime glass. These samples were compared to ZnO samples but also to bilayer samples constituting one layer of TiO2 and one layer of ZnO. The physico-chemical properties of the films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, profilometry and UV-Vis absorption analyses. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated from the degradation of methylene blue under UV-A light, from the degradation of p-nitrophenol under visible light and from the degradation of H2O2 under halogen light (UV-A + visible light). Superhydrophilicity was evaluated from contact angle measurement after UV exposition and also from hysteresis effects. Finally, a haze measurement was performed to evaluate the impact of the coating on the aesthetic property of the coated glass. Aqueous films have better photocatalytic activity and superhydrophilicity than samples from alcoholic synthesis. The crystallization of the sample appears to be one key factor: alcoholic films required calcination to ensure the crystallization of TiO2, but the alkali migration from the glass support prevents this crystallisation, while aqueous synthesis promotes crystallized particles at low temperatures without alkali interference. It appears that the relative activity from one sample to another depends on the nature of the illumination and on the nature of the molecule to be degraded. Nevertheless, the sample with ZnO layer deposited on first TiO2 layer (ZnO 500 Alc/TiO2 100 AQ) composite is found to be the best sample, maintaining a high hydrophilicity similar to TiO2 and a good activity. [less ▲]

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See detailConfidentiality behind transparent doors : the European Central Bank and the EU law principle of openness
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

in Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law (2018)

This paper questions to what extent the confidential decision-making structure maintained at the ECB is still compatible with the EU principle of openness recognised in Article 15 TFEU. To that extent, it ... [more ▼]

This paper questions to what extent the confidential decision-making structure maintained at the ECB is still compatible with the EU principle of openness recognised in Article 15 TFEU. To that extent, it analyses the different confidentiality regimes in place as well as the openness features adopted in both monetary policy and prudential supervision. It subsequently questions how those features comply with the letter and spirit of Article 15 TFEU. Aiming better to integrate existing confidentiality features with EU constitutional transparency obligations, the paper finally proposes some minor modifications to the ECB decision-making framework to align it more directly to the spirit of openness reflected in Article 15. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Constituents of the Leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii Gilg.
Douanla, Pascal D.; Tchuendem, Marguerite Hortence K.; Tchinda, Alembert T. et al

in Phytochemistry Letters (2018), 23(October 2017), 5--8

Two new compounds namely acetylcaloncobaside (1) and friedocaloncobic acid (2) were isolated from the leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii together with six known compounds. Their structures were determined by ... [more ▼]

Two new compounds namely acetylcaloncobaside (1) and friedocaloncobic acid (2) were isolated from the leaves of Caloncoba welwitschii together with six known compounds. Their structures were determined by standard spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR, EI-MS, and HRESIMS. The new compounds were established as kaempferol 4′,7-dimethoxy-3-O-(3″,4″,6″-O-triacetyl)-β-null-glucopyranoside (1) and 15β-hydroxy-3-oxo-28-friedelanoic acid (2). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, using the semi-automated in vitro model with parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a global unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere
Plainaki, Christina G.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Shematovich, Valery I. et al

in Space science reviews (2018)

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See detailBook Review of B. Mabille: Rencontres. Hegel à l'épreuve du dialogue philosophique
Lejeune, Guillaume ULiege

in Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain [=Hegel Bulletin] (2018)

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See detailPitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass; a need for a reference standard.
Buckinx, Fanny ULiege; Landi, Francesco; Cesari, francesco et al

in Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (2018)

Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the ... [more ▼]

Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean body mass. Thus, the objective measurement of sarcopenia is hampered by limitations intrinsic to assessment tools. The aim of this study was to review the methods to assess muscle mass and to reach consensus on the development of a reference standard. Methods: Literature reviews were performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. Results: A wide range of techniques can be used to assess muscle mass. Cost, availability, and ease of use can determine whether the techniques are better suited to clinical practice or are more useful for research. No one technique subserves all requirements but dual energy X-ray absorptiometry could be considered as a reference standard (but not a gold standard) for measuring muscle lean body mass. Conclusions: Based on the feasibility, accuracy, safety, and low cost, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry can be considered as the reference standard for measuring muscle mass. [less ▲]

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See detailRandom size-assortative mating despite size-dependent fecundity in a Neotropical amphibian with explosive reproduction
Székely, Diana ULiege; Székely, Paul; Denoël, Mathieu ULiege et al

in Ethology (2018)

