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See detailCapital income taxation when inherited wealth is not observable
Cremer, H.; Pestieau, Pierre ULiege; Rochet, J. C.

in Journal of Public Economics (2003), 87(11), 2475-2490

This paper extends the Atkinson-Stiglitz model of direct and indirect taxation to a dynamic setting with two unobservable characteristics: productive ability and inherited wealth. Bequests are motivated ... [more ▼]

This paper extends the Atkinson-Stiglitz model of direct and indirect taxation to a dynamic setting with two unobservable characteristics: productive ability and inherited wealth. Bequests are motivated by the 'joy of giving'. A child's inheritance is a random variable with a probability distribution that depends on his parent's investment in a 'bequest technology'. Public borrowing is assumed and implies the modified golden rule. We study the optimal tax policy when two instruments are available: a non-linear (wage) income tax and a proportional tax on capital income. We show that the second instrument ought, in general, to be used but that the tax rate is not necessarily positive. However, a positive tax rate is more likely when there is a positive correlation between inherited wealth and innate ability. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstance P protects spiral ganglion neurons from apoptosis via PKC-Ca2+-MAPK/ERK pathways
Lallemend, François; Lefèbvre, Philippe ULiege; Hans, Grégory ULiege et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (2003), 87(2), 508-521

In the current study, we have investigated the ability of substance P (SP) to protect 3-day-old (P3) rat spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from trophic factor deprivation (TFD)-induced cell death. The ... [more ▼]

In the current study, we have investigated the ability of substance P (SP) to protect 3-day-old (P3) rat spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from trophic factor deprivation (TFD)-induced cell death. The presence of SP high affinity neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) transcripts was detected in the spiral ganglion and the NK1 protein localized to SGNs both ex vivo and in vitro. Treatment with SP increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ in SGNs, further arguing for the presence of functional NK1 on these neurons. Both SP and the agonist [Sar(9), Met(O-2)(11)]-SP significantly decreased SGN cell death induced by TFD, with no effect on neurite outgrowth. The survival promoting effect of SP was blocked by the NK1 antagonist, WIN51708. Both pan-caspase inhibitor BOC-D-FMK and SP treatments markedly reduced activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation in trophic factor deprived-neurons. The neuroprotective action of SP was antagonised by specific inhibitors of second messengers, including 1.2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) to chelate cytosolic Ca2+, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I, Go6976 and LY333531 and the MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126. In contrast, nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channel, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, had no effect on SP trophic support of SGNs. Moreover, activation of endogenous PKC by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also reduced the loss of trophic factor-deprived SGNs. Thus, NK1 expressed by SGNs transmit a survival-promoting regulatory signal during TFD-induced SGN cell death via pathways involving PKC activation, Ca2+ signalling and MAPK/ERK activation, which can be accounted for by an inhibition of caspase activation. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutamine, a life-saving nutrient, but why?
Preiser, Jean-Charles ULiege; Wernerman, J.

in Critical Care Medicine (2003), 31(10), 2555-2556

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See detailRetrograde reactions of Clarke's nucleus neurons after human spinal cord injury
Schmitt, Andreas B.; Breuer, Sebastien; Polat, Leyla et al

in Annals of Neurology (2003), 54(4), 534-539

Successful axon regeneration depends on the expression of regeneration-associated genes by axotomized neurons. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the expression of regeneration ... [more ▼]

Successful axon regeneration depends on the expression of regeneration-associated genes by axotomized neurons. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the expression of regeneration-associated genes by axotomized human CNS neurons. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed a transient induction of GAP-43 and c-jun in Clarke's nucleus neurons caudal to traumatic human spinal cord injury. These results support experimental data that nonregenerating central nervous system neurons can temporarily upregulate regeneration-associated genes, reflecting a transient regenerative capacity that fails over time. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dosage rapide des peptides natriuretiques cardiaques. Une nouvelle contribution au diagnostic, au suivi therapeutique et au pronostic des affections cardio-vasculaires
Borgoens, Philippe ULiege; Pierard, Luc ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 615-20

Only about half of the diagnoses of heart failure are correct. The limitations of clinical judgment and complementary investigations are described in this article. Recently, BNP was found to be a good ... [more ▼]

Only about half of the diagnoses of heart failure are correct. The limitations of clinical judgment and complementary investigations are described in this article. Recently, BNP was found to be a good biological marker of ventricular dysfunction. Rapid and reliable BNP measurement is now available and the clinical value of this peptide was examined in many studies. The role of BNP in the diagnosis and management of heart failure will be increasing. [less ▲]

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See detailThe timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration
Parent, Anne-Simone ULiege; Teilmann, G.; Juul, A. et al

in Endocrine Reviews (2003), 24(5), 668-693

During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been ... [more ▼]

During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States. In the formerly deprived migrating children, refeeding and catch-up growth may prime maturation. However, precocious puberty is seen also in some nondeprived migrating children. Attention has been paid to the changing milieu after migration, and recently, the possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals from the environment has been considered. These observations urge further study of the onset of puberty as a possible sensitive and early marker of the interactions between environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility that can influence physiological and pathological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailExposition hormonale precoce et repercussions comportementales dans l'hyperplasie congenitale des surrenales: a propos d'un cas
Tortolani, Isabelle ULiege; Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULiege; Ansseau, Marc ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 631-4

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a recessive autosomal transmission endocrine pathology that exposes people who suffer from it to an abnormally high concentration of adrenal androgens during the prenatal ... [more ▼]

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a recessive autosomal transmission endocrine pathology that exposes people who suffer from it to an abnormally high concentration of adrenal androgens during the prenatal and early postnatal periods. This disease induces female's virilism of variable degree. The case of a 29 year-old patient, who suffers from this affection and also presents a psychiatric disorder, raises questions about the possible consequences of an early exposure to androgens on the adult behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailA structured strategy for assessing chemical risks, suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises
Balsat, Alain; De Graeve, Jean ULiege; Mairiaux, Philippe ULiege

in Annals of Occupational Hygiene (2003), 47(7), 549-556

BACKGROUND: A previous study carried out in 20 Belgian companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), showed that prevention advisors did not use any structured approaches to assess ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A previous study carried out in 20 Belgian companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), showed that prevention advisors did not use any structured approaches to assess chemical risk. They used their personal judgement and the information contained in manufacturers' Safety Data Sheets to assess the risk. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The purpose of the Regetox network is to provide companies with a global approach for assessing chemical health risks. The structured approach proposed consists of two successive steps of increasing complexity. For the first step, we chose a method developed by the INRS (France), the 'ranking of potential risk', which allows the safety officer or staff member to identify hazards and to set priorities among all the supplied products used in the workplace. For the second step, we applied the COSHH method and EASE model established by the UK Health [less ▲]

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See detailLa myopathie atypique des équidés
Votion, Dominique ULiege

in Hippo News (2003), 315(octobre), 12-13

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Precordialgies evoquant un syndrome coronaire instable, un ecueil diagnostique
Gach, Olivier ULiege; Troisfontaines, Pierre; LEGRAND, Victor ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 611-4

Chest pain represents a frequent motivation for consultation in which the differential diagnosis is not always easy. We present a case where a misdiagnosis lead to serious complications. Therefore we ... [more ▼]

Chest pain represents a frequent motivation for consultation in which the differential diagnosis is not always easy. We present a case where a misdiagnosis lead to serious complications. Therefore we review the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the evoked diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling the functional potential of PSA-NCAM-expressing cells in CNS development and brain repair strategies
Nguyen, Laurent ULiege; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Malgrange, Brigitte ULiege et al

in Current Medicinal Chemistry (2003), 10(20), 2185-2196

Central nervous system (CNS) neural stem cells (NSCs), which are mostly defined by their ability to self-renew and to generate the three main cell lineages of the CNS, were isolated from discrete regions ... [more ▼]

Central nervous system (CNS) neural stem cells (NSCs), which are mostly defined by their ability to self-renew and to generate the three main cell lineages of the CNS, were isolated from discrete regions of the adult mammalian CNS including the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. At early stages of CNS cell fate determination, NSCs give rise to progenitors that express the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). PSA-NCAM(+) cells persist in adult brain regions where neuronal plasticity and sustained formation of new neurons occur. PSA-NCAM, has been shown to be involved in the regulation of CNS myelination as well as in changes of cell morphology that are necessary for motility, axonal guidance, synapse formation, and functional plasticity in the CNS. Although being preferentially committed to a restricted either glial or neuronal fate, cultured PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors do preserve a relative degree of multipotentiality. Considering that PSA-NCAM(+) cells can be neatly used for brain repair purposes, there is much interest for studying signaling factors regulating their development. With this regard, it is noteworthy that neurotransmitters, which belong to the micro-environment of neural cells in vivo, regulate morphogenetic events preceding synaptogenesis such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and death. Consistently, several ionotropic but also G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors were found to be expressed in CNS embryonic and postnatal progenitors. In the present review, we outlined the ins and outs of PSA-NCAM(+) cells addressing to what extent our understanding of extrinsic and in particular neurotransmitter-mediated signaling in these CNS precursor cells might represent a new leading track to develop alternative strategies to stimulate brain repair. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessfull treatment of insulin allergy in a type 1 diabetic patient by means of constant subcutaneous pump infusion of insulin
Sola-Gazagnez, A; Pecquet, C; RADERMECKER, Régis ULiege

in Diabetes Care (2003), 26

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See detailRelief in mild-to-moderate pain is not a confounder in joint space narrowing assessment of full extension knee radiographs in recent osteoarthritis structure-modifying drug trials
Pavelka, K.; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege; Rovati, Lucio C et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2003), 11(10), 730-737

Objective: To assess whether improvement in knee pain biased the determination of the structure-modifying effect reported for glucosamine sulfate in two recent 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess whether improvement in knee pain biased the determination of the structure-modifying effect reported for glucosamine sulfate in two recent 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials, in which conventional standing antero-posterior full extension knee radiographs were used for the measurement of joint space narrowing, and in which pain relief might have improved knee full extension. Design: Patients completing the 3-year treatment course were selected based on a WOMAC pain decrease at least equal to the mean improvement in the glucosamine sulfate arms in either of the original studies, irrespective of treatment with glucosamine sulfate or placebo (drug responders or placebo responders). In a second approach, 3-year completers were selected if their baseline standing knee pain (item #5 of the WOMAC pain scale) was 'severe' or 'extreme' and improved by any degree at the end of the trials. In both cases, changes in minimum joint space width were compared between treatment groups. Results: Global knee pain was rnild-to-moderate in the two study populations and in all patient subsets identified. There were obviously more pain improvers in the glucosamine sulfate subsets (N=76 in the two studies combined) than in the placebo subsets (N=57), but WOMAC pain scores improved to the same extent, which was as large as over 50% relative to baseline. Nevertheless, the placebo subsets in both studies underwent an evident mean (SD) joint space narrowing, which in the pooled analysis of both studies was -0.22 (0.80) mm, and was not observed with glucosamine sulfate: +0.15 (0.60) mm (P=0.003 vs placebo). Similar results were found in the smaller subsets with greater than or equal to severe baseline standing knee pain that improved after 3 years, with a joint space narrowing nevertheless of -0.28 (0.76) mm with placebo (N=26), not observed with glucosamine sulfate: +0.21 (0.68) mm (N=31; P=0.014 vs placebo). Conclusions: Knee pain relief did not bias the report of a structure-modifying effect of glucosamine sulfate in two recent long-term trials using conventional standing antero-posterior radiographs, possibly due to the mild-to-moderate patient characteristics. (C) 2003 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroimaging tools to rate regional atrophy, subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism: consensus paper of the EADC
Frisoni, G. B.; Scheltens, P. H.; Galluzzi, S. et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2003), 74(10), 1371-1381

