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See detailFiscal policy in an ovrelapping generations model with bequest-as-consumption
Michel, Philippe; Pestieau, Pierre ULiege

in Journal of Public Economic Theory (2004)

This paper analyzes an overlapping generation (OLG) growth model wherein saving finances second period consumption and bequest-as-consumption. First, it looks at the market equilibrium and at the optimal ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes an overlapping generation (OLG) growth model wherein saving finances second period consumption and bequest-as-consumption. First, it looks at the market equilibrium and at the optimal solution; then it turns to the issue of decentralizing the optimal solution with various taxes and transfers. Depending on the available instruments, either a first-best or a second-best optimum can be achieved. Throughout the paper, the results are contrasted with those obtained in the standard OLG model without intergenerationel transfers. [less ▲]

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See detailNikki Santilli, Such Rare Citings
Delville, Michel ULiege

in Sentence: A Journal of Prose Poetics (2004)

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See detailReport on two lichenological field meetings in the province of Luxembourg in Belgium
Diederich, Paul; Van den Broeck, Dries; Ertz, Damien et al

in Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois (2004), 105

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See detailElectronic and Molecular Properties of an Adsorbed Protein Monolayer Probed by Two-Color Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy
Dreesen, Laurent ULiege; Humbert, C.; Sartenaer, Y. et al

in Langmuir (2004), 20(17), 7201-7207

Two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (2C-SFG) is used to probe the molecular and electronic properties of an adsorbed layer of the green fluorescent protein mutant 2 (GFPmut2) on a platinum ... [more ▼]

Two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (2C-SFG) is used to probe the molecular and electronic properties of an adsorbed layer of the green fluorescent protein mutant 2 (GFPmut2) on a platinum (111) substrate. First, the spectroscopic measurements, performed under different polarization combinations, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the GFPmut2 proteins form a fairly ordered monolayer on the platinum surface. Next, the nonlinear spectroscopic data provide evidence of particular coupling phenomena between the GFPmut2 vibrational and electronic properties. This is revealed by the occurrence of two doubly resonant sum-frequency generation processes for molecules having both their Raman and infrared transition moments in a direction perpendicular to the sample plane. Finally, our 2C-SFG analysis reveals two electronic transitions corresponding to the absorption and fluorescence energy levels which are related to two different GFPmut2 conformations: the B (anionic) and I forms, respectively. Their observation and wavelength positions attest the keeping of the GFPmut2 electronic properties upon adsorption on the metallic surface. [less ▲]

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See detailBASL guidelines for the surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Borbath, Ivan; Delwaide, Jean ULiege et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), 67(1), 14-25

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See detailFaut-il mutualiser ou solidariser les risques judiciaires ?
Paris, Catherine ULiege

in Bulletin des Assurances = Tijdschrift voor Verzekeringen (2004)

Cet article étudie la question de savoir s'il est ou non opportun de rendre obligatoire la conclusion d'une assurance protection juridique en vue de faciliter l'accès à la justice.

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See detailNovel types of mutation responsible for the dermatosparactic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Type VIIC) and common polymorphisms in the ADAMTS2 gene.
Colige, Alain ULiege; Nuytinck, Lieve; Hausser, Ingrid et al

in The Journal of investigative dermatology (2004), 123(4), 656-63

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC, or dermatosparactic type, is a recessively inherited connective tissue disorder characterized, among other symptoms, by an extreme skin fragility resulting from ... [more ▼]

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC, or dermatosparactic type, is a recessively inherited connective tissue disorder characterized, among other symptoms, by an extreme skin fragility resulting from mutations inactivating ADAMTS-2, an enzyme excising the aminopropeptide of procollagens type I, II, and III. All previously described mutations create premature stop codons leading to a marked reduction in the level of mRNA. In this study, we analyzed the ADAMTS2 cDNA sequences from five patients displaying clinical and/or biochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of either typical or potentially mild form of EDS type VIIC. Three different alterations were detected in the two patients with typical EDS type VIIC. The first patient was homozygous for a genomic deletion causing an in-frame skipping of exons 3-5 in the transcript. In the second patient, the allele inherited from the mother lacks exon 3, generating a premature stop codon, whereas the paternal allele has a genomic deletion resulting in an in-frame skipping of exons 14-16 at the mRNA level. Although the exons 3-5 or 14-16 encode protein domains that have not been previously recognized as crucial for ADAMTS-2 activity, the aminoprocollagen processing was strongly impaired in vitro and in vivo, providing evidence for the requirement of these domains for proper enzyme function. The three other patients with a phenotype with some resemblance to EDS type VIIC only had silent and functionally neutral variations also frequently found in a normal population. [less ▲]