Sexual selection theory predicts that, when body size is correlated with fecundity, there should be fitness advantages for mate choice of the largest females. Moreover, because larger males are expected ... [more ▼]

Sexual selection theory predicts that, when body size is correlated with fecundity, there should be fitness advantages for mate choice of the largest females. Moreover, because larger males are expected to monopolize the largest females, this should result in an assortative mating based on body size. Although such patterns could be expected in both explosive and prolonged breeders, non-assortative mating should be more widespread in species under time constraints. However, patterns of sexual selection are largely unexplored in explosive breeding species, and contrasting patterns have been found previously. We expect that the active choice of partners may be particularly risky when the time period during which sexual partners are available is severely limited. Therefore, to avoid missing an entire reproductive act, males and females should pair irrespective of traits, such as body size. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the mating patterns of the Pacific horned toad, Ceratophrys stolzmanni, a short-lived fossorial species inhabiting Neotropical dry forests. This species is particularly adequate to test our prediction because it reproduces explosively over the course of a single night per year. Although the number of eggs laid was proportional to the size of females, and individuals of both sexes showed variation in body size, there was no assortative mating based either on size, body condition or age of mates. Egg size was not influenced by either female size or clutch size. The larger body size of females compared to males is likely due to fecundity selection, i.e. the selective pressure that enhances reproductive output. Although we cannot dismiss the possibility that individuals could select their partners based on other criteria than those related to size or age, the results fit well our prediction, showing that the explosive breeding makes improbable an active choice of partners in both sexes and therefore favours a random mating pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium
Husson, Jean-François ULiege

in Yearbook of Muslims en Europe (2018), 9

This article reviews the position of Muslims in Belgium in 2016 in various aspects: demography, discrimination, relations with public authorities, public funding, Muslim organisations, etc.

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See detailComparison of the performance of five screening methods for sarcopenia.
Locquet, Médéa ULiege; Beaudart, Charlotte ULiege; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege et al

in Clinical Epidemiology (2018), 10

Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was ... [more ▼]

Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was to compare the performance of five screening tools for identifying elders at risk of sarcopenia against five diagnostic definitions. Subjects and methods: We gathered cross-sectional data of elders from the SarcoPhAge (“Sarco”penia and “Ph”ysical Impairment with Advancing “Age”) study. Lean mass was measured with X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a dynamometer and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. Performances of screening methods were described using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC), according to five diagnostic definitions of sarcopenia. For each screening tool, optimal cutoff points were computed using two methods. Results: A total of 306 subjects (74.8±5.9 years, 59.5% women) were included. The prevalence of sarcopenia varied from 5.7% to 16.7% depending on the definition. The best sensitivity (up to 100%) and the best NPV (up to 99.1%) were obtained with the screening test of Ishii et al, regardless of the definition applied. The highest AUC (up to 0.914) was also demonstrated by the instrument of Ishii et al. The most specific tool was the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP; up to 91.1%). All NPVs were above 87.0%, and all PPVs were below 51.0%. New cutoffs related to each screening instrument were also proposed to better discriminate sarcopenic individuals from non-sarcopenic individuals. Conclusion: Screening instruments for sarcopenia can be relevantly used in clinical practice to make sure to identify individuals who do not suffer from the syndrome. The screening test of Ishii et al showed better properties in terms of distinguishing those at risk of sarcopenia from those who were not at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional properties and health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from Spirulina : a review
Ovando, C.A.; De Carvalho, J.C.; Vinicius de Melo Pereira, G. et al

in Food Reviews International (2018)

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See detailAnti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Rungia congoensis, a traditional vegetable consumed by Yombe people from Kongo Central area (DR. Congo).
Mutwale Kapepula, Paulin; Baku Ngumbi, Pacha; Kasongo Kawayidiko, Michel et al

in Natural Product Research (2018)

Rungia congoensis, a traditional vegetable from Kongo Central area (DR. Congo) was studied for establishing microscopic characters and characterised by chromatographic techniques and their in vitro ... [more ▼]