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium's Immigration Policy Brings Renewal and Challenges
Martiniello, Marco ULiege; Rea, Andrea

in Migration Information Source (2003)

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See detailAlkali-silica reactivity with pessimum content on Devonian aggregates from the Belgian Arden massive
Merriaux, K.; Lecomte, A.; Degeimbre, Robert ULiege et al

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2003), 55(5), 429-437

Tests of alkali-silica reactivity were conducted on Devonian aggregates from the Belgian Arden massive. These are 'Bastogne sandstones' of the metamorphosed Mirwart layer consisting of the silica rich ... [more ▼]

Tests of alkali-silica reactivity were conducted on Devonian aggregates from the Belgian Arden massive. These are 'Bastogne sandstones' of the metamorphosed Mirwart layer consisting of the silica rich psammite rock family Petrography analysis reveals the presence of wavy extinction quartz and small size silica elements known to be potentially reactive to the alkalis in the base medium of concretes. Two accelerated tests were conducted according to the RILEM TC-106 and the French Standard NF P 18-590; they confirmed the strong reactive character of the sands,from these materials. The reaction is strongest in the presence of certain percentage of non-reactive sand. For this reason, the aggregates arc, described as being potentially reactive with pessimum content'. Their use in structures concretes must therefore be considered with the particular precaution of using cements that are low in free alkalis, and if necessary, with the addition of slag, fly ash or silica fume, all of which are known to reduce alkali silica reactivity. Verification of the dimensional stability of tat-get formulae must also be conducted on concrete test pieces. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Bandes dessinées de Frits Van den Berghe
Dejasse, Erwin ULiege

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2003), 9

A major figure of painting during the first half of the 20th century, the Flemish artist Frits Van den Berghe (1883-1939) produced comics which, if put end to end, would cover at least 1500 pages ... [more ▼]

A major figure of painting during the first half of the 20th century, the Flemish artist Frits Van den Berghe (1883-1939) produced comics which, if put end to end, would cover at least 1500 pages. Released in "De Amsterdamer" or in "Vooruit", they were often presented as being the work of of young boys. But Van den Berghe also collaborate with the Fantasy writer Jean Ray, executing illustrations for the adventures of the teenage detective Edmind Bell in "Bravo !" [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of antirestenosis with the BiodivYsio dexamethasone-eluting stent (STRIDE): A first-in-human multicenter pilot trial
Liu, X. S.; Huang, Y. M.; Hanet, C. et al

in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions : Official Journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions (2003), 60(2), 172-178

The aim of this multicenter pilot study was to evaluate the acute safety and efficacy of the dexamethasone-eluting stent (0.5 mug/mm(2) of stent) implanted in patients with de novo single-vessel disease ... [more ▼]

The aim of this multicenter pilot study was to evaluate the acute safety and efficacy of the dexamethasone-eluting stent (0.5 mug/mm(2) of stent) implanted in patients with de novo single-vessel disease. This study included 71 patients, 42% of whom had unstable angina pectoris. An appropriately sized BiodivYsio Matrix Lo stent loaded with a total dexamethasone dose of 0.5 mug/mm(2) of stent was used. Technical device success rate was 95%. Six-month MACE occurred in two patients (3.3%). Binary restenosis rate was 13.3%. Late loss was 0.45. Late loss and percent diameter stenosis were lower in the unstable angina pectoris patients compared to the stable patients (0.32 +/- 0.39 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.55 mm, P < 0.07, and 26.86 +/- 14 vs. 38.40 +/- 16%, P < 0.02). This study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of the implantation of a dexamethasone-eluting stent and its effect on in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of adolescent attempts to manage overweight
Grignard, Sophie ULiege; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Born, Michel ULiege et al

in Patient Education & Counseling (2003), 51(2), 183-189

This study evaluates the actions taken by obese adolescents in an attempt to lose weight in relation to changes in weight. Particular emphasis is put on the context surrounding the management process ... [more ▼]

This study evaluates the actions taken by obese adolescents in an attempt to lose weight in relation to changes in weight. Particular emphasis is put on the context surrounding the management process. Thirty one obese adolescents aged 14-18 participated in this study. The adolescents answered a written questionnaire, took a body-size dissatisfaction test and were interviewed. Their family physicians were interviewed by telephone. Quantitative data concerned changes in weight and body-size dissatisfaction scores. Qualitative analysis included cases analyses and building up of synthesis variables. Loss of weight is linked with continuity of management attempts as well as with medical follow-up. The most frequent management attempt is diet. Self-image is correlated with weight. The exclusive emphasis put on diet is discussed in relation to the importance of more psychosocial factors such as self-image, denial and attraction to discontinuity. Some recommendations for the management of overweight adolescents are then outlined. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver resection for noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine metastases
Detry, Olivier ULiege; Warzee, Fabian ULiege; Polus, Marc ULiege et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2003), 103(5), 458-462

In noncolorectal, nonendocrine liver metastases, the role of surgery is less define than in colorectal or neuroendocrine cancer. This role is marginal as liver is not the primary site of metastases of ... [more ▼]

In noncolorectal, nonendocrine liver metastases, the role of surgery is less define than in colorectal or neuroendocrine cancer. This role is marginal as liver is not the primary site of metastases of these cancers. Less than 2 to 5% of the patients with these malignancies might be one day considered as potential candidates for liver resection, as most patients suffer from extra hepatic tumour spread at the time they develop liver involvement. However, in these few cases with liver metastases only, as no other therapeutic option may provide mid- or long-term tumour-free survival, liver resection is indicated in resectable liver metastases. Some prognostic factors have been established in the literature from the few published series : unique versus multiple hepatic metastases, unilobar vs bilobar, metachronous vs synchronous, R0 vs R1 or R2 liver resections. The type of primary tumour is also of great importance, as cutaneous melanoma, pancreatic and gastric adenocarcinoma have a very bad prognosis for liver resection of metastases, even after R0 resection. In these cases, percutaneous or laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation may find its place. In sarcoma, breast carcinoma, uveal melanoma, and genitourinary cancers, liver resection may provide satisfactory long-term results in selected cases, and is the standard of care for isolated, resectable metastasis. However, due to the scarcity of indication of liver resection for noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine metastases, the decision should be multidisciplinary, and the patients should be informed of the advantages and pitfalls of the surgical procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailDe gemaskerde eeuw (Marita Mathijsen)
Steyaert, Kris ULiege

in Neerlandica Extra Muros (2003), 41(3), 73-75

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See detailAn investigation of verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in four children with Williams syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULiege; Barisnikov, K.; Vuillemin, I. et al

in Neurocase : Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry & Behavioural Neurology (2003), 9(5), 390-401

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS ... [more ▼]

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS. In this study, we re-assessed phonological processing in WS by exploring verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in 4 children with WS (CA: 10-12 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and the other matched for verbal mental age (VA). Our results confirm and extend previous claims of preserved phonological STM in WS by showing specifically preserved STM performance for non-words, compared to both VA and CA control groups. However, we observed that this was the case only for non-words where support of phonological and lexico-semantic knowledge was minimized, with reduced phonological and lexico-semantic effects on STM performance. Furthermore, a more direct assessment of phonological processing abilities through phonological awareness tasks showed impaired performance for the 4 WS children. Our data confirm that STM for non-words represents a real strength in. WS but they do not support previous assumptions of a more general preservation of phonological processing abilities in WS. Implications for impaired and preserved cognitive processes underlying verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in WS are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases control proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of oligodendroglial cells
Nguyen, Laurent ULiege; Malgrange, Brigitte ULiege; Rocher, Véronique et al

in International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience (2003), 21(6), 321-326

Since cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and their endogenous inhibitors (Cdkis) play an essential role as regulators of cell cycle withdrawal and onset of differentiation within oligodendroglial cells, we ... [more ▼]

Since cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and their endogenous inhibitors (Cdkis) play an essential role as regulators of cell cycle withdrawal and onset of differentiation within oligodendroglial cells, we assessed here the effects of exogenous chemical Cdk inhibitors (CKIs) on cultured rat cortical oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We showed that purine derivatives and especially roscovitine strongly inhibited OPCs proliferation. In the presence of mitogenic signals, roscovitine synergized with thyroid hormone to stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation. Roscovitine also prevented oligodendroglial apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation. We thus demonstrated that small molecular weight chemical CKIs have important effects on crucial events of oligodendroglial development in vitro. This might open prospects for using these apparently well tolerated agents in remyelination strategies. (C) 2003 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA preemption-aware on-line routing algorithm for MPLS networks
Blanchy, François; Mélon, Laurent; Leduc, Guy ULiege

in Telecommunication Systems (2003), 24(2-4, OCT-DEC), 187-206

In the context of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), we look at the problem of organizing the mapping of Label Switched Paths (LSPs) in an optimal way throughout the network on the basis of a given ... [more ▼]

In the context of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), we look at the problem of organizing the mapping of Label Switched Paths (LSPs) in an optimal way throughout the network on the basis of a given objective function. This problem is highly combinatorial and makes dynamic and real-time features a difficult issue for any LSP routing scheme. For this reason, we propose a computationally efficient, though approximate, on-line scheme adapted to an incremental optimization of the network state. We also propose an integration of a computationally efficient preemption mechanism into this approximation. The efficiency of this algorithm is obtained through a very rigid but seemingly appropriate policy concerning which LSPs are appropriate for preemption. A feedback from preemption on the routing process is proposed, in order to regulate the rate of the reroutings and to tune the balance between stability and continuous reorganization in a network. [less ▲]

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See detailReelin signaling directly affects radial glia morphology and biochemical maturation
Hartfuss, Eva; Forster, Eckart; Bock, Hans H. et al

in Development (2003), 130(19), 4597-4609

Radial glial cells are characterized, besides their astroglial properties, by long radial processes extending from the ventricular zone to the pial surface, a crucial feature for the radial migration of ... [more ▼]

Radial glial cells are characterized, besides their astroglial properties, by long radial processes extending from the ventricular zone to the pial surface, a crucial feature for the radial migration of neurons. The molecular signals that regulate this characteristic morphology, however, are largely unknown. We show an important role of the secreted molecule reelin for the establishment of radial glia processes. We describe a significant reduction in ventricular zone cells with long radial processes in the absence of reelin in the cortex of reeler mutant mice. These defects were correlated to a decrease in the content of brain lipid-binding protein (Blbp) and were detected exclusively in the cerebral cortex, but not in the basal ganglia of reeler mice. Conversely, reelin addition in vitro increased the Blbp content and process extension of radial glia from the cortex, but not the basal ganglia. Isolation of radial glia by fluorescent-activated cell sorting showed that these effects are due to direct signaling of reelin to radial glial cells. We could further demonstrate that this signaling requires Dab1, as the increase in Blbp upon reelin addition failed to occur in Dab1(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results unravel a novel role of reelin signaling to radial glial cells that is crucial for the regulation of their Blbp content and characteristic morphology in a region-specific manner. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization and photoaffinity labelling of the levetiracetam binding site in rat brain and certain cell lines
Fuks, Bruno; Gillard, Michel; Michel, Philippe et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2003), 478(1), 11-19

Levetiracetam (2S-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)butanamide, KEPPRA(R)), a novel antiepileptic drug, has been shown to bind to a specific binding site located in the brain (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 286 (1995) 137). To ... [more ▼]