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See detailPitted keratolysis: new ultrastructural insight in keratohyalin granule and corneodesmosome alterations.
Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULiege; Garcia, R.; Arrese Estrada, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Exogenous Dermatology : Physical, Chemical, Biological (2004), 3

Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a superficial cutaneous infection caused by different species of bacteria. It is characterized by discrete crateriform and malodorous pits and erosions coalescing to ... [more ▼]

Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a superficial cutaneous infection caused by different species of bacteria. It is characterized by discrete crateriform and malodorous pits and erosions coalescing to form bizarre figures on the soles. Objective: To investigate the process of corneocyte shedding in PK. Method: Biopsies from typical lesions of three patients were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: Microorganisms were found both inter- and intracellularly in corneocytes and keratinocytes of the upper layers of the stratum spinosum. Bacteria exhibited different morphologic aspects related to their localisation in the epidermis. Keratohyalin granules were strikingly abnormal, showing sharp segregation between rounded dense areas and more electron-translucent areas. Some keratohyalin granules exhibited only alveolar dense areas. These altered keratohyalin granules were still present inside corneocytes. The corneodesmosomes at the bottom of the pits were in part cleaved leading to partial corneocyte dissociation. Conclusion: It is suggested that proteases secreted by the bacteria alter the structure of both the corneodesmosomes and the keratohyalin granules. The latter appeared more resistant to the normal processing of profilaggrin inside the corneocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailModification du champ d'application de la loi du 4 août 1992 sur le crédit hypothécaire
Biquet, Christine ULiege

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2004)

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See detailElectronic structure of Ag-Pd heterostructures
Verstraete, Matthieu ULiege; Dumont, Jacques; Mirabella, Frédéric et al

in Computational Materials Science (2004), 30

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See detailTrace metal and stable isotope measurements (delta C-13 and delta N-15) in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena relicta from the Black Sea
Das, Krishna ULiege; Holsbeek, Ludo; Browning, Julie et al

in Environmental Pollution (2004), 131(2),

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and trace metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, and Hg) were analysed in the tissues of 46 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) caught in ... [more ▼]

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and trace metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, and Hg) were analysed in the tissues of 46 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) caught in fishing nets along the Ukrainian coasts between 1997 and 1998. Mean delta(13)C values differed significantly between male and female harbour porpoises suggesting a trophic segregation between sexes with a more coastal distribution for females at least during their gestation and nursing periods. Hepatic Hg was correlated to delta(13)C measurements, reflecting a different exposure linked to coastal vs offshore feeding habitats. A geographical comparison with existing data from other regions showed general low levels of Hg, Cd, Cu and Zn in the tissues of harbour porpoises from the Black Sea compared to other Atlantic and North Sea areas. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTumor invasion and metastasis: getting more basic to come closer to the patient - An interview with Lance A. Liotta
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULiege

in International Journal of Developmental Biology (2004), 48(5-juin Sp. Iss. SI), 559-562

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See detailLes nouveaux médicaments de l'arthrose
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Henrotin, Yves ULiege

in Pharma-Sphère (2004), 85

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See detailProbing Ligand–Protein Recognition with Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy: The Avidin–Biocytin Case
Dreesen, Laurent ULiege; Sartenaer, Yannick; Humbert, Christophe et al

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2004), 5

Infrared/visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to study the recognition of a protein (avidin) by a derived vitamin (biocytin) adsorbed on a calcium fluoride substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Infrared/visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to study the recognition of a protein (avidin) by a derived vitamin (biocytin) adsorbed on a calcium fluoride substrate. The specificity of the process is tested by replacing avidin with bovine serum albumin or presaturated avidin. The SFG spectroscopy shows drastic modifications in the CH and NH spectral ranges only upon exposure of the biocytin film to avidin. The comparison of the SFG data with Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectra (FT-IRRAS) in the same spectral ranges illustrates the advantages of nonlinear spectroscopy for studying and detecting recognition between biomolecules. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de l'échographie à l'étude de la dynamique folliculaire à l'oestrus induit chez les femelles zébu "Goudali"
Pitala, W.; Boly, H.; Coulibaly, I. et al

in Tropicultura (2004), 22(3), 110-115

L’échographie transrectale a été utilisée pour suivre la dynamique folliculaire chez 8 femelles zébu ‘Goudali’. Les animaux ont été répartis comme suit: Groupe 1: utilisation d’implant Crestar combiné à ... [more ▼]