Rungia congoensis, a traditional vegetable from Kongo Central area (DR. Congo) was studied for establishing microscopic characters and characterised by chromatographic techniques and their in vitro biochemical activities against ROS production were evaluated in cellular models and on an enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO), involved in inflammation. Microscopically leaf can be characterised by non-glandular and glandular trichomes, sinuous anticlinal epidermal cells, diacytic stomata and helical vessels. Methanolic extract displayed high cellular antioxidant activity at the concentrations range of 0.1-10 mug mL(-1) and 1-20 mug mL(-1) using lucigenin on neutrophils and DCFH-DA on HL 60, respectively. This extract also showed, more efficient effects on extracellular and intracellular ROS production and MPO activity. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of R. congoensis were significantly higher, positively correlated with their phytochemical constituents such as flavonoids, iridoids and phenolic acids; and could justify their use as traditional vegetable and potent local nutraceutical resource. [less ▲]

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis as a mechanism promoting intraspecific niche differentiation
Lejeune, Benjamin ULiege; Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Lepoint, Gilles ULiege et al

in Oikos (2018)

Organisms with complex life cycles are characterized by a metamorphosis that allows for a major habitat shift and the exploitation of alternative resources. However, metamorphosis can be bypassed in some ... [more ▼]

Organisms with complex life cycles are characterized by a metamorphosis that allows for a major habitat shift and the exploitation of alternative resources. However, metamorphosis can be bypassed in some species through a process called paedomorphosis, resulting in the retention of larval traits at the adult stage and is considered important at both micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In facultatively paedomorphic populations of newts, some individuals retain gills and a fully aquatic life at the adult stage (paedomorphs), while others undergo complete metamorphosis (metamorphs), allowing for a terrestrial life-stage. Because facultative paedomorphosis affects trophic structures and feeding mechanism of newts, one hypothesis is that it may be maintained as a trophic polymorphism, with the advantage to lessen intraspecific competition during the shared aquatic life-stage. Here, we tested this hypothesis combining stomach content data with stable isotope techniques, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, in facultatively paedomorphic alpine newts Ichthyosaura alpestris. Both stomach content and stable isotope analyses showed that paedomorphs had smaller trophic niches and were more reliant on pelagic resources, while metamorphs relied more on littoral resources, corresponding to a polyphenism along the littoral-pelagic axis and the extension of the population's trophic niche to otherwise ‘underused’ pelagic resources by paedomorphs. Interestingly, stable isotopes revealed that the trophic polyphenism was less marked in males than in females and potentially linked to sexual activity. Although paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are primarily seen as results of tradeoffs between the advantages of using aquatic versus terrestrial habitats, this study provides evidence that additional forces, such as intraspecific trophic niche differences between morphs and trophic niche expansion, may play an important role in the persistence of this dimorphism in heterogeneous environments. Moreover, the different patterns found in males and females show the importance of considering sex to understand the evolutionary ecology of trophic polymorphisms. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of buoyancy driven heat transport in silicone oils and in liquid nitrogen in view of cooling applications
Satpathy, Kamalakanta ULiege; Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles et al

in International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer (2018), 118

Motivated by applications for cooling superconducting pellets with liquid nitrogen, we consider a source with a fixed heating rate per unit volume, immersed in a liquid pool and cooled through natural ... [more ▼]

Motivated by applications for cooling superconducting pellets with liquid nitrogen, we consider a source with a fixed heating rate per unit volume, immersed in a liquid pool and cooled through natural convection. In one recent experimental investigation (Dubois et al., 2016) carried on silicone oils and liquid nitrogen, we have demonstrated that the velocity field satisfies specific scaling laws with respect to the temperature increase in the liquid pool. In this work, we pursue the analysis by modeling the heat transfer in a parallelepiped enclosure for a steady laminar flow regime. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume approach to obtain the detailed three-dimensional flow and heat transfer characteristics. A quantitative analysis of the velocity field over the temperature field shows that the experimental power laws are reproduced in simulations. Following Dubois and Berge (1978), a theoretical law originally introduced in the context of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard experiment is shown to be satisfied in the simulations over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers (Ra), assuming the definition of the characteristic convection length is adapted to the investigated geometry. Moreover, the simulations are shown to correctly reproduce the main features of the flow, including the characteristic convection length, for different heater lengths. [less ▲]

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See detailFive-country manikin study found that neonatologists preferred using the LISAcath rather than the Angiocath for less invasive surfactant administration.
Fabbri, Laura; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Aguar, Marta et al

in Acta Paediatrica (2018)