Levetiracetam (2S-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)butanamide, KEPPRA(R)), a novel antiepileptic drug, has been shown to bind to a specific binding site located in the brain (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 286 (1995) 137). To identify the protein constituent of the levetiracetam binding site in situ, we synthesized the photoaffinity label [H-3]ucb 30889 ((2S)-2-[4-(3-azidophenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamide), a levetiracetam analog with higher affinity for the levetiracetam binding site. This radioligand was used to map the levetiracetam binding site within the brain and to study its cellular and subcellular distribution. Autoradiography experiments using [H-3]ucb 30889 in rat brain revealed a unique distribution profile that did not match that of classical receptors known to be involved in the generation of epileptic seizures. There was a high level of binding in the dentate gyrus, the superior colliculus, several thalamic nuclei, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex, the striatum and the hypothalamus. The levetiracetam binding site was restricted to neuronal cell types, undifferentiated PC 12 cells and was highly enriched in synaptic vesicles. [H-3]ucb 30889 was also used in photoaffinity labelling studies and shown to bind covalently to a membrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe commutative closure of a binary slip-language is context-free: a new proof
Rigo, Michel ULiege

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2003), 131(3), 665-672

Using original arguments about sets of integers satisfying some first-order formula of the Presburger arithmetic <N, +>, we give a new proof that the commutative closure of a slip-language over a two ... [more ▼]

Using original arguments about sets of integers satisfying some first-order formula of the Presburger arithmetic <N, +>, we give a new proof that the commutative closure of a slip-language over a two letters alphabet is context-free. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and functional adaptations to extreme temperatures in psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic DNA ligases
Georlette, D.; Damien, B.; Blaise, Vinciane ULiege et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(39), 37015-37023

Psychrophiles, host of permanently cold habitats, display metabolic fluxes comparable to those exhibited by mesophilic organisms at moderate temperatures. These organisms have evolved by producing, among ... [more ▼]

Psychrophiles, host of permanently cold habitats, display metabolic fluxes comparable to those exhibited by mesophilic organisms at moderate temperatures. These organisms have evolved by producing, among other peculiarities, cold-active enzymes that have the properties to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures. The emerging picture suggests that these enzymes display a high catalytic efficiency at low temperatures through an improved flexibility of the structural components involved in the catalytic cycle, whereas other protein regions, if not implicated in catalysis, may be even more rigid than their mesophilic counterparts. In return, the increased flexibility leads to a decreased stability of psychrophilic enzymes. In order to gain further advances in the analysis of the activity/flexibility/stability concept, psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic DNA ligases have been compared by three-dimensional-modeling studies, as well as regards their activity, surface hydrophobicity, structural permeability, conformational stabilities, and irreversible thermal unfolding. These data show that the cold-adapted DNA ligase is characterized by an increased activity at low and moderate temperatures, an overall destabilization of the molecular edifice, especially at the active site, and a high conformational flexibility. The opposite trend is observed in the mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, the latter being characterized by a reduced low temperature activity, high stability and reduced flexibility. These results strongly suggest a complex relationship between activity, flexibility and stability. In addition, they also indicate that in cold-adapted enzymes, the driving force for denaturation is a large entropy change. [less ▲]

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See detailFully automated method for the liquid chromatographic determination of cyproterone acetate in plasma using restricted access material for sample pre-treatment
Christiaens, B.; Chiap, Patrice ULiege; Rbeida, O. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences (2003), 795(1), 73-82

A new fully automated method for the quantitative analysis of an antiandrogenic substance, cyproterone acetate (CPA), in plasma samples has been developed using on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior ... [more ▼]

A new fully automated method for the quantitative analysis of an antiandrogenic substance, cyproterone acetate (CPA), in plasma samples has been developed using on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to the determination by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). The automated method was based on the use of a precolumn packed with an internal-surface reversed-phase packing material (LiChrospher RP-4 ADS) for sample clean-up coupled to LC analysis on an octadecyl stationary phase using a column-switching system. A 200-mul volume of plasma sample was injected directly on the precolumn packed with restricted access material using a mixture of water-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as washing liquid. The analyte was then eluted in the back-flush mode with the LC mobile phase which consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-acetonitrile (54:46, v/v). The elution profiles of CPA and blank plasma samples on the precolumn and the time needed for analyte transfer from the precolumn to the analytical column were determined. Different compositions of washing liquid and mobile phase were tested to reduce the interference of plasma endogenous components. UV detection was achieved at 280 nm. Finally, the developed method was validated using a new approach, namely the application of the accuracy profile based on the interval confidence at 90% of the total measurement error (bias+standard deviation). The limit of quantification of cyproterone acetate in plasma was determined at 15 ng ml(-1). The validated method should be applicable to the determination of CPA in patients treated by at least 50 mg day(-1). (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution FUV observations of proton aurora
Chua, D. H.; Dymond, K. F.; Budzien, S. A. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2003), 30(18),

We present new FUV observations of Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha emissions from proton aurora obtained from the High Resolution Ionospheric and Thermospheric Spectrograph ( HITS) aboard the Advanced ... [more ▼]

We present new FUV observations of Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha emissions from proton aurora obtained from the High Resolution Ionospheric and Thermospheric Spectrograph ( HITS) aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). The HITS instrument observes the Doppler-shifted H Lyman-alpha emissions from proton precipitation with 1.5 Angstrom resolution. The high spectral resolution of these measurements allows the auroral Lyman-alpha emissions to be separated from the intense geocoronal background. The measured proton aurora Doppler spectra are modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation of proton flux transport. The forward modeling performed with this code allows us to infer the characteristic energies of the incident protons from the measured Lyman-alpha Doppler spectra. The inferred characteristics of dayside versus nightside proton precipitation are compared and used to identify the magnetospheric regions from which the particles likely originated. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone initiated by Y alkoxide grafted onto porous silica
Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULiege; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Macromolecules (2003), 36(19), 7094-7099

Ring-opening polymerization of c-caprolactone has been initiated by Y isopropoxide grafted onto silica, in the presence of 2-propanol, in toluene at 40degreesC. The degree of polymerization is controlled ... [more ▼]

Ring-opening polymerization of c-caprolactone has been initiated by Y isopropoxide grafted onto silica, in the presence of 2-propanol, in toluene at 40degreesC. The degree of polymerization is controlled by the initial monomer/(alcohol + alkoxide) molar ratio. Deactivation of the chains by an alcohol is essential for them to be detached from the support and to be collected totally free of metal and silica residues. The alkoxide is also regenerated at the surface of the support, which allows for recycling the catalyst. [less ▲]

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See detailA field-based crop and land use map over Sanjiang plain in Heilongjiang derived from multi-temporal imagery of Landsat7-ETM+
Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Ozer, Pierre ULiege et al

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2003)

Multitemporal Landsat7-ETM+ imagery and supplementary field survey data were used to establish a crop and land use map for an area of ±20 000 km² of Sanjiang Plain in China’s north-eastern province ... [more ▼]

Multitemporal Landsat7-ETM+ imagery and supplementary field survey data were used to establish a crop and land use map for an area of ±20 000 km² of Sanjiang Plain in China’s north-eastern province Heilongjiang. The “field-based” map is based on data of the year 2002 and is created by combining the results of a supervised Maximum Likelihood classification with the estimated field boundaries extracted by an automatic segmentation procedure. No sufficient ground truth was available to perform an independent validation, and some classes are certainly confused. Nevertheless, given the minimal investments and the unexplored potentials for improvement, the approach seems very promising and cost-effective. By superimposing the classification with the map of the administrative counties, regional statistics were derived with the acreage distributions of the concerned crops and land use types. [less ▲]

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See detailnote sous arrêt du 18 septembre 2003, Volkswagen AG c/ Commission
Petit, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue du Droit de l'Union Européenne (2003)

résumé et analyse de l'affaire Volkswagen AG contre Commission, affaire C-338/00

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See detailCrystal structure of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the molecular mechanism for catalytic reaction and substrate specificity expansion
Ibuka, A. S.; Ishii, Y.; Galleni, Moreno ULiege et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(36), 10634-10643

The crystallographic structure of the class A beta-lactamase Toho-1, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with potent activity against expanded-spectrum cephems, has been determined at 1.65 Angstrom ... [more ▼]

The crystallographic structure of the class A beta-lactamase Toho-1, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with potent activity against expanded-spectrum cephems, has been determined at 1.65 Angstrom resolution. The result reveals that the Lys73 side chain can adopt two alternative conformations. The predominant conformation of Lys73 is different from that observed in the E166A mutant, indicating that removal of the Glu166 side chain changes the conformation of the Lys73 side chain and thus the interaction between Lys73 and Glu166. The Lys73 side chain would play an important role in proton relay, switching its conformation from one to the other depending on the circumstances. The electron density map also implies possible rotation of Ser237. Comparison of the Toho-1 structure with the structure of other class A beta-lactamases shows that the hydroxyl group of Ser237 is likely to rotate through interaction with the carboxyl group of the substrate. Another peculiarity is the existence of three sulfate ions positioned in or near the substrate-binding cavity. One of these sulfate ions is tightly bound to the active center, while the other two are held by a region of positive charge formed by two arginine residues, Arg274 and Arg276. This positively charged region is speculated to represent a pseudo-binding site of the beta-lactam antibiotics, presumably catching the methoxyimino group of the third-generation cephems prior to proper binding in the substrate-binding cleft for hydrolysis. This high-resolution structure, together with detailed kinetic analysis of Toho-1, provides a new hypothesis for the catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of Toho-1. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic characterization of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation design
Roland, Isabelle ULiege; Piel, Géraldine ULiege; Delattre, Luc ULiege et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2003), 263(1-2), 85-94

Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find Out ... [more ▼]

Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find Out which tests should systematically be carried Out to assess efficiently the stability and the properties of ail emulsified preparation. Thus, formulation design requires at least the measurement of the droplet size, the determination of the zeta potential, a TurbiScan(R) analysis, the investigation of the stability under centrifugation and freeze/thaw cycles. If the emulsion contains an active substance, stability under storage at 4 degreesC and microscopic analysis are relevant. Quality Control Should be improved by measurements of viscosity and pH. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric DNA: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes
Schynts, F.; McVoy, M. A.; Meurens, F. et al

in Virology (2003), 314(1), 326-335

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a ... [more ▼]

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a short (S) segment. The latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. DNA replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging DNA into capsids. Packaged class D genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which S is in either of two orientations, presumably a consequence of homologous recombination between the inverted repeats. The L segment remains predominantly fixed in a prototype (P) orientation; however, low levels of genomes having inverted L (I-L) segments have been reported for some class D herpesviruses. Inefficient formation of class D I-L genomes has been attributed to infrequent L segment inversion, but recent detection of frequent inverted L segments in equine herpesvirus 1 concatemers [Virology 229 (1997) 415-420] suggests that the defect may be at the level of cleavage and packaging rather than inversion. In this study, the structures of virion and concatemeric DNA of another class D herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, were determined. Virion DNA contained low levels of I-L genomes, whereas concatemeric DNA contained significant amounts of L segments in both P and I-L orientations. However, concatemeric termini exhibited a preponderance of L termini derived from P isomers which was comparable to the preponderance of P genomes found in virion DNA. Thus, the defect in formation of I-L genomes appears to lie at the level of concatemer cleavage. These results have important implications for the mechanisms by which herpesvirus DNA cleavage and packaging occur. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the adaptor protein CIKS in the activation of the IKK complex
Mauro, Claudio; Vito, Pasquale; Mellone, Stefano et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2003), 309(1), 84-90

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes, including stress response, inflammation, and protection from apoptosis. Therefore, the activity of NF-kappaB needs to ... [more ▼]