L’échographie transrectale a été utilisée pour suivre la dynamique folliculaire chez 8 femelles zébu ‘Goudali’. Les animaux ont été répartis comme suit: Groupe 1: utilisation d’implant Crestar combiné à PGF2 et PMSG (n= 4); Groupe 2: implant Crestar combiné à PMSG (n= 2) et Groupe 3: implant Crestar combiné à PGF2 (n= 2). L’échographie a été réalisée le jour de la pose des implants, au moment du retrait, et à intervalle de 4 heures entre la 28e et la 56e heure après retrait. La détermination du nombre de corps jaunes a été faite 7 jours après l’ovulation. Le jour du retrait, le nombre de follicules de diamètre compris entre 2-3 mm a été de respectivement 5,8 ± 2,2; 3,5 ± 0,7 et 4,5 ± 0,7 pour les Groupes 1, 2 et 3. Au début des chaleurs (30,4 ± 4,9 heures après le retrait des implants); 4,1 ± 1,3 follicules ayant un diamètre moyen de 5-6 mm ont été observées pour les trois groupes. Une moyenne de 1,1 ± 0,4 follicules dominants (> 8 mm) a été observée à partir de la 36e heure après la fin du traitement. Le diamètre des follicules pré-ovulatoires n’a pas différé entre les groupes. Les premières ovulations ont été observées entre 22 et 26 heures après le début des chaleurs. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element modelling of ion convection by electrostatic forces
Deliège, Geoffrey ULiege; Henrotte, François; Deprez, Wim et al

in IET Science, Measurement & Technology (2004), 151(6), 398-402

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See detailAcides gras : nomenclature et sources alimentaires
Cuvelier, Christine ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULiege et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 133-140

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name ... [more ▼]

Fatty acids are member of the lipid family. They are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with or without double bond. They are classified according different nomenclatures : the international systematic name, the omega nomenclature and the trivial names. Fatty acids are major compounds of oils and fats. Among the saturated fatty acids, C12, C16 and C18 fatty acids are the most widely distributed, whereas in the unsaturated fatty acids group, C18 with 1, 2 or 3 double bonds are the most important within the vegetable and animal terrestrian products. Fatty acids with 4 or more than 4 double bonds and 20 to 24 atoms of carbon are largely represented in the marine products. [less ▲]

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See detailThe core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-M encoded by bovine herpesvirus 4 is not essential for virus replication despite contributing to post-translational modifications of structural proteins.
Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Gillet, Laurent ULiege; Karlsen, Odd A et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2004), 85(Pt 2), 355-67

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only virus gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucine type (C2GnT-M). Recently ... [more ▼]

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only virus gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucine type (C2GnT-M). Recently, our phylogenetic study revealed that the Bo17 gene has been acquired from an ancestor of the African buffalo around 1.5 million years ago. Despite this recent origin, the Bo17 sequence has spread to fixation in the virus population possibly by natural selection. Supporting the latter hypothesis, it has been shown by our group for the V. test strain that Bo17 is expressed during BoHV-4 replication in vitro, and that Bo17 expression product (pBo17) has all three enzymic activities exhibited by cellular C2GnT-M, i.e. core 2, core 4 and I branching activities. In the present study, firstly it was investigated whether encoding a functional C2GnT-M is a general property of BoHV-4 strains. Analysis of nine representative strains of the BoHV-4 species revealed that all of them express the Bo17 gene and the associated core 2 branching activity during virus replication in vitro. Secondly, in order to investigate the roles of Bo17, its kinetic class of expression was analysed and a deleted recombinant strain was produced. These experiments revealed that Bo17 is expressed as an early gene which is not essential for virus replication in vitro. However, comparison of the structural proteins, produced by the wild-type, the revertant and the deleted viruses, by 2D gels demonstrated that pBo17 contributes to the post-translational modifications of structural proteins. Possible roles of Bo17 in vivo are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray screening for target genes of the proto-oncogene PLAG1.
Voz, Marianne ULiege; Mathys, Janick; Hensen, Karen et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(1), 179-91