AIM: Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) has been shown to decrease the risk of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. The LISAcath is the first catheter to be specifically ... [more ▼]

AIM: Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) has been shown to decrease the risk of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. The LISAcath is the first catheter to be specifically developed for LISA and we compared the clinical impressions of neonatologists using the LISAcath and the commonly-used Angiocath in a simulated setting. METHODS: This was a multinational, multicentre study, conducted in October 2016, which involved 39 neonatologists who were recruited by employees of the sponsor from large, well-recognised neonatal intensive care units across Europe. LISA was not the standard of care in these units in Austria, Belgium, Poland, Spain and the UK at the time of the study. After training, participants simulated LISA on a neonatal manikin, once with the LISAcath and once with Angiocath, then answered a 10-item questionnaire. RESULTS: The responses to 9/10 questions showed that 67-95% of the respondents preferred the LISAcath to the Angiocath, with most of the remainder indicating no preference. The only exception was the luer connection question, with two-thirds expressing no preference. The LISAcath was considered potentially safer by 33/39 participants, with no votes for the Angiocath. CONCLUSION: Overall, neonatologists preferred using the LISAcath rather than the Angiocath on a neonatal manikin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies
Lin, M.-Y.; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 473

In a complete sample of local 14–195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and ... [more ▼]

In a complete sample of local 14–195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10–150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.
DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence et al

in Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association (2018)

Background: There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the ... [more ▼]

Background: There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. Methods: We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Brochner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. Results: The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and >/=300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Conclusion: Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). [less ▲]

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See detailChanging your political mind: The impact of a metaphor on citizens’ representations and preferences for federalism
Reuchamps, Min; Dodeigne, Jérémy; Perrez, Julien ULiege

in Regional & Federal Studies (2018)

Federalism is often presented through metaphors, but little is known about the impact of such metaphors. Two experiments were conducted in Belgium presenting federalism as Tetris – with control and ... [more ▼]

Federalism is often presented through metaphors, but little is known about the impact of such metaphors. Two experiments were conducted in Belgium presenting federalism as Tetris – with control and treatment groups – in order to grasp the influence of this metaphor. The first experiment reveals that being exposed to text with the Tetris metaphor influences respondents’ representations of federalism towards a more institutional representation and towards more regional autonomy. The second experiment confirms the importance of the text, and more specifically of the metaphor, if political knowledge is taken into account. Respondents with a lower level of political knowledge are those who are influenced by the metaphor, whereas respondents with a higher level are not. Therefore, framing the future of Belgian federalism using the metaphor of Tetris does matter: it affects both individuals’ representations of the federalization process and, consequently, their preferences vis-à-vis the institutional future of the country. [less ▲]

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See detailBone health assessment in older people with or without muscle health impairment.
Locquet, Médéa ULiege; Beaudart, Charlotte ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege et al

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2018)

This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) is associated with deterioration in bone mass and texture subsequently leading to an increased risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has shown associations between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but existing studies face inconsistencies in the clinical definition of both conditions. Thus, we sought to investigate bone health among older individuals with or without muscle health impairment. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of cross-sectional data available from the Sarcopenia and Physical Impairment with Advancing Age (SarcoPhAge) study. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) (i.e., a low muscle mass plus either low muscle strength or low physical performance). Muscle mass and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Muscle strength was assessed using a hand dynamometer, and physical performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery test. Using the cutoff limits proposed by the EWGSOP, we have classified women in the "low SMI group" when its value was < 5.50 kg/m(2), in the "low muscle strength group" when strength was < 20 kg, and in the "low physical performance group" when SPPB < 8 points. The thresholds of < 7.26 kg/m(2) (for SMI), < 30 kg (for muscle strength), and SPPB < 8 points were used for men. The 10-year fracture risk was obtained using the FRAX(R) tool. Moreover, bone texture was determined using the trabecular bone score (TBS) method. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 288 older subjects aged 74.7 +/- 5.7 years, and 59.0% of the subjects were women. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 43 individuals (14.9%), and osteoporosis was diagnosed in 36 subjects (12.5%). Moreover, aBMD values were, most of the time, lower in older men and women with muscle impairment (i.e., low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance). For these subjects, we also noted a higher probability of fracture. When comparing bone quality, there were no significant differences in the TBS values between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older men and women or between those with low and high muscle mass. However, when controlling for confounders (i.e., age, BMI, number of co-morbidities, smoking status, and nutritional status), TBS values were lower in older women with low muscle strength (p = 0.04) and in older men with low physical performance (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed interrelationships between components of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, with older subjects with muscle impairment having poorer bone health. [less ▲]