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes, including stress response, inflammation, and protection from apoptosis. Therefore, the activity of NF-kappaB needs to be tightly regulated. We have previously identified a novel gene, named CIKS (connection to IkappaB-kinase and SAPK), able to bind the regulatory sub-unit NEMO/IKKgamma and to activate NF-kappaB. Here, we demonstrate that CIKS forms homo-oligomers, interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma, and is recruited to the IKK-complex upon cell stimulation. In addition, we identified the regions of CIKS responsible for these functions. We found that the ability of CIKS to oligomerize, and to be recruited to the IKK-complex is not sufficient to activate the NF-kappaB In fact, a deletion mutant of CIKS able to oligomerize, to interact with NEMO/IKKgamma, and to be recruited to the IKK-complex does not activate NF-kappaB, suggesting that CIKS needs a second level of regulation to efficiently activate NF-kappaB. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLubrication by charged polymers
Raviv, Uri; Giasson, Suzanne; Kampf, Nir et al

in Nature (2003), 425(6954), 163-165

Long-ranged forces between surfaces in a liquid control effects from colloid stability [1] to biolubrication [2], and can be modified either by steric factors due to flexible polymers [3], or by surface ... [more ▼]

Long-ranged forces between surfaces in a liquid control effects from colloid stability [1] to biolubrication [2], and can be modified either by steric factors due to flexible polymers [3], or by surface charge effects [4]. In particular, neutral polymer 'brushes' may lead to a massive reduction in sliding friction between the surfaces to which they are attached [5-7], whereas hydrated ions can act as extremely efficient lubricants between sliding charged surfaces [8]. Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectrolytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared to other polymeric surfactants. Effective friction coefficients with polyelectrolyte brushes in water are lower than about 0.0006-0.001 even at low sliding velocities and at pressures of up to several atmospheres (typical of those in living systems). We attribute this to the exceptional resistance to mutual interpenetration displayed by the compressed, counterion-swollen brushes, together with the fluidity of the hydration layers surrounding the charged, rubbing polymer segments. Our findings may have implications for biolubrication effects, which are important in the design of lubricated surfaces in artificial implants, and in understanding frictional processes in biological systems. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Août 2003
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; De Longueville, Florence ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2003)

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See detailCerebrospinal fluid pterins and folates in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: A new phenotype
Blau, N.; Bonafé, L.; Krägeloh-Mann, I. et al

in Neurology (2003), 61(5), 642-647

Objective: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity ... [more ▼]

Objective: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity, and occasional seizures. Results: Neuroimaging showed bilateral calcification of basal ganglia and white matter. CSF glucose, protein, cell count, and interferon alpha were normal. Abnormal CSF findings included extremely high neopterin (293 to 814 nmol/L; normal 12 to 30 nmol/L) and biopterin (226 to 416 nmol/L; normal 15 to 40 nmol/L) combined with lowered 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (23 to 48 nmol/L; normal 64 to 182 nmol/L) concentrations in two patients. The absence of pleocytosis and normal CSF interferon alpha was a characteristic finding compared to the classic AGS syndrome. Genetic and enzymatic tests excluded disorders of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, including mutation analysis of GTP cyclohydrolase feed-back regulatory protein. CSF investigations in three patients with classic AGS also showed increased pterins and partially lowered folate levels. Conclusions: Intrathecal overproduction of pterins is the first biochemical abnormality identified in patients with AGS variants. Long-term substitution with folinic acid (2-4 mg/kg/day) resulted in substantial clinical recovery with normalization of CSF folates and pterins in one patient and clinical improvement in another. The underlying defect remains unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective interaction of ethidium derivatives with quadruplexes: An equilibrium dialysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis
Rosu, Frédéric ULiege; De Pauw, Edwin ULiege; Guittat, Lionel et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(35), 10361-10371

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in ... [more ▼]

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in immortalized and most cancer cells suggests that telomerase is a relevant target in oncology, and telomerase inhibitors have been proposed as new potential anticancer agents. In this paper, we have analyzed the selectivity of four ethidium derivatives and ethidium itself toward different G-quadruplex species, with electrospray mass spectrometry and competitive equilibrium dialysis and evaluated their inhibitory properties against telomerase. A selectivity profile may be obtained through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which is in fair agreement with competitive equilibrium dialysis data. It also provides unambiguous data on the number of binding sites per nucleic acid (maximal number of two ethidium derivatives per quadruplex, in agreement with external stacking). Our experiments also demonstrate that one compound (4) is the most active and selective G-quadruplex ligand within this series and the most selective telomerase inhibitor in a modified TRAP-G4 assay. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential involvement of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS1 complex, BRCA1 and MLH1 in NF-kappa B activation by camptothecin and X-ray
Habraken, Yvette ULiege; Jolois, Olivier ULiege; Piette, Jacques ULiege

in Oncogene (2003), 22(38), 6090-6099

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination ... [more ▼]

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination pathways and cell cycle control in the signal transduction between DNA damage and NF-kappaB. Cells harbouring mutated NBS, hMRE11, BRCA1 or MLH1 were analysed. NBS- and hMRE11-deficient cells present a classical kinetic of NF-kappaB induction after camptothecin treatment. When DSB are generated by XR, NBS-deficient cells exhibit a delayed and strongly reduced level of NF-kappaB induction, whereas the hMRE11 mutated cells do not induce NF-kappaB at all. This indicates an important role of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS complex in the signal transduction initiated by XR. In HCC1937 cells that express a truncated version of BRCA1, XR induces a very rapid and transient NF-kappaB activation, whereas CPT leads to a delayed activation suggesting that BRCA1 modulates the transduction pathways in different manners after these two stresses. Finally, we found that a proficient MMR pathway is essential to the NF-kappaB activation after both CPT and XR. These results indicate that DSB originating from XR or CPT do not induce NF-kappaB in a unique way. MMR participates in both cascades, whereas the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS trimer is specifically involved in the response elicited by XR. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalous Nitrogen Isotope Ratio in Comets
Arpigny, Claude ULiege; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege et al

in Science (2003), 301

High-resolution spectra of the CN B[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP]-X[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP] (0,0) band at 390 nanometers yield isotopic ratios for comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR ... [more ▼]

High-resolution spectra of the CN B[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP]-X[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP] (0,0) band at 390 nanometers yield isotopic ratios for comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) as follows: 165 +/- 40 and 115 +/- 20 for [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C, 140 +/- 35 and 140 +/- 30 for [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N. Our N isotopic measurements are lower than the terrestrial [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N = 272 and the ratio for Hale-Bopp from measurements of HCN, the presumed parent species of CN. This isotopic anomaly suggests the existence of other parent(s) of CN, with an even lower N isotopic ratio. Organic compounds like those found in interplanetary dust particles are good candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent mechanisms are implicated in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast and in other cancers
Vernimmen, D.; Guéders, Maud ULiege; Pisvin, Sonia ULiege et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2003), 89(5), 899-906

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast ... [more ▼]

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast cancer cells, the mechanisms leading to ERBB2 gene overexpression are increased transcription and gene amplification. In these cancers, AP-2 transcription factors are involved in ERBB2 overexpression, and AP-2 levels are correlated with p185(c-erbB-2) levels. In this work, we wanted to know if the same molecular mechanisms are responsible for the ERBB2 upregulation in non-breast cancers. We compared ERBB2 gene copy number, p185(c-erbB-2) and mRNA levels with AP-2 levels in several ovary, prostate, colon and pancreas cancer cells. A moderate expression of erbB-2 mRNA and protein were observed in some cells without gene amplification. In contrast to breast cancer cells, AP-2 factors were absent or low in some non-breast cells which did express ERBB2. It is thus likely that AP-2 is not a major player in the increased levels of erbB-2 transcripts in non-breast cancer cells. The transcriptional activity of the ERBB2 promoter in colon and ovary cancer cells was estimated using reporter vectors. The results showed that the promoter regions involved in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer cells are different from those that lead to the gene upregulation in colon and ovary cancers. In conclusion, our results indicate that different transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for the increased levels of erbB-2 transcript and protein in breast and non-breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA complete fuzzy decision tree technique
Olaru, C.; Wehenkel, Louis ULiege

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2003), 138(2), 221-254

In this paper, a new method of fuzzy decision trees called soft decision trees (SDT) is presented. This method combines tree growing and pruning, to determine the structure of the soft decision tree, with ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new method of fuzzy decision trees called soft decision trees (SDT) is presented. This method combines tree growing and pruning, to determine the structure of the soft decision tree, with refitting and backfitting, to improve its generalization capabilities. The method is explained and motivated and its behavior is first analyzed empirically on 3 large databases in terms of classification error rate, model complexity and CPU time. A comparative study on 11 standard UCI Repository databases then shows that the soft decision trees produced by this method are significantly more accurate than standard decision trees. Moreover, a global model variance study shows a much lower variance for soft decision trees than for standard trees as a direct cause of the improved accuracy. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBirds return every spring like clockwork, but where is the clock?
Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege

in Endocrinology (2003), 144(9), 3739-3741

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See detailGranular spirals on erodible sand bed submitted to a circular fluid motion
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULiege

in Physical Review E (2003), 68(3, Pt 1), 31303

An experimental study of a granular surface submitted to a circular fluid motion is presented. The appearance of an instability along the sand-water interface is observed beyond a critical radius r(c ... [more ▼]

An experimental study of a granular surface submitted to a circular fluid motion is presented. The appearance of an instability along the sand-water interface is observed beyond a critical radius r(c). This creates ripples with a spiral shape on the granular surface. A phase diagram of such patterns is constructed and discussed as a function of the rotation speed omega of the flow and as a function of the height of water h above the surface. The study of r(c) as a function of h, omega, and r parameters is reported. Thereafter, r(c) is shown to depend on the rotation speed according to a power law. The ripple wavelength is found to decrease when the rotation speed increases and is proportional to the radial distance r. The azimuthal angle epsilon of the spiral arms is studied. It is found that epsilon scales with homegar. This lead to the conclusion that epsilon depends on the fluid momentum. Comparison with experiments performed with fluids allows us to state that the spiral patterns are not the signature of an instability of the boundary layer. [less ▲]

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See detailWR bubbles and HeII emission
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 408(1), 171-186

We present the very first high quality images of the He II lambda4686 emission in three high excitation nebulae of the Magellanic Clouds. A fourth high excitation nebula, situated around the WR star BAT99 ... [more ▼]

We present the very first high quality images of the He II lambda4686 emission in three high excitation nebulae of the Magellanic Clouds. A fourth high excitation nebula, situated around the WR star BAT99-2, was analysed in a previous letter. Using VLT FORS data, we investigate the morphology of the ring nebulae around the early-type WN stars BAT99-49 [less ▲]

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See detailNaturocetic (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate) compounds as structure-modifying drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULiege et al

in Current Opinion in Rheumatology (2003), 15

Purpose of review Several entities have been investigated carefully for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis. This review reports recent findings suggesting that such compounds may ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review Several entities have been investigated carefully for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis. This review reports recent findings suggesting that such compounds may delay the structural progression of osteoarthritis. Recent findings The most compelling evidence of a potential for inhibiting the structural progression of osteoarthritis has been obtained with glucosamine sulfate, whereas preliminary results obtained in patients with osteoarthritis of the hands also suggest that chondroitin sulfate could be used in the same indication. At any rate, these two compounds have clearly demonstrated a symptomatic action, mainly in osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Patients with the less severe radiographic osteoarthritis will experience, in the long run, the most dramatic disease progression in terms of joint space narrowing. Such patients may be particularly responsive to structure-modifying drugs. Summary Glucosamine sulfate has demonstrated its ability to reduce the progression of osteoarthritis in the lower limbs. The preliminary results obtained in the hands suggest that chondroitin sulfate could also be of interest in this indication. An important issue is that all the conclusive studies with such chemical entities resulted from the use of prescription medicines, not over-the-counter pills or food supplements. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 716-721