PLAG1 is a proto-oncogene whose ectopic expression can trigger the development of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands and of lipoblastomas. As PLAG1 is a transcription factor, able to activate ... [more ▼]

PLAG1 is a proto-oncogene whose ectopic expression can trigger the development of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands and of lipoblastomas. As PLAG1 is a transcription factor, able to activate transcription through the binding to the consensus sequence GRGGC(N)(6-8)GGG, its ectopic expression presumably results in the deregulation of target genes, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. The identification of PLAG1 target genes is therefore a crucial step in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in PLAG1-induced tumorigenesis. To this end, we analysed the changes in gene expression caused by the conditional induction of PLAG1 expression in fetal kidney 293 cell lines. Using oligonucleotide microarray analyses of about 12 000 genes, we consistently identified 47 genes induced and 12 genes repressed by PLAG1. One of the largest classes identified as upregulated PLAG1 targets consists of growth factors such as the insulin-like growth factor II and the cytokine-like factor 1. The in silico search for PLAG1 consensus sequences in the promoter of the upregulated genes reveals that a large proportion of them harbor several copies of the PLAG1-binding motif, suggesting that they represent direct PLAG1 targets. Our approach was complemented by the comparison of the expression profiles of pleomorphic adenomas induced by PLAG1 versus normal salivary glands. Concordance between these two sets of experiments pinpointed 12 genes that were significantly and consistently upregulated in pleomorphic adenomas and in PLAG1-expressing cells, identifying them as putative PLAG1 targets in these tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysics and Chemistry of Interfaces
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULiege

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2004), 5

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See detailDeux réponses au sujet de la responsabilité pénale des personnes morales
Kefer, Fabienne ULiege

in Revue de droit pénal (2004)

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See detailRepair kinetics of stratum corneum under repeated insults.
Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULiege; Franchimont, Claudine ULiege; Debatisse, B. et al

in Exogenous Dermatology : Physical, Chemical, Biological (2004), 3

Background. The stratum corneum (SC) structure and functions are altered by surfactants. Enhancing the repair mechanisms is a goal for some skin care formulations. Aim. To design an experimental procedure ... [more ▼]

Background. The stratum corneum (SC) structure and functions are altered by surfactants. Enhancing the repair mechanisms is a goal for some skin care formulations. Aim. To design an experimental procedure allowing the discrimination of repair efficacy for topical products applied to threatened SC. Method. Controlled SC strippings followed by repeated forearm soak sessions in surfactant solutions were used to compromise the SC barrier function in 20 volunteers. Two test formulations were compared. They were applied twice daily for 2 weeks before initiating the SC damages, and for the next 2 weeks while sustaining the procedure of soak sessions. Daily assessments involved objective measurements of parameters including TEWL, the value of the passive sustainable SC hydration and the epidermal turnover rate using the dihydroxyacetone (DHA) test. Result. The experimental procedure allowed to clearly distinguish the differences in the kinetics of SC repair between the topical formulations. In the present study design, the repair of the barrier function mirrored the SC renewal. Conclusion. The present experimental design slows down the repair rate of the SC barrier function. Thus, it increases the sensitivity of biometrological measurements assessing some of the major SC properties. It also better mimicks the common in vivo situation experienced by subjects chronically exposed to irritant xenobiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of daily milk, fat, and protein production by a random regression test-day model
Mayeres, P.; Stoll, J.; Bormann, J. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2004), 87(6), 1925-1933

Test-day genetic evaluation models have many advantages compared with those based on 305-d lactations; however, the possible use of test-day model (TDM) results for herd management purposes has not been ... [more ▼]