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See detailSex differences in behavioral and neurochemical effects of gonadectomy and aromatase inhibition in rats.
Kokras, N; Pastromas, N; Papasava, D et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2018), 87

Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been as- sociated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we ... [more ▼]

Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been as- sociated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham- operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity. Half of the subjects were subsequently exposed to the stressful procedure of the forced swim test (FST), which is also a test of antidepressant activity. Aromatase activity was analyzed in the hypothalamus and tes- tosterone and corticosterone were assayed in the blood serum of all rats. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were analyzed for monoamine (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin), as well as amino acid (GABA, glutamate, glycine, taurine, alanine and histidine) levels. The observed decrease in hypothalamic aromatase activity confirmed the efficacy of letrozole treatment in both sexes. Moreover, letrozole enhanced testosterone levels in sham-operated females. In the open field test, females were overall more active and explorative than males and gonadectomy eliminated this sex difference. In the FST, females exhibited overall higher immobility than males and gonadectomy further enhanced this passive behavior in both sexes. However, sustained ar- omatase inhibition had no effect on open field and FST behaviors. Head shakes during FST, which were fewer in females than in males, were reduced by castration in males and by letrozole treatment in ovariectomized fe- males, suggesting a role of testosterone and extra-gonadal estrogens in the expression of this behavior. Sustained aromatase inhibition also decreased noradrenaline and the dopaminergic turnover rates [DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA] in the hippocampus and PFC of male and female rats, irrespectively of gonadectomy. Moreover, letrozole treatment enhanced the serotonergic turnover [5HIAA/5HT] rate in the hippocampus of males and females, irrespectively of gonadectomy. Amino acid levels were not influenced by letrozole, but sex differences were demonstrated with higher levels in the PFC of females vs. males. Present findings suggest that the neu- ropsychiatric effects of aromatase inhibition can be attributed to the inhibition of extragonadal estrogen synthesis, presumably in the brain, and could be further associated with serotonergic and catecholaminergic changes in brain regions involved in mood and cognition. Importantly, present data could be linked with the neurobiology of affective side-effects in post-menopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailDispersal and alternative breeding site fidelity strategies in an amphibian
Denoël, Mathieu ULiege; Dalleur, séverine; Langrand, Estelle et al

in Ecography (2018)

Dispersal (i.e., movement from a natal or breeding site to another breeding site) is a central process in ecology and evolution as it affects the eco-evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured ... [more ▼]

Dispersal (i.e., movement from a natal or breeding site to another breeding site) is a central process in ecology and evolution as it affects the eco-evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations. Dispersal evolution is regulated by the balance between costs and benefits, which is influenced by the individual phenotype (i.e., phenotype-dependent dispersal) and environmental factors (i.e., condition-dependent dispersal). Even though these processes have been extensively studied in species with simple life cycles, our knowledge about these mechanisms in organisms displaying complex life cycles remains fragmentary. In fact, little is specifically known about how the interplay between individual and environmental factors may lead to alternative dispersal strategies that, in turn, lead to the coexistence of contrasted site fidelity phenotypes. In this paper, we examined breeding dispersal in a pond-breeding amphibian, the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus), within usual walking distances for a newt. We took advantage of recent developments in multi-event capture-recapture models and used capture-recapture data (946 newts marked) collected in a spatially structured population occupying a large pond network (73 ponds). We showed a high rate of breeding site infidelity (i.e., pond use) and the coexistence of two dispersal phenotypes, namely, a highly pond faithful phenotype and a dispersing phenotype. Individuals that were site faithful at time t-1 were therefore more likely to remain site faithful at time t. Our results also demonstrated that the probability that individuals belong to one or the other dispersal phenotypes depended on environmental and individual factors. In particular, we highlighted the existence of a dispersal syndrome implying a covariation pattern among dispersal behavior, body size, and survival. Our work opens new research prospects in the evolution of dispersal in organisms displaying complex life cycles and raises interesting questions about the evolutionary pathways that contribute to the diversification of movement strategies in the wild. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULiege; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics (2018), 32(2), 166-179

The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250–550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language. [less ▲]