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries. Patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a high risk of future fracture. However, access to BMD measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high-risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We compared two methods, a simple clinical risk assessment tool, the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in identifying subjects with low BMD by DXA in 722 southern Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from the community in Hong Kong. Using the published cutoff value of -1 (versus 0 or higher) for OSTA to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, basing on our local population peak young mean value, the sensitivity and specificity was 88% and 54% respectively. The optimal cutoff T-score of -2.35 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 65%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.78, which was not significantly different from that of 0.80 for OSTA. Both OSTA and QUS correlated significantly with BMD at the femoral neck (0.62 and 0.36, respectively, P both <0.001). When these cut-off values were used to identify subjects with either lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, the sensitivity and specificity was 79% and 60%, respectively, for OSTA, and 69% and 70%, respectively, for QUS. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the sensitivity to 91%, but the specificity was reduced to 44%. We conclude that the simple clinical risk assessment tool OSTA is a free and effective method for identifying subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailThe in situ Glyptostroboxylon forest of Hoegaarden (Belgium) at the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (55 Ma)
Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULiege; Steurbaut, Etienne; Damblon, Freddy ULiege et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2003), 126(1-2), 103-129

Hundreds of silicified standing stumps have been discovered within a lignitic horizon in the middle of the Tienen Formation near Hoegaarden in northeast Belgium. The anatomical features of the fossil ... [more ▼]

Hundreds of silicified standing stumps have been discovered within a lignitic horizon in the middle of the Tienen Formation near Hoegaarden in northeast Belgium. The anatomical features of the fossil stumps, as those of the numerous silicified secondary xylem remains collected since the last century from this area, demonstrate that they all belong to a single taxodiaceous taxon. The stumps bear characteristics shared by Taxodioxylon gypsaceum and Glyptostroboxylon tenerum, but affinities with the latter appear closer. They are attributed to Glyptostroboxylon sp. Calibration of the sedimentological, stratigraphical and organic carbon isotope data reveals that these taxodiaceous fossil trees developed in a swampy lowland environment most probably during the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum at ca. 55 Ma. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of raloxifene combined with monofluorophosphate as compared with monofluorophosphate alone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, controlled trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Felsenberg, D.; Pavo, I. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 741-749

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the ... [more ▼]

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the vertebral fracture rate in postmenopausal women with moderate osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combination of raloxifene and MFP in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis. A total of 596 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis (mean femoral neck T-score of -2.87 SD) were randomized to treatment with 60 mg/day raloxifene HCl and 20 mg/day fluoride ions (as MFP) or 20 mg/day fluoride and placebo for 18 months. All patients received calcium (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (500 IU/day) supplements. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), as primary endpoint, and the rate of osteoporotic fractures and biochemical markers, as secondary endpoints, were assessed. As compared with MFP, raloxifene plus MFP was associated with significantly greater mean increases in the BMD of the femoral neck (1.37% versus 0.33%; P=0.004), total hip (0.89% versus -0.42%; P<0.001) and lumbar spine (8.80% versus 5.47% P<0.001). In the raloxifene plus MFP group, 16 patients sustained 17 osteoporotic fractures, as compared with 22 patients sustaining 34 incident osteoporotic fractures in the MFP group (P=0.313). One patient in the raloxifene plus MFP group sustained multiple osteoporotic fractures, as compared with eight patients in the MFP group (P=0.020). MFP alone significantly increased the serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP) and the urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagene (U-CTX). The addition of raloxifene in the combination arm blunted the rise in bone ALP, which remained nevertheless significant, and abolished the increase in U-CTX. The combination of raloxifene with MFP was generally well tolerated. This study demonstrates that, in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis, the combination therapy of raloxifene plus MFP favorably influences the BMD and the bone formation and resorption balance, and may reduce the risk of multiple osteoporotic fractures compared to MFP alone. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver transplantation for metastatic colon adenocarcinoma: report of a case with 10 years of follow-up without recurrence
Honore, Charles ULiege; Detry, Olivier ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Transplant International (2003), 16(9), 692-693

Because of dismal mid-term and long-term results, secondary liver cancer is considered an absolute contra-indication to cadaveric liver transplantation, with the relative exception of metastases of ... [more ▼]

Because of dismal mid-term and long-term results, secondary liver cancer is considered an absolute contra-indication to cadaveric liver transplantation, with the relative exception of metastases of symptomatic neuro-endocrine cancers. The authors present in this report the case of a patient who has been enjoying 10 years of cancer-free survival after liver transplantation as rescue therapy for acute liver failure after liver resection for isolated hepatic metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma. This case shows that in some highly selected cases, liver transplantation may be curative in patients with liver metastases of colon carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity and expression memory for happy and angry faces in social anxiety
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

in Acta Psychologica (2003), 114(1), 1-15

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces ... [more ▼]

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were asked both for identity and expression memory. For participants low in social anxiety, both identity and expression memory were more often associated with "remember" responses when the faces were previously seen with a happy rather than an angry expression. In contrast, the initial expression of the faces did not affect either identity or expression memory for participants high in social anxiety. We interpreted these findings by arguing that most people tend to preferentially elaborate positive rather than negative social stimuli that are important to the self and that this tendency may be reduced in high socially anxious individuals because of the negative meaning they tend to ascribe to positive social information. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDe LAT-relatie tussen strip en literatuur. Over de 'verstripping' van literaire werken
Meesters, Gert ULiege

in Ons Erfdeel (2003), 46(4), 523-530

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See detailStrategies for the prevention of hip fracture
Gourlay, M.; Richy, F.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in American Journal of Medicine (2003), 115(4), 309-317

Hip fractures are associated with 10% to 20% excess mortality in the first year and cause functional disability in most survivors. An estimated 17% of white women in the United States will sustain a hip ... [more ▼]

Hip fractures are associated with 10% to 20% excess mortality in the first year and cause functional disability in most survivors. An estimated 17% of white women in the United States will sustain a hip fracture after the age of 50 years. Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for hip fracture prevention, routine screening and preventive measures have not been incorporated into standard primary care practice. Many physicians lack adequate knowledge to initiate bone mineral density testing and treatment with preventive medications to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Furthermore, patients are less likely to request information about bone health than about diseases for which systematic screening and prevention protocols have been established. This review describes preventive measures to decrease hip fracture in postmenopausal women, including screening by bone mineral density testing, risk factor assessment, and chemoprevention. Existing guidelines are summarized, and dilemmas regarding their implementation are discussed. (C) 2003 by Excerpta Medica Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace du traitement substitutif de la menopause 1 an apres la publication des resultats de l'etude WHI (Women's Health Initiative)
Pintiaux, Axelle ULiege; Van den Brule, F.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 572-5

The currently reported data concerning the large WHI randomized controlled trial compare the impact of continuous combined conjugated estrogens + medroxyprogesterone acetate vs placebo in postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

The currently reported data concerning the large WHI randomized controlled trial compare the impact of continuous combined conjugated estrogens + medroxyprogesterone acetate vs placebo in postmenopausal women. These results appear largely pessimistic. After 5.2 years of hormone replacement, an excess of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, breast cancer incidence and extension, mild cognitive impairment and dementia is recorded. By contrast, osteoporotic fracture risk and colorectal cancer are decreased during hormone replacement. Accordingly, this hormonal treatment can no longer be recommended on a long term basis, except after extensive risk-benefit balance evaluation. It should no longer be prescribed for prevention of chronic diseases. It remains indicated during 4-5 years for relief of vasomotor symptoms, genital atrophy and, potentially, for some aspects of quality of life. HRT should probably be prescribed in minimal-effective dosages; new regimens, routes of administration, new compounds and associations should be envisaged in order to avoid cardiovascular or breast problems. However these new approaches ask for thorough validation studies. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of singlet oxygen reactivity towards propofol
Heyne, Belinda; Kohnen, Stephan ULiege; Brault, Daniel et al

in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences (2003), 2(9), 939-945

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser ... [more ▼]

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis with infrared luminescence detection. The rate constants for the physical and chemical quenching of 1O2 by PPF (kPPF) are found to be 2.66 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and approximately 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) in CD3OD and D2O-CD3OD (75:25 v/v), respectively. The reaction of propofol with singlet oxygen produced by light irradiation of Rose Bengal leads essentially to two reaction products, 2,6-diisopropyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5,3',5'-tetraisopropyl-(4,4')-diphenoquinone that are unambiguously identified from comparison with authentic samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiplex PCRs for Identification of Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Van Bost, S.; Jacquemin, E.; Oswald, E. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2003), 41(9), 4480-4482

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the ... [more ▼]

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the adhesins. They were validated by single PCRs performed with reference E. coli strains and by multiplex PCRs with necrotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from different animal species. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Mrna Expression of Decorin in the Prolapsing Posterior Leaflet of the Mitral Valve
Radermecker, M. A.; Limet, Raymond ULiege; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (2003), 2(3), 389-94

To improve our understanding of myxomatous degeneration of the valvar tissue as seen in mitral valve prolapse, we have compared the biosynthetic phenotype of the connective tissue cells in myxomatous ... [more ▼]

To improve our understanding of myxomatous degeneration of the valvar tissue as seen in mitral valve prolapse, we have compared the biosynthetic phenotype of the connective tissue cells in myxomatous segments (n=4) resected during surgery with that of homologous segments of normal valves (n=4) harvested in age-matched organ donors. The steady-state level of mRNA for selected extracellular matrix macromolecules and metalloproteinases was assessed by quantitative (internal standard controlled) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among the investigated gene products, the decorin mRNA expression was significantly increased in degenerative valve compared with normal tissue (211+/-48 vs. 100+/-70, p<0.02). The level of fibrillin 2 also tended to be increased (194+/-88 vs. 100+/-81, p=0.08). These results suggest that myxomatous valvar tissue is characterized by an overexpression of mRNA for decorin. Owing to the role of this small leucine-rich proteoglycan in the regulation of fibril assembly and stability, this alteration may account for or is a result of a defective organization of the collagen and elastic fibers in this disease and contribute to the intrinsic distensibility and fragility of the myxomatous tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of liquid semiconductors
Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege

in Journal de Physique IV (2003), 111

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See detailInfluence de l'effort physique sur le systeme immunitaire muqueux
Close, Patricia ULiege; Thielen, V.; Bury, Thierry ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 548-53

It is now generally accepted that strenuous exhausting exercise can increase susceptibility to viral infection during the following days or weeks. This review addresses the role of mucosal immunity in ... [more ▼]

It is now generally accepted that strenuous exhausting exercise can increase susceptibility to viral infection during the following days or weeks. This review addresses the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness and associations with the intensity, volume and duration of exercise. Indeed habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailMoritella cold-active dihydrofolate reductase: Are there natural limits to optimization of catalytic efficiency at low temperature?
Xu, Y.; Feller, Georges ULiege; Gerday, Charles ULiege et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2003), 185(18), 5519-5526

Adapting metabolic enzymes of microorganisms to low temperature environments may require a difficult compromise between velocity and affinity. We have investigated catalytic efficiency in a key metabolic ... [more ▼]