Test-day genetic evaluation models have many advantages compared with those based on 305-d lactations; however, the possible use of test-day model (TDM) results for herd management purposes has not been emphasized. The aim of this paper was to study the ability of a TDM to predict production for the next test day and for the entire lactation. Predictions of future production and detection of outliers are important factors for herd management (e. g., detection of health and management problems and compliance with quota). Because it is not possible to predict the herd-test-day (HTD) effect per se, the fixed HTD effect was split into 3 new effects: a fixed herd-test month-period effect, a fixed herd-year effect, and a random HTD effect. These new effects allow the prediction of future production for improvement of herd management. Predicted test-day yields were compared with observed yields, and the mean prediction error computed across herds was found to be close to zero. Predictions of performance records at the herd level were even more precise. Discarding herds enrolled in milk recording for <1 yr and animals with very few tests in the evaluation file improved correlations between predicted and observed yields at the next test day (correlation of 0.864 for milk in first-lactation cows as compared with a correlation of 0.821 with no records eliminated). Correlations with the observed 305-d production ranged from 0.575 to 1 for predictions based on 0 to 10 test-day records, respectively. Similar results were found for second and third lactation records for milk and milk components. These findings demonstrate the predictive ability of a TDM. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation expérimentale de la fonction pulmonaire chez le porc
Halloy, D.; Cambier, Carole ULiege; Kirschvink, N. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), (148), 91-96

This synthesis aims to review the pulmonary function tests available in swine. Two techniques are used in order to measure the variations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The ... [more ▼]

This synthesis aims to review the pulmonary function tests available in swine. Two techniques are used in order to measure the variations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The oesophageal balloon remains the most used technique in order to determine these properties in pigs. However, it requires a systematic anaesthesia of the animal. The impulse oscillometry specifically measures the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, by a non invasive way, but the animals have to be trained to be immobilized or sedated to perform the measurement. The whole body arometric plethysmography allows measuring the respiratory pattern in unsedated freely moving piglets. That method allows investigating pigs for long term studies while minimizing the stress related to handling. From this point of view, it represents the less stressing technique for pigs. Finally, blood gases analysis is the easiest method to use in the field. It permits to assess respiratory function by measuring pH and blood partial pressures in oxygen and carbon dioxide [less ▲]

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See detailPotential-dependent structure of the interfacial water on the gold electrode
Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Ye, Shen; Uosaki, Kohei et al

in Surface Science (2004), 573

Doubly tunable sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra demonstrate that the water molecules at gold/electrolyte interface change their orientation with applied potential. At negative potentials, water ... [more ▼]

Doubly tunable sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra demonstrate that the water molecules at gold/electrolyte interface change their orientation with applied potential. At negative potentials, water molecules in the double layer align with their oxygen atom pointing to the solution. As potential became positive to be close to the potential of zero charge (PZC), the SFG signal decreased, suggesting the OH groups of the water molecule are either in random orientation or parallel to the electrode. As potential became more positive than the PZC, the SFG signal increased again with the oxygen-up orientation as same as in the negative potential region, indicating that water molecules interact with the adsorbed sulfate anions. The peak position of the SFG spectra indicates a relatively disordered state of water molecules at the gold electrode surface, in contrast to the previously observed ice-like structure of water at electrolyte/oxide interfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailL'euthanasie en Belgique et aux Pays-Bas
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULiege; Genicot, Gilles ULiege

in Revue Trimestrielle des Droits de l'Homme (2004)

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See detailLes obstacles épistémologiques dans l'évolution de la pensée transformiste.
Mignon, Jacques ULiege; Gaspar, Charles

in Probio-Revue (2004), 3

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See detailMethanol dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 0 0) as studied by nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy
Vidal, Franck; Busson, B.; Six, C. et al

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (2004), 563

The methanol dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 0 0) at low potentials in the hydrogen region is studied using nonlinear vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. It is shown that adsorbed ... [more ▼]

The methanol dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 0 0) at low potentials in the hydrogen region is studied using nonlinear vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen atoms effectively block atop sites at the surface. In the hydrogen potential region, CO produced by the methanol dissociation adsorbs at step-edges and in bridge sites on terraces as shown by the characteristic stretching frequencies observed for adsorbed CO. [less ▲]

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See detailThe conundrum of inducible nitric oxide synthase in chronic leg ulcers.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULiege; Paquet, Philippe ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in Exogenous Dermatology : Physical, Chemical, Biological (2004), 3

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent biological mediator that can be produced in wounds by activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Its presence appears to be beneficial to the healing process by ... [more ▼]