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See detailWild-type HIV infection despite PrEP: a lot to learn from a case report.
DARCIS, Gilles ULiege; Moutschen, Michel ULiege

in The lancet. HIV (2018), 5(1), 10

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See detailChanges of Soil Phosphorus Fractionation According to pH in Red Soils of China: An Incubation Experiment
Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xu, Minggang; Wang, Boren et al

in Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis (2018)

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main problems limiting crop growth in red soils of southern China. The primary objective of this study was to examine P availability as a function of soil acidity ... [more ▼]

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main problems limiting crop growth in red soils of southern China. The primary objective of this study was to examine P availability as a function of soil acidity. Soils were sampled from a long-term fertilization experiment and are referred as low-P (No P fertilization) and high-P (120 kg P2O5 ha–1). Both low-P and high-P treatments were incubated adjusting soil pH to seven levels from 3.0 to 6.5 for 10, 20, 30 and 45 days. The pH, DIP, and Olsen-P were determined after each incubation period, and inorganic P fractions were measured at the end of incubation. For both low-P and high-P treatments, DIP decreased with rising pH value and increased with decreasing soil pH. Olsen-P, Ca-P (Ca2-P, Ca8-P, and Ca10-P) and Al-P increased significantly with soil pH in low-P treatment. In high-P, Olsen- P increased with pH between 3.4 and 5.0 and was stable at higher pH. Moreover, Ca-P and Al-P increased significantly but Fe-P decreased with soil pH increase. The redundancy analysis showed that Ca-P, Al-P, and pH had positive effects on Olsen-P, but Occluded-P showed a negative correlation with Olsen-P in both soils. Our results confirmed that soil P availability was influenced by pH and that the changes in DIP and Olsen-P were linked to changes of inorganic fractions from occluded to Ca- and Al-bound forms. Managing soil acidity is a key issue regard- ing the availability of P in red soils of China and our results suggest that at least a pH of 5.0 should be targeted. [less ▲]

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See detailCould saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils ?
Davin, Marie ULiege; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali ULiege et al

in Chemosphere (2018), 194

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28°C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg.g- 1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailLa révolution vidéo en Afrique subsaharienne. Nigéria, Ethiopie et Côte d'Ivoire
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULiege

in Sociétés politiques comparées (2018), 43

Avec l’introduction de technologies analogiques et (plus tard) numériques, de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne ont vu l’émergence et la croissance rapide d’industries audiovisuelles commerciales ... [more ▼]

Avec l’introduction de technologies analogiques et (plus tard) numériques, de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne ont vu l’émergence et la croissance rapide d’industries audiovisuelles commerciales produisant des fi lms en format vidéo. L’industrie nigériane, Nollywood, est le cas d’étude qui a suscité le plus d’intérêt, contribuant à la formulation d’un modèle analytique qui a infl uencé notre compréhension d’autres exemples de production en cours sur le continent. Cet article propose une analyse comparative de l’histoire de la production vidéo dans trois pays d’Afrique subsaharienne (Nigéria, Ethiopie et Côte d’Ivoire), afi n de complexifi er notre approche de la production vidéo africaine au-delà du modèle de Nollywood. À partir des documents recueillis lors de recherches de terrain ethnographiques menées dans chacun de ces pays, il offre une contribution originale au débat actuel sur l’impact des technologies analogiques et numériques sur la transformation du cinéma africain, en mettant en évidence le rôle des contextes politique, économique et infrastructurel locaux sur le développement des industries vidéo en Afrique subsaharienne. [less ▲]

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See detailCounting Subwords Occurrences in Base-b Expansions
Leroy, Julien ULiege; Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

in Integers: Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory (2018)

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See detailPerformance-Based Financing to Strengthen the Health System in Benin: Challenging the Mainstream Approach
Paul, Elisabeth ULiege; Dramé, Mohamed L.; Kashala, Jean-Pierre et al

in International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2018), 7(1), 35-47

Background: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian ... [more ▼]