Adapting metabolic enzymes of microorganisms to low temperature environments may require a difficult compromise between velocity and affinity. We have investigated catalytic efficiency in a key metabolic enzyme (dihydrofolate reductase) of Moritella profunda sp. nov., a strictly psychrophilic bacterium with a maximal growth rate at 2degreesC or less. The enzyme is monomeric (M-r = 18,291), 55% identical to its Escherichia coli counterpart, and displays T-m and denaturation enthalpy changes much lower than E. coli and Thermotoga maritima homologues. Its stability curve indicates a maximum stability above the temperature range of the organism, and predicts cold denaturation below 0degreesC. At mesophilic temperatures the apparent K-m value for dihydrofolate is 50- to 80-fold higher than for E. coli, Lactobacillus casei, and T. maritima dihydrofolate reductases, whereas the apparent K-m value for NADPH, though higher, remains in the same order of magnitude. At 5degreesC these values are not significantly modified. The enzyme is also much less sensitive than its E. coli counterpart to the inhibitors methotrexate and trimethoprim. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K-m) with respect to dihydrofolate is thus much lower than in the other three bacteria. The higher affinity for NADPH could have been maintained by selection since NADPH assists the release of the product tetrahydrofolate. Dihydrofolate reductase adaptation to low temperature thus appears to have entailed a pronounced trade-off between affinity and catalytic velocity. The kinetic features of this psychrophilic protein suggest that enzyme adaptation to low temperature may be constrained by natural limits to optimization of catalytic efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenic role of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and therapeutic relevance of matrix metalloproteases inhibitors
Cataldo, Didier ULiege; Guéders, Maud ULiege; Rocks, Natacha ULiege et al

in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2003), 49(6), 875-884

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are diseases associated with an inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma. In this review, we focus on the role played by MMPs in the pathogenesis of inflammation, airway remodelling and alveolar destruction, depicting the observational studies in humans and the experimental studies in animal models. During the course of asthma, MM P-2,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 are expressed at baseline and the allergen exposure or exacerbations of the disease lead to an increase of MMP-9 secretion being at this time much higher than that of TIMP-1, allowing temporarily a matrix damage, possibly followed by abnormal repair. Animal models suggest a predominant role for MMP-9 and MMP-12 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and link an absence of MMP-2 to an increased parenchymal inflammation. In COPD and emphysema, human studies indicate an over-secretion of MMP-2,-8,-9 and animal models point out MMP-1 and MMP-12 as being key players in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Taken together, these data identify specific MW inhibition as appropriate target for therapeutic intervention in asthma or COPD/emphysema. They also strongly argue against the widespread use of large spectrum non specific inhibitors that could be detrimental. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of habituation causes high intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraine
Ambrosini, A.; Rossi, P.; De Pasqua, Victor ULiege et al

in Brain (2003), 126(Part 9), 2009-2015

Migraineurs are characterized interictally by lack of habituation, or even potentiation, of cortical evoked potentials during repetitive stimulation and by a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked ... [more ▼]

Migraineurs are characterized interictally by lack of habituation, or even potentiation, of cortical evoked potentials during repetitive stimulation and by a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (IDAP). To determine whether these two features of sensory processing are interrelated, we have studied them simultaneously on the same recordings of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). AEPs were obtained at four different stimulation intensities in 14 patients suffering from migraine without aura (MO) and 14 healthy volunteers (HV). For each intensity, 120 trials were averaged off-line globally and over four sequential blocks of 30 trials. IDAP was expressed by the amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF slope) for global and block averages. Habituation was calculated as the percentage amplitude variation between the first and fourth blocks for each stimulus intensity. The IDAP slope for global averages was higher in MO (1.05 +/- 0.27 muV/10 dB) than in HV (0.64 +/- 0.45 muV/10 dB) (P = 0.008), but IDAP slopes for block averages were greater in MO only at the fourth block (P = 0.048). First block amplitudes tended to be lower in MO, except at 80 dB. There was a potentiation of AEP amplitudes at every stimulus intensity in MO, contrasting with habituation in HV. IDAP slopes were negatively correlated with mean habituation percentages in pooled data from patients and controls (r = -0.610; P = 0.0006). This study confirms that IDAP is higher in migraineurs than in healthy controls. It also shows that the AEP habituation is replaced by potentiation at all stimulus intensities. The negative correlation found between IDAP and habituation suggests that the latter is able to have a strong influence on the former and perhaps even lead to it. In migraine, the habituation deficit amplifies the IDAP and may thus be the causal functional abnormality. We propose that it is due to a decreased pre-activation level of sensory cortices, a hypothesis also supported in this study by the lower amplitude of first AEP blocks in patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelles directives americaines et europeennes en 2003 pour la prise en charge de l'hypertension arterielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 563-571

New American and European guidelines have been released in 2003, the purpose of which is to improve the management of arterial hypertension. The decision to treat high blood pressure now mainly relies on ... [more ▼]

New American and European guidelines have been released in 2003, the purpose of which is to improve the management of arterial hypertension. The decision to treat high blood pressure now mainly relies on the individual cardiovascular risk rather than on the sole blood pressure level. Thus, antihypertensive drugs could be proposed even to normotensive individuals, provided they have a high cardiovascular risk (> 20% at 10 years). On the other hand, grade 1 or 2 hypertensive patients, if their baseline cardiovascular risk is low, will be prescribed antihypertensive drugs only after 3 to 6 months of follow-up. In all cases, individualized non pharmacological means must always be proposed and their use stimulated. The target blood pressure under treatment will be < 140/90 mmHg when the cardiovascular risk is low or moderate, but < 130/80 mmHg when high risk exists. To reach this target, a drug combination is very often necessary, and it frequently includes a low dose of diuretic. To-day, the option of using a low dose biotherapy as an alternative to monotherapy is even proposed as first step antihypertensive treatment. After initiation of treatment, the patient must be regularly followed up and stimulated to decrease his cardiovascular risk to the lowest possible level, following an inclusive approach. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of degrees of certainty to evaluate knowledge
Brutomesso, Daniela; Gagnayre, Remi; Leclercq, Dieudonné ULiege et al

in Patient Education & Counseling (2003), 51(1), 29-37

In patients with chronic diseases education should improve knowledge about the disease and increase certainty in knowledge. We present here a technique to measure changes in certainty after an educational ... [more ▼]

In patients with chronic diseases education should improve knowledge about the disease and increase certainty in knowledge. We present here a technique to measure changes in certainty after an educational intervention. For this purpose, before and after a course, patients answer a questionnaire in which answers are accompanied by an estimate of the degree of certainty. Answers are then assigned to areas of knowledge defined a priori: mastered (certainty greater than or equal to90%, correctness greater than or equal to90%), hazardous (certainty greater than or equal to90%, correctness less than or equal to50%), uncertain (certainty less than or equal to50%, correctness greater than or equal to90%) and residual. Finally differences in the distribution of answers among different areas are analysed statistically. Using this technique in a group of patients with type I diabetes who followed a course on insulin use, we found significant changes in the distribution of answers among different areas of knowledge. Thus changes in certainty can be analysed quantitatively and used to evaluate better the effect of therapeutic education. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPredominant ventromedial frontopolar metabolic impairment in frontotemporal dementia
Salmon, Eric ULiege; Garraux, Gaëtan ULiege; Delbeuck, Xavier et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(1), 435-440

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to ... [more ▼]

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to identification of the ventromedial frontopolar cortex as the single region affected in each and every FTD patients. This precise regional metabolic impairment should be integrated with recent neuropsychological researches, such as those showing that the ventromedial frontal cortex is critically involved in decision-making processes based on personal experience, feelings of rightness or social knowledge, processes that are characteristically impaired in FTD. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailt(5;14)/HOX11L2-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A collaborative study of the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique (GFCH)
Berger, R.; Dastugue, N.; Busson, M. et al

in Leukemia (2003), 17(9), 1851-1857

To accurately estimate the incidence of HOX11L2 expression, and determine the associated cytogenetic features, in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique ... [more ▼]

To accurately estimate the incidence of HOX11L2 expression, and determine the associated cytogenetic features, in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique (GFCH) carried out a retrospective study of both childhood and adult patients. In total, 364 patients were included ( 211 children less than or equal to15 years and 153 adults), and 67 ( 18.5%) [ 47 children ( 22.4%) and 20 adults (13.1%)] were shown to either harbor the t(5; 14) q35; q32) translocation or express the HOX11L2 gene or both. Most of the common hematological parameters did not show significant differences within positive and negative populations, whereas the incidence of CD1a+/CD10+ and cytoplasmic CD3+ patients was significantly higher in positive than in negative children. Out of the 63 positive patients investigated by conventional cytogenetics, 32 exhibited normal karyotype, whereas the others 31 showed clonal chromosome abnormalities, which did not include classical T-ALL specific translocations. Involvement of the RANBP17/HOX11L2 locus was ascertained by fluorescence in situ hybridization in six variant or alternative (three-way translocation or cytogenetic partner other than 14q32) translocations out of the 223 patients. Our results also show that HOX11L2 expression essentially occurs as a result of a 5q35 rearrangement, but is not associated with another identified T-ALL specific recurrent genetic abnormality, such as SIL-TAL fusion or HOX11 expression. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of acute leukemia and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome in two kindreds.
Willems, Evelyne ULiege; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULiege; Betea, Daniela ULiege et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2003), 17(9), 1912-1914

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See detailCognitive topography imbalance in alcoholism
Papart, Patrick ULiege; Liota, F.; Bartholomé, F. et al

in Journal of Psychophysiology (2003), 17(Suppl 1), 7-8

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See detailA reduced extracellular serotonin level increases the 5-HT1A PET ligand F-18-MPPF binding in the rat hippocampus
Zimmer, L.; Rbah, L.; Giacomelli, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2003), 44(9), 1495-1501

4,2'-(Methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]ethylpiperazine (F-18-MPPF) is a radiotracer used in clinical PET studies for the visualization of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors. In a ... [more ▼]

4,2'-(Methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]ethylpiperazine (F-18-MPPF) is a radiotracer used in clinical PET studies for the visualization of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a rapid enhancement of extracellular serotonin concentrations influences F-18-MPPF-specific binding. Because endogenous serotonin is significantly decreased in some pathologies, the aim of this study was to determine whether F-18-MPPF is sensitive to depletion of this neurotransmitter. Methods: Using the beta-microprobe, an original beta(+)-sensitive intracerebral probe, and micro-dialysis, the effect of decreased serotonin on the specific binding of F-18-MPPF to 5-HT1A receptors was investigated in the hippocampus of the anesthetized rat. Extracellular serotonin was pharmacologically decreased in the hippocampus after a single injection of p-ethynylphenylalanine ([p-EPA] 5 mg/kg), a new tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor. Results: Our results showed that the F-18-MPPF-specific binding was significantly enhanced after the decrease of extracellular serotonin. These results were confirmed by the F-18-MPPF distribution in cerebral tissues (hippocampus-to-cerebellum ratio) and by the decrease of the extracellular F-18-MPPF collected in hippocampal dialysates. Conclusion: This study further supports the view that 18F-MPPF binding potential is increased in the hippocampus if the endogenous serotonin is pharmacologically decreased after a p-EPA injection. This phenomenon will be an additional factor in the interpretation of the results from F-18-MPPF clinical PET studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of simulators as training tools
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULiege

in Current Medical Anesthesiology (2003)

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See detailThe antiangiogenic factor 16K human prolactin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by a mechanism that requires activation of nuclear factor-kappa B
Tabruyn, Sébastien ULiege; Sorlet, C. M.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULiege et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2003), 17(9), 1815-1823

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examined whether the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway was involved in mediating the apoptotic action of 16K hPRL in bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells. In a dose-dependent manner, treatment with 16K hPRL induced inhibitor kappaB-alpha degradation permitting translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus and reporter gene activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of a nondegradable inhibitor kappaB-alpha mutant or treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors blocked 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 16K hPRL activated the initiator caspases-8 and -9 and the effector caspase-3, all of which were essential for stimulation of DNA fragmentation. This activation of the caspase cascade by 16K hPRL was also NF-kappaB dependent. These findings support the conclusion that NF-kappaB signaling plays a central role in 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLearned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during posttraining rapid-eye-movements sleep
Peigneux, Philippe ULiege; Laureys, Steven ULiege; Fuchs, Sonia et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(1), 125-134