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent biological mediator that can be produced in wounds by activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Its presence appears to be beneficial to the healing process by promoting vasodilation and boosting both migration and synthetic activity of fibroblasts. Chronic leg ulcers differ from acute experimental wounds because the connective tissue and microvascularization of the ulcer bed are strikingly remodelled in chronic wounds. In addition, a bacterial critical colonization from the environment is also often present and deleterious. As such, NO release in leg ulcers may prove to be beneficial by improving the microvasculature and fibroblast functions, and by its antimicrobial effect. However, any excess in NO could become cytotoxic for keratinocytes, thus impeding re-epithelialization. Furthermore, chronic NO release could be involved in the cancerogenesis process leading to Marjolin ulcer. In conclusion, NO induced by environment factors mediates contrasted effects in wound healing that may be beneficial or detrimental for the patient. [less ▲]

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See detailThe eggshell approach for the computation of electromagnetic forces in 2D and 3D
Henrotte, François; Deliège, Geoffrey ULiege; Hameyer, Kay

in COMPEL (2004), 23(4), 996-1005

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See detailA Story of Colourful Diggers and Grinders. The Sangoan and Lupemban at site 8-B-11, Sai Island, Northern Sudan
Van Peer, Philip; Rots, Veerle ULiege; Vroomans, Jeanne-Marie

in Before Farming (2004), 3

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See detailAlignment of glial cells stimulates directional neurite growth of cns neurons in vitro
Deumens, R.; Koopmans, G. C.; Den Bakker, C. G. J. et al

in Neuroscience (2004), 125(3), 591-604

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) together with olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONFs) and neonatal astrocytes are potent stimulators of neurite growth in adulthood and during development, respectively ... [more ▼]

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) together with olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONFs) and neonatal astrocytes are potent stimulators of neurite growth in adulthood and during development, respectively. Since it is known that alignment of glial cells is important for the correct outgrowth of axon tracts, it was hypothesized that the alignment of glial cells stimulates directional and enhanced neurite outgrowth. Adult OEC/ONF and neonatal astrocytes were cultured either on biodegradable poly(D,L)-lactide matrices or in Petri dishes for 4 days. Thereafter neonatal cerebral cortical neurons were added. After a 2-days coculture period the cultures were fixed and processed for a combined MAP-2 and phosphorylated neurofilament (RT97) staining. The neurite growth (neurite elongation and neurite formation) and the neurite direction were assessed. We show that (1) OEC/ONF cultures are more potent in stimulating the length of the longest neurite of cocultured neurons, (2) alignment of glial is achieved in vitro on our biomatrices, (3) aligned glial/biomatrix complexes do not enhance neurite growth, and (4) aligned glial/biomatrix complexes direct neurite outgrowth. These data have significant implications for in vivo experiments focusing on glial transplantation. Transplanting glial/biomatrix complexes may stimulate the directional regrowth of severed axons across a lesion site. (C) 2004 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological and pathological factors related to trace metal concentrations in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the North Sea and adjacent areas
Das, Krishna ULiege; Siebert, Ursula; Fontaine, Michaël ULiege et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2004), 281

There is growing concern about the health status of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea and adjacent areas. The interaction between toxicological results (Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, Hg ... [more ▼]

There is growing concern about the health status of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea and adjacent areas. The interaction between toxicological results (Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, Hg), stable isotope data (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and the most common pathological findings, namely emaciation and lesions of the respiratory system, were investigated in 132 porpoises collected along the coasts of northern France, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Iceland and Norway between 1994 and 2001. The body condition of harbour porpoises stranded on the French, Belgian and German coasts was poor compared to that of by-catch individuals from Iceland and Norway, as reflected by blubber thickness and hepatic to total body-mass ratio. High Zn and Hg concentrations were observed in some porpoises collected along the southern North Sea coast compared to by-catch individuals from Iceland, Norway and the Baltic Sea. Increasing Zn levels were observed with deteriorating health condition (emaciation and bronchopneumonia), while Hg increases were not significant. The increases were not related to shrinking liver mass which remained unchanged. These observations indicate a general redistribution of trace metals within the organs (muscles and blubber to liver), as a result of protein and lipid catabolism. Muscle delta(13)C and delta(15)N values remained unchanged with deteriorating body condition. Cd concentrations were associated only with age and low delta(15)N values, indicating that high Cd concentrations in Iceland and Norway porpoises may be partly diet-related, i.e. a result of Cd contaminated prey. [less ▲]

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See detailValley landscape management : the context of the "river contract" in the Semois Valley (Belgium)
Rosillon, Françis ULiege

in Landscape Research (2004), 29(4), 413-422

A trans-boundary and multi-disciplinary approach to the river contract project for the Semois valley in Wallonia (Belgium) is described that provided the opportunity for a landscape-scale focus during ... [more ▼]