Background: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach – especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness – and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the “PBF package” functions and produces effects. Methods: An exploratory, theory-driven evaluation approach was adopted. Causal mechanisms through which PBF is hypothesised to impact on results were singled out and explored. This paper stems from the co-authors’ capitalisation of experiences; mixed methods were used to collect, triangulate and analyse information. Results are structured along Witter et al framework. Results: Influence of context is strong over PBF in Benin; the policy is donor-driven. BTC did not adopt the World Bank’s mainstream PBF model, but developed an alternative approach in line with its HSS support programme, which is grounded on existing domestic institutions. The main features of this approach are described (decentralised governance, peer review verification, counter-verification entrusted to health service users’ platforms), as well as its adaptive process. PBF has contributed to strengthen various aspects of the health system and led to modest progress in utilisation of health services, but noticeable improvements in healthcare quality. Three mechanisms explaining observed outcomes within the context are described: comprehensive HSS at district level; acting on health workers’ motivation through a complex package of incentives; and increased accountability by reinforcing dialogue with demand-side actors. Cost-effectiveness and sustainability issues are also discussed. Conclusion: BTC’s alternative PBF approach is both promising in terms of effects, ownership and sustainability, and less resource consuming. This experience testifies that PBF is not a uniform or rigid model, and opens the policy ground for recipient governments to put their own emphasis and priorities and design ad hoc models adapted to their context specificities. However, integrating PBF within the normal functioning of local health systems, in line with other reforms, is a big challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailCatechol end-functionalized polylactide by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization
Sadaba, Naroa; Salsamendi, Maitane; Casado, Nerea et al

in Polymers (2018), 10(2), 155

There is a great interest in incorporating catechol moieties into polymers in a controlled manner due to their interesting properties, such as the promotion of adhesion, redox activity or bioactivity. One ... [more ▼]

There is a great interest in incorporating catechol moieties into polymers in a controlled manner due to their interesting properties, such as the promotion of adhesion, redox activity or bioactivity. One possibility is to incorporate the catechol as end-group in a polymer chain using a functional initiator by means of controlled polymerization strategies. Nevertheless, the instability of catechol moieties under oxygen and basic pH requires tedious protection and deprotection steps to perform the polymerization in a controlled fashion. In the present work, we explore the organocatalyzed synthesis of catechol end-functional, semi-telechelic polylactide (PLLA) using non-protected dopamine, catechol molecule containing a primary amine, as initiator. NMR and SEC-IR results showed that in the presence of a weak organic base such as triethylamine, the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide takes place in a controlled manner without need of protecting the cathechol units. To further confirm the end-group fidelity the catechol containing PLLA was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry and MALDI-TOF confirming the absence of side reaction during the polymerization. In order to exploit the potential of catechol moieties, catechol end-group of PLLA was oxidized to quinone and further reacted with aliphatic amines. In addition, we also confirmed the ability of catechol functionalized PLLA to reduce metal ions to metal nanoparticles to obtain well distributed silver nanoparticles. It is expected that this new route of preparing catechol-PLLA polymers without protection will increase the accessibility of catechol containing biodegradable polymers by ROP. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of different hydrocolloids on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour
Liu, Xingli ULiege; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan et al

in Food Chemistry (2018), 239

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free potato steamed bread were investigated. Results showed that hydrocolloids addition significantly increased the gelatinization temperature (from 52.0 to 64.2 °C) and water absorption (from 56.22 to 66.50 %) of potato dough. Moreover, hydrocolloids may be interacted with protein and starch, the density of potato protein bands was decreased by hydrocolloids addition, the reason might be that higher molecular weight complexes might be formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins, thus change the protein solubility. Furthermore, steamed breads with hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume and lower hardness, and the rapidly digestible starch and estimated glycemic index were significantly decreased from 45.51 to 20.64, from 69.54 to 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, HPMC and XG could be used as improvers in the gluten-free potato steamed bread. [less ▲]

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See detailLa charte de Venise en France : acteurs, réception, interprétations 1957-1976
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Apuntes - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies (2018), (30),

Il y a deux ans, à l’occasion du cinquantenaire de la Charte de Venise, colloques et publications ont proclamé, à travers le monde, l’importance historique de ce « monument de la doctrine » et parfois ... [more ▼]