We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831-836), suggesting ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831-836), suggesting that REM sleep participates in the reprocessing of recent memory traces in humans. However, the nature of the reprocessed information remains open. Here, we show that regional cerebral reactivation during posttraining REM sleep is not merely related to the acquisition of basic visuomotor skills during prior practice of the serial reaction time task, but rather to the implicit acquisition of the probabilistic rules that defined stimulus sequences. Moreover, functional connections between the reactivated cuneus and the striatum-the latter being critical for implicit sequence learning-are reinforced during REM sleep after practice on a probabilistic rather than on a random sequence of stimuli. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that REM sleep is deeply involved in the reprocessing and optimization of the high-order information contained in the material to be learned. In addition, we show that the level of acquisition of probabilistic rules attained prior to sleep is correlated to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow during subsequent REM sleep. This suggests that posttraining cerebral reactivation is modulated by the strength of the memory traces developed during the learning episode. Our data provide the first experimental evidence for a link between behavioral performance and cerebral reactivation during REM sleep. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 1: pre- and post-flashover compartment fire model
Cadorin, Jean-François; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 395-427

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire ... [more ▼]

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire modelling on one hand and on the effect of localised fires on structures on the other hand. It includes a single compartment fire model that combines a two-zone model and a one-zone model. In this paper, the description of this compartment fire model is given. The main model is first presented. It consists of the usual zone model equations fully coupled with the partition model equations. The partitions are modelled by the finite element method. The switch from the two-zone to the one-zone model is then explained. The vertical, horizontal and forced vent sub-models are presented, followed by the fire source and the combustion models. A comparison between this code and another compartment fire model NAT is made. The OZone calculations are then compared to full scale fire tests. Considerations as to how this model is used for the design of steel elements will be presented in a companion paper (Fire Saf. J., this issue). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression pattern of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix-metalloproteinases in cycling human endometrium
Goffin, Frédéric ULiege; Munaut, Carine ULiege; Frankenne, Francis et al

in Biology of Reproduction (2003), 69(3), 976-984

The cyclic growth, differentiation, and cell death of endometrium represents the most dynamic example of steroid-driven tissue turnover in human adults. Key effectors in these processes-matrix ... [more ▼]

The cyclic growth, differentiation, and cell death of endometrium represents the most dynamic example of steroid-driven tissue turnover in human adults. Key effectors in these processes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs)-are regulated by ovarian steroids and, locally, by cytokines. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of both transcriptionally regulated molecules such as estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, and prolactin and a large array of MMPs and TIMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -11, -12, -19, -26, MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MT3-MMP, TIMP-1, -2, -3). Altogether, three distinct patterns of MMP and two patterns of TIMP expression were detected in cycling endometrium: 1). MMPs restricted to the menstrual period (MMPs-1, -3, -8, -9, -12); 2). MMPs and TIMPs expressed throughout the cycle (MMP-2, MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MMP-19, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2); 3). MMPs predominantly expressed during the proliferative phase (MMP-7, MMP-11, MMP-26, and MT3-MMP); and 4). TIMP-3, which, contrary to the other TIMPs, shows significant modulations, with maximum expression during the late secretory and menstrual phases. These specific patterns of MMP expression associated with each phase of the cycle may point to specific roles in the processes of menstruation, housekeeping activities, angiogenesis, tissue growth, and extracellular matrix remodeling. [less ▲]

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See detailDurability of mortars modified with metakaolin
Courard, Luc ULiege; Darimont, Anne ULiege; Schouterden, M. et al

in Cement & Concrete Research (2003), 33(9), 1473-1479

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the ... [more ▼]

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the influence of addition and replacement percentage. Cement is replaced on a mass basis of 5-20% for metakaolin. A mixture with natural kaolin is also studied. The transport properties and chemical behaviors are analyzed by means of chloride diffusion tests and sulfate immersion. Obserdvations after more than 100 days are used to prescribe mixtures that reduce the rate of chloride diffusion and sulfate degradation. For metakaolin, the optimum seems to be between 10% and 15% with regard to inhibition effect on chloride diffusion and sulfate attack. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBody contour 180 degrees pinhole SPET with or without tilted detector: a phantom study
Seret, Alain ULiege; Flérès, David; Firket, Olivier et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2003), 30(9), 1205-1210

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of 180 degrees pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired in body contour mode ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of 180 degrees pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired in body contour mode (variable distance between the detector and the axis of rotation for each projection) with or without a tilted detector head. Four non-circular orbits were designed bearing in mind the rotation radius and tilt angle values of previous pinhole SPET acquisitions in patients with circular orbits. The reconstructions were performed using a dedicated OS-EM algorithm. Reconstructed images of line and uniformity phantoms showed that the spatial and uniformity characteristics of the radioactive objects were preserved. In comparison with the circular orbits, the non-circular orbits allowed only a moderate gain (maximum 10%) in resolution. However, body contour pinhole SPET would significantly facilitate the camera set-up and in this way should decrease the camera set-up time, which is an important parameter in patient studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the very young open cluster NGC 6383
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 407(3), 925-15

We report the detection of a number of X-ray sources associated with the very young open cluster NGC6383. About two thirds of these objects are correlated with a rather faint optical source and all but ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of a number of X-ray sources associated with the very young open cluster NGC6383. About two thirds of these objects are correlated with a rather faint optical source and all but one have at least one infrared counterpart within a correlation radius of 8 arcsec. Although NGC6383 is not associated with a prominent star forming region, the overall properties of many of the X-ray sources suggest that they may be candidates for low-mass pre-main sequence stars. The number of X-ray sources increases towards the cluster center suggesting that there exists a close relation between the massive O-star binary system HD159176 in the cluster core and the population of X-ray bright low-mass objects in NGC 6383. [less ▲]

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See detailCyanobacterial diversity in natural and artificial microbial mats of Lake Fryxell (McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica): A morphological and molecular approach
Taton, A.; Grubisic, Stana ULiege; Brambilla, E. et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2003), 69(9), 5157-5169

Currently, there is no consensus concerning the geographic distribution and extent of endemism in Antarctic cyanobacteria. In this paper we describe the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of cyanobacteria ... [more ▼]

Currently, there is no consensus concerning the geographic distribution and extent of endemism in Antarctic cyanobacteria. In this paper we describe the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of cyanobacteria in a field microbial mat sample from Lake Fryxell and in an artificial cold-adapted sample cultured in a benthic gradient chamber (BGC) by using an inoculum from the same mat. Light microscopy and molecular tools, including 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing, were used. For the first time in the study of cyanobacterial diversity of environmental samples, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were retrieved and analyzed to complement the information obtained from the 16S rRNA gene. Microscopy allowed eight morphotypes to be identified, only one of which is likely to be an Antarctic endemic morphotype. Molecular analysis, however, revealed an entirely different pattern. A much higher number of phylotypes (15 phylotypes) was found, but no sequences from Nodularia and Hydrocoryne, as observed by microscopy, were retrieved. The 16S rRNA gene sequences determined in this study were distributed in 11 phylogenetic lineages, 3 of which were exclusively Antarctic and 2 of which were novel. Collectively, these Antarctic sequences together with all the other polar sequences were distributed in 22 lineages, 9 of which were exclusively Antarctic, including the 2 novel lineages observed in this study. The cultured BGC mat had lower diversity than the field mat. However, the two samples shared three morphotypes and three phylotypes. Moreover, the BGC mat allowed enrichment of one additional phylotype. ITS sequence analysis revealed a complex signal that was difficult to interpret. Finally, this study provided evidence of molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in Antarctica that is much greater than the diversity currently known based on traditional microscopic analysis. Furthermore, Antarctic endemic species were more abundant than was estimated on the basis of morphological features. Decisive arguments concerning the global geographic distribution of cyanobacteria should therefore incorporate data obtained with the molecular tools described here. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 2: Methodology and application
Cadorin, Jean-François; Pintea, Dan; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 429-451

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define ... [more ▼]

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define the design fire is then explained. This procedure enables to take into account the benefits of active measures on the fire safety. The combined use of a two- and a one-zone model is then presented. A particular attention is given to the criteria of choice of the model and to the different scenarios that can occur. The calculation of steel element temperature is then explained. The proposed procedure takes into account the localised effect of a fire with the help of Hasemi's model. The fire resistance is then calculated with the EUROCODE 3 methods. An application is finally presented. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging of large vessel vasculitis with (18)FDG PET: illusion or reality? A critical review of the literature data
Belhocine, Tarik; Blockmans, Daniel; Hustinx, Roland ULiege et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2003), 30(9), 1305-1313

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients ... [more ▼]

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients suffering from non-malignant diseases such as inflammatory or infectious diseases may also derive clinical benefit from the appropriate use of metabolic imaging. Large vessel vasculitides such as giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are other examples that may potentially extend the field of (18)FDG PET indications. The purpose of the present article is to assess the feasibility of metabolic imaging in vasculitis on the basis of the current literature data. In particular, the clinical context and the (18)FDG imaging patterns seen in patients with large vessel vasculitis are analysed in order to identify potential indications for metabolic imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiation of tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation by deacetylase inhibitors is associated with a delayed cytoplasmic reappearance of I kappa B alpha
Adam, Emmanuelle; Quivy, Vincent; Bex, Françoise et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2003), 23(17), 6200-6209

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiated TNF-induced expression of several natural NF-kappaB-driven promoters. This transcriptional synergism observed between TNF and TSA (or NaBut) required intact kappaB sites in all promoters tested and was biologically relevant as demonstrated by RNase protection on two instances of endogenous NF-kappaB-regulated gene transcription. Importantly, TSA prolonged both TNF-induced DNA-binding activity and the presence of NF-kappaKB in the nucleus. We showed that the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB was acetylated in vivo. However, this acetylation was weak, suggesting that other mechanisms could be implicated in the potentiated binding and transactivation activities of NF-kappaB after TNF plus TSA versus TNF treatment. Western blot and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy experiments revealed a delay in the cytoplasmic reappearance of the IkappaBalpha inhibitor that correlated temporally with the prolonged intranuclear binding and presence of NF-kappaB. This delay was due neither to a defect in IkappaBalpha mRNA production nor to a nuclear retention of IkappaBalpha but was rather due to a persistent proteasome-mediated degradation of IkappaBalpha. A prolongation of IkappaB kinase activity could explain, at least partially, the delayed IkappaBalpha cytoplasmic reappearance observed in presence of TNF plus TSA. [less ▲]

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See detailA detailed kinetic study of Mox-1, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase
Alba, J.; Bauvois, C.; Ishii, Y. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2003), 225(2), 183-188

Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an ... [more ▼]

Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an overproduction system for Mox-1, a plasmid class C beta-lactamase, by cloning the gene encoding this enzyme, and placing it under the control of a T7 promoter, using vector pET 28a. The enzyme, purified by ion exchange chromatography, was used to obtain the molecular mass (38 246), the N-terminal sequence (GEASPVDPLRPVV), and p/ (8.9), and to perform a detailed kinetic study. Cephalotin was used as reporter substrate in the case of poor substrates. The kinetic study showed that benzylpenicillin, cephalotin, cefcapene and moxalactam were good substrates for Mox-1 (k(cat)/K-m values > 2.5 x 10(6) M-1 s(-1)). On the other hand, ceftazidime and cefepime were poor substrates for this enzyme (K-m values > 200 muM). Clavulanic acid had no inhibitory effect on Mox-1 (K-m = 30.2 mM), however aztreonam behaved as an inhibitor of Mox-1 (K-i = 2.85 muM). (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Actions of Inhaled Anesthetics
Seutin, Vincent ULiege

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2003), 349(9), 909-910

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See detailY a-t-il une place d'emblée pour une bithérapie faiblement dosée dans le traitement de l'hypertension artérielle essentielle?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Rorive, Marcelle ULiege

in Médecine et Hygiène (2003), 61

If the treatment of hypertension is very useful to decrease the cardiovascular risk, the way to get the normalisation of high blood pressure is difficult in spite of many families of antihypertensive ... [more ▼]