A trans-boundary and multi-disciplinary approach to the river contract project for the Semois valley in Wallonia (Belgium) is described that provided the opportunity for a landscape-scale focus during actions to restore the watercourses and the associated valley area. A trans-boundary landscape survey was carried out under the context of the Interreg III European programme. This resulted in the rediscovery of lost views and viewpoints within the landscape and in the implementation of actions leading to the opening up of the valley, which provided opportunities to re-establish lost landscape features, such as hay meadows. The gathering of many partners in the negotiation process of this project can be seen as an example of 'landscape democratization' or participative management of landscapes in a trans-boundary and trans-disciplinary context and as such this project is a concrete realization of the aims of the European Landscape Convention (ELC). [less ▲]

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See detailAdult Moyamoya disease.
Kouokam, L.; NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULiege; Tshibanda, J. F. et al

in JBR-BTR : organe de la Societe royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR) (2004), 87(3), 144-5

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See detailThe kallikrein-kinin system, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and insulin sensitivity
Damas, Jacques ULiege; Garbacki, Nancy ULiege; Lefèbvre, P. J.

in Diabetes/Metabolism Research & Reviews (2004), 20(4, Jul-Aug), 288-297

The therapeutic use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, at a large scale, in arterial hypertension has showed that these molecules can exert, beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and ... [more ▼]

The therapeutic use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, at a large scale, in arterial hypertension has showed that these molecules can exert, beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and may reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hypothesis explaining these effects of ACE inhibitors may relate to their capacity to interfere with bradykinin (BK) metabolism and action. BK may participate in the regulation of substrate utilization by, several tissues by improving blood flow and substrate delivery to the tissues and also by promoting translocation of glucose transporters. Moreover, BK has been shown to increase phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its cell substrates. BK also appears to improve the release of insulin. Furthermore, insulin may activate the kallikrein-kinin system, which consequently may increase its metabolic effects. However, in experimental diabetes mellitus, BK can participate to the inflammatory reaction leading to Langerhans islets destruction. In diabetes, whereas tissue kallikrein mRNA levels were reduced in several organs, an overexpression of kinin receptors, an increase in plasma levels of kininogens and kallikrein and an activation of the kinin system have all been reported. Lastly, kinins may be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Reduction of kinin metabolism by ACE inhibitors might be involved in the beneficial effects exerted by these compounds in diabetic kidney functions. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution Of Hydrophobic Residues Is Crucial For The Fusogenic Properties Of The Ebola Virus Gp2 Fusion Peptide
Adam, B.; Lins, Laurence ULiege; Stroobant, V. et al

in Journal of Virology (2004), 78(4), 2131-6

The lipid-destabilizing properties of the N-terminal domain of the GP2 of Ebola virus were investigated. Our results suggest that the domain of Ebola virus needed for fusion is shorter than that ... [more ▼]

The lipid-destabilizing properties of the N-terminal domain of the GP2 of Ebola virus were investigated. Our results suggest that the domain of Ebola virus needed for fusion is shorter than that previously reported. The fusogenic properties of this domain are related to its oblique orientation at the lipid/water interface owing to an asymmetric distribution of the hydrophobic residues when helical. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrat de rivière Semois : de la qualité de l'eau au tourisme.
Pierre, M.; Rosillon, Françis ULiege

in Espaces, tourisme et loisirs (2004), (213), 50-55

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See detailReduction of relapse rates by 18-month treatment in chronic hepatitis C. A Benelux randomized trial in 300 patients.
Brouwer, Johannes T; Nevens, Frederik; Bekkering, Frank C et al

in Journal of Hepatology (2004), 40(4), 689-695

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon can be ineffective due to relapse. We aimed to reduce the 40% relapse rate of 6 months interferon-ribavirin combination therapy by ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon can be ineffective due to relapse. We aimed to reduce the 40% relapse rate of 6 months interferon-ribavirin combination therapy by prolonging treatment to 18 months. METHODS: Three hundred patients with treatment-naive hepatitis C, were randomized to 18 months combination therapy with interferon (3MU tiw) and ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day), 18 months interferon combined with placebo, or 6 months combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin, in a double blinded manner. All 295 patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the intention to treat analysis. RESULTS: At the end of treatment, HCV RNA was undetectable in 55 and 49% of those on 6 and 18 months combination therapy, respectively, versus 26% of those on monotherapy (P<0.001). The relapse rate was 38% for 6 months combination therapy, 38% for 18 months monotherapy, and only 13% for 18 months combination treatment (P=0.002). The sustained response rates were 34% for 6 months combination therapy, 16% for 18 months monotherapy and 43% for 18 months combination therapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of relapse rates to 15% or less is feasible by prolongation of interferon-ribavirin treatment to 18 months. [less ▲]