Il y a deux ans, à l’occasion du cinquantenaire de la Charte de Venise, colloques et publications ont proclamé, à travers le monde, l’importance historique de ce « monument de la doctrine » et parfois même, réaffirmé l’actualité de ses principes. Les recherches que j’ai consacrées à Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997), dans le cadre de ma thèse de doctorat, m’ont donné l’occasion, à travers l’examen des archives très complètes du conservateur belge, d’éclairer la « fabrique » de la charte. Signée par 23 experts présents au congrès, la première version de celle-ci se révèle avoir été, en réalité, rédigée par un groupe de cinq personnes, parmi lesquels Piero Gazzola et Roberto Pane, membres du comité d’organisation du congrès – et auxquels la paternité de la charte est souvent attribuée sur base d’un document préparatoire rédigé à quatre mains –, les belges Raymond M. Lemaire et Paul Philippot, mais aussi un français, Jean Sonnier, vice-président, 7 ans plus tôt, du comité organisateur du Congrès international des architectes et techniciens des monuments historiques à Paris et ACMH. Par ailleurs, mes recherches ont mis en lumière le fait que tout en faisant, aujourd’hui encore, figure de monument intangible ou même, de « constitution de l’ICOMOS » à l’échelle internationale, la charte a pourtant fait l’objet, six ans à peine après son adoption, de projets de révision : deux de ses auteurs, P. Gazzola et R. Lemaire, devenus respectivement Président et Secrétaire général de l’ICOMOS, considéraient en effet le document inefficace face aux enjeux montants de la « réanimation » des ensembles urbains. Bien que tous les comités nationaux de l’ICOMOS aient été associés à ces réflexions, qui allaient se poursuivre, sans aboutir, jusque 1990, le rôle de deux français mérite à nouveau d’être souligné: Jean Sonnier, pour sa collaboration avec R. Lemaire à une version révisée de la charte en 1978, et François Sorlin, administrateur civil chargé des sites, en oeuvrant avec Lemaire et Gazzola, pour le Comité des monuments et des sites du Conseil de l’Europe, à l’élaboration des principes qui deviendraient ceux de la conservation intégrée en 1975. Cette étroite implication de deux personnalités françaises lors de la rédaction et de la révision de la charte m’a convaincue de la nécessité d’explorer plus avant le contexte français, là où ma thèse s’était cantonnée aux contextes belge et italien et ceci d’autant plus que la France me paraissait, sur base d’une connaissance superficielle, avoir été moins réceptive – en dehors de personnalités isolées telles qu’Yves-Marie Froidevaux, Bernard Vitry ou Pierre Prunet – aux aspects de la charte les plus proches des principes de la restauration critique. Dans son ouvrage de 2003, X. Laurent révèle que Bertrand Monnet pensait être l’un des seuls ACMH à connaitre le document, et souligne qu’il « est hasardeux de parler d’influence de la charte de Venise avant le milieu des années 1970 » et que « le dépouillement des archives révèle qu’il [lui] a fallu plus de dix ans (…) pour devenir une référence en France », ceci même si Françoise Bercé considère quant à elle la charte comme un événement majeur des années 1960. Cette question n’a, à mon sens, pas suffisamment retenu l’attention des historiens de l’architecture français. C’est pourquoi, ayant eu la chance de bénéficier du statut de chercheur invité à l’INHA en avril et mai dernier, je me suis employée à clarifier les contributions françaises à la charte, sa réception en France et les possibles particularités de ses interprétations par les ACMH en prenant pour point de départ un dépouillement systématique de la revue Monuments historiques afin d’identifier l’apparition des références explicites (ou même implicites) aux principes de la charte ainsi qu’un corpus de projets représentatifs. Alors que j’avais programmé un dépouillement de 1957 à 1976 (du Congrès de Paris au colloque Les restaurations françaises et la Charte de Venise), il s’est avéré nécessaire de poursuivre les investigations jusqu’en 1990, date de la 9e assemblée générale de l’ICOMOS à Lausanne, lors de laquelle les contributions majeures de comité français ont consisté à faire le point sur l’application de la charte de France durant les 20 dernières années. J’ai pu constater que si jusqu’au colloque de 1976, les références à la charte sont essentiellement implicites, dans les années qui suivent, les réflexions se succèdent rapidement, le plus souvent à l’initiative du comité français de l’ICOMOS, dont le premier président avait été Jean Sonnier. Ce sont les résultats de cette recherche que je me propose de présenter dans un article pour la revue Apuntes, autour des quatre balises chronologiques que sont 1957, 1964, 1976 et 1990, en illustrant mon propos par des projets et manifestations (colloques, expositions) représentatifs à propos desquels j’ai approfondi la recherche aux archives de la Médiathèque de l’architecture et du patrimoine. [less ▲]

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