If the treatment of hypertension is very useful to decrease the cardiovascular risk, the way to get the normalisation of high blood pressure is difficult in spite of many families of antihypertensive agents with different mechanisms of action. To reach such objective, association of different drugs are most often required. But, the european guidelines for the management of hypertension have just been released and proposed the possibility to begin very-low-dose combination therapy first-line. These associations offer immediate higher efficacy, excellent tolerance and low cost. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced folate transport to the CNS in female Rett patients
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULiege; Hansen, Sylvain ULiege; Holm, J. et al

in Neurology (2003), 61(4), 506-515

Background: Previous CSF studies in Rett syndrome suggest reduced turnover of the biogenic monoamines serotonin and dopamine. Because diminished turnover may result from CNS folate depletion, the authors ... [more ▼]

Background: Previous CSF studies in Rett syndrome suggest reduced turnover of the biogenic monoamines serotonin and dopamine. Because diminished turnover may result from CNS folate depletion, the authors studied transport of folate across the blood-brain barrier. Methods: In four patients with Rett syndrome, the authors measured CSF values of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), biogenic monoamine end-metabolites, and pterins together with serum and red blood cell folate. In CSF, the overall folate binding capacity by the two soluble folate-binding proteins FBP1 and FBP2 (sFBP) was measured using a radioligand binding method for H3-labeled folate. A specific immunoreactive test (ELISA) detected sFBP1, which normally contributes to 30 to 35% of the total folate binding capacity. Genetic analysis included DNA sequencing of the MECP2, FBP1, and FBP2 genes. Empirical treatment with oral folinic acid was evaluated. Results: Two patients without and two with mutations of the MECP2 gene had normal values for red blood cell folate, serum folate, homocysteine, and methionine. In CSF, all patients had low values for 5MTHF, neopterin, and the serotonin end-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Genetic analysis of FBP1 and FBP2 genes had normal results. Compared to controls, patients with Rett syndrome had normal immunoreactive sFBP1 in CSF, whereas the total folate binding capacity was disproportionately lowered. Empirical treatment with oral folinic acid normalized 5-MHTF and 5-HIAA levels in CSF, and led to partial clinical improvement. Conclusion: Irrespective of the MECP2 genotype, 5MTHF transfer to the CNS is reduced in Rett syndrome. Folinic acid supplementation restores 5MTHF levels and serotoninergic turnover. The lowered folate binding capacity of FBP is not explained by a defect of the FBP1 or FBP2 gene, but most likely occurs as a secondary phenomenon in Rett syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailA coupled thermo-viscoplastic formulation at finite strains for the numerical simulation of superplastic forming
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2003), 139

This paper deals with a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic formulation for the simulation of metal forming involving large deformations. The authors present the governing equations of the model and some ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic formulation for the simulation of metal forming involving large deformations. The authors present the governing equations of the model and some applications to superplastic forming. The numerical examples illustrate the potentiality of the finite-element code METAFOR based on this formulation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailParameter identification and shape/process optimization in metal forming simulation
Kleinermann, Jean-Pascal; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2003), 139(1-3), 521-526

Nowadays, computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) have reached some level of maturity. The purpose of inverse problems is to determine the simulation input ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) have reached some level of maturity. The purpose of inverse problems is to determine the simulation input data for one or more of these forming processes, leading to a desired result. The first example is called parameter identification. This consists in evaluating the material parameters for material behavior laws that would lead to the most accurate model, minimizing the difference between experimental results and the corresponding FEM simulation. The second example is initial geometry and tool shape design, consisting in determining the initial shape of the specimen and/or the shape of the forming tools, in order to provide the desired final geometry after the forming process. Both inverse problem examples can be formulated as optimization problems. In this paper, the authors propose to solve these optimization problems with different non-linear optimization methods and to compare their efficiency. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like serine protease from Microsporum canis
Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy et al

in FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology (2003), 38(1), 29-34

A secreted 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB3; AJ431180) is thought to be a Microsporum canis virulence factor and represents a candidate for vaccination trials. In this study, the recombinant ... [more ▼]

A secreted 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB3; AJ431180) is thought to be a Microsporum canis virulence factor and represents a candidate for vaccination trials. In this study, the recombinant keratinase (r-SUB3) was produced by the Pichia pastoris expression system and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant SUB3 displayed identical biochemical properties with the native protease. Experimentally cutaneously infected guinea pigs showed specific lymphoproliferative response towards r-SUB3, while no specific humoral immune response was induced except for one animal. The heterologous expression of SUB3 provides a valuable tool for addressing further investigations on the role of this keratinase in the specific cellular immune response and on its use in vaccination trials in the cat. (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of a glycoprotein E-deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 strain in the field
Dispas, M.; Schynts, F.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2003), 153(7), 209-212

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal ... [more ▼]

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal secretions of two cows, eight months after vaccination with a gE-negative live-attenuated vaccine, initially given intranasally, then intramuscularly. The strain isolated was characterised using immunofluorescence, restriction analysis and PCR. All the techniques used identified the isolated virus as a gE-negative BHV-1 phenotypically and genotypically identical to the Za strain used as a control. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to optimize physicians' communication skills in cancer care: Results of a randomized study assessing the usefulness of posttraining consolidation workshops
Razavi, D.; Merckaert, I.; Marchal, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2003), 21(16), 3141-3149

Purpose: Although there is wide recognition of the usefulness of improving physicians' communication skills, no studies have yet assessed the efficacy of post-training consolidation workshops. This study ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although there is wide recognition of the usefulness of improving physicians' communication skills, no studies have yet assessed the efficacy of post-training consolidation workshops. This study aims to assess the efficacy of six 3-hour consolidation workshops conducted after a 2.5-day basic training program. Methods: Physicians, after attending the basic training program, were randomly assigned to consolidation workshops or to a waiting list. Training efficacy was assessed through simulated and actual patient interviews that were audiotaped at baseline and after consolidation workshops for the consolidation-workshop group, and approximately 5 months after the end of basic training for the waiting-list group. Communication skills were assessed according to the Cancer Research Campaign Workshop Evaluation Manual. Patients' perceptions of communication skills improvement were assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Results : Sixty-three physicians completed the training program. Communication skills improved significantly more in the consolidation-workshop group compared with the waiting-list group. In simulated interviews, group-by-time repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant increase in open and open directive questions (P =.014) and utterances alerting patients to reality (P =.049), as well as a significant decrease in premature reassurance (P =.042). In actual patient interviews, results revealed a significant increase in acknowledgments (P =.022) and empathic statements (P =.009), in educated guesses (P =.041), and in negotiations (P =.008). Patients interacting with physicians who benefited from consolidation workshops reported higher scores concerning their physicians' understanding of their disease (P =.004). Conclusion: Consolidation workshops further improve a communication skills training program's efficacy and facilitate the transfer of acquired skills to clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge transfer complex inimer: A facile route to dendritic materials
Wang, Wenxin; Yan, Deyue; Bratton, Daniel et al

in Advanced Materials (2003), 15(16), 1348-1352

A versatile approach to the preparation of hyperbranched polymers, in which an inimer is used to assemble a charge transfer complex (CTC) with conventional vinyl monomers, is reported. A novel ... [more ▼]

A versatile approach to the preparation of hyperbranched polymers, in which an inimer is used to assemble a charge transfer complex (CTC) with conventional vinyl monomers, is reported. A novel hyperbranched fluoro-polymer (see Figure) has been successfully synthesized through the copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) and p-(chloromethyl)styrene (CMS) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). [less ▲]

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See detailLong lasting instabilities in granular mixtures
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Michel, Renaud; Lecocq, N. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2003), 326(3-4), 313-321

We have performed experiments of axial segregation in the Oyama's drum. We have tested binary granular mixtures during very long times. The segregation patterns have been captured by a CCD camera and ... [more ▼]

We have performed experiments of axial segregation in the Oyama's drum. We have tested binary granular mixtures during very long times. The segregation patterns have been captured by a CCD camera and spatio-temporal graphs are created. We report the occurrence of instabilities which can last several hours! We stress that those instabilities originate from the competition between axial and radial segregations. We put into evidence the occurrence of giant fluctuations in the fraction of grain species along the surface during the unstable periods. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetically controlled ballistic deposition. A model of polydisperse granular packing
Trojan, K.; Ausloos, Marcel ULiege

in Physica A-Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2003), 326(3-4), 492-510

The flow and deposition of polydisperse granular materials is simulated through the magnetic diffusion limited aggregation (MDLA) model. The random walk undergone by an entity in the MDLA model is ... [more ▼]

The flow and deposition of polydisperse granular materials is simulated through the magnetic diffusion limited aggregation (MDLA) model. The random walk undergone by an entity in the MDLA model is modified such that the trajectories are ballistic in nature, leading to a magnetically controlled ballistic deposition (MBD) model. This allows to obtain important ingredients about a difficult problem that of the nonequilibrium segregation of polydisperse sandpiles and heterogeneous adsorption of a binary distribution of particles which can interact with each other and with an external field. Our detailed results from many simulations of MBD clusters on a two-dimensional triangular lattice above a flat surface in a vertical finite size box for binary systems indicates intriguing variations of the density, "magnetization", types of clusters and fractal dimensions. We derive the field and grain interaction-dependent susceptibility and compressibility. We deduce a completely new phase diagram for binary granular piles and discuss its complexity inherent to different grain competition and cluster growth probabilities. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA camelid antibody fragment inhibits the formation of amyloid fibrils by human lysozyme
Dumoulin, Mireille ULiege; Last, A. M.; Desmyter, A. et al

in Nature (2003), 424(6950), 783-788

Amyloid diseases are characterized by an aberrant assembly of a specific protein or protein fragment into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various organs and tissues(1-3), often with serious ... [more ▼]

Amyloid diseases are characterized by an aberrant assembly of a specific protein or protein fragment into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various organs and tissues(1-3), often with serious pathological consequences. Non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis (4-6) is associated with single point mutations in the gene coding for human lysozyme. Here we report that a single-domain fragment of a camelid antibody(7-9) raised against wild-type human lysozyme inhibits the in vitro aggregation of its amyloidogenic variant, D67H. Our structural studies reveal that the epitope includes neither the site of mutation nor most residues in the region of the protein structure that is destabilized by the mutation. Instead, the binding of the antibody fragment achieves its effect by restoring the structural cooperativity characteristic of the wild-type protein. This appears to occur at least in part through the transmission of long-range conformational effects to the interface between the two structural domains of the protein. Thus, reducing the ability of an amyloidogenic protein to form partly unfolded species can be an effective method of preventing its aggregation, suggesting approaches to the rational design of therapeutic agents directed against protein deposition diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Juillet 2003
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege; Eerens, H. et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2003)

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See detailIn situ formation of yttrium alkoxides: A versatile and efficient catalyst for the ROP of epsilon-caprolactone
Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULiege; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Macromolecules (2003), 38(16), 5934-5941

[Tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide] yttrium is a catalyst for the controlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone when reacted with an excess of alcohol. Up to an alcohol-to-yttrium molar ratio ... [more ▼]

[Tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide] yttrium is a catalyst for the controlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone when reacted with an excess of alcohol. Up to an alcohol-to-yttrium molar ratio of 50, the chain transfer to the alcohol is quantitative, and the molecular weight of the chains can be predicted from the monomer-to-alcohol molar ratio. At alcohol-to-yttrium ratios higher than 100, the alcohol is quantitatively consumed provided that 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane, which is formed as a byproduct, is removed from the reation medium. Depending on the structure of the alcohol, end-functional polyesters can be prepared (e.g., with N-pyrrolyl and 3-thienyl end groups). Well-defined block and random copolymers of epsilon-CL with lactides and gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone, respectively, have also been synthesized. Compared to aluminum alkoxides, the in situ formed yttrium alkoxides have the advantage of a much faster polymerization kinetics while preserving control. [less ▲]

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