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See detailElaboration of new formulations to remove micropollutants in MSWI flue gas
Brasseur, Alain; Gambin, Amandine; Laudet, Alain et al

in Chemosphere (2004), 56(8), 745-756

This study consists in identifying and testing potential inorganic substitutes to carbon based materials commonly used as adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans ... [more ▼]

This study consists in identifying and testing potential inorganic substitutes to carbon based materials commonly used as adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans released from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI). Although carbon materials enable to reach the current regulation in terms of dioxins and furans emissions, they exhibit a potential auto ignition risk when present in hot flue gases. Here, the adsorption potential of carbon based products is compared to the one of some inorganic materials. Chlorobenzene was chosen as a reference molecule to compare the removal performance of the different adsorbents. This comparison was based on the determination of the adsorption energies derived from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. In the first part of this study, five inorganic materials were selected according to their chlorobenzene adsorption performance compared to those of carbon based products currently used to remove micropollutants from MSWI flue gases. In the second part of the study, the influence of the inlet concentration of adsorbate on the adsorption potential of sorbents is investigated. Actually, the organic compound concentration was decreased in order to be closer to those met in MSWI. Furthermore, the adsorption experiments were performed with other adsorbates whose molecular mass or chlorine content are higher. Thanks to these adsorption results a new organic free formulation has been proposed for the removal of micropollutants. Tests carried out on an industrial scale, demonstrated that this product enables to reach the current norm concerning dioxins and furans emissions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de l'ouvrage de J.-M. Klinkenberg, Petites mythologies belges
Provenzano, François ULiege

in Ponts/Ponti (2004), 4

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See detailPorous carbon xerogels with texture tailored by pH control during sol-gel process
Job, Nathalie ULiege; Pirard, René ULiege; Marien, José ULiege et al

in Carbon (2004), 42(3), 619-628

Despite commonly accepted ideas, evaporative drying does not always completely destroy the pore texture of phenolic gel. This work shows that very porous carbon materials can be synthesized by evaporative ... [more ▼]

Despite commonly accepted ideas, evaporative drying does not always completely destroy the pore texture of phenolic gel. This work shows that very porous carbon materials can be synthesized by evaporative drying and pyrolysis of aqueous resorcinol-formaldehyde gels provided that the operating variables are correctly chosen. Moreover, in this manner monoliths can be easily produced. The pore texture of the materials was studied before and after pyrolysis in order to determine which synthesis and/or pyrolysis variables have an influence on the final texture of the carbon. Results show that it is possible to tailor the morphology of these materials by varying the initial pH of the precursors solution in a narrow range. Micro-macroporous, micro-mesoporous, microporous or totally non-porous carbon materials were obtained. The specific surface area is independent from the initial pH whereas the total void volume varies from 0.4 to 1.4 cm(3)/g when the initial pH decreases from 6.25 to 5.45. These materials can be used as catalysts supports or for electrochemical applications, the texture control being an interesting advantage. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation management for Orthoptera in the Dadia reserve, Greece
Kati, V.; Dufrêne, Marc ULiege; Legakis, A. et al

in Biological Conservation (2004), 115(1), 33-44

The diversity patterns, the ecological structure and the typical species of the orthopteran assemblage in the Dadia reserve are investigated. The reserve was designed to protect the black vulture ... [more ▼]

The diversity patterns, the ecological structure and the typical species of the orthopteran assemblage in the Dadia reserve are investigated. The reserve was designed to protect the black vulture (Aegypius monachus) and other raptors. A total of 39 orthopteran species were found, including Paranocarodes chopardi, a pamphagid species with very restricted distribution. All species can be represented in a network of six complementary habitats, including open oak woodlands, agricultural fields separated with hedges, humid grasslands, as well as serpentine grasslands. The buffer zone of the reserve is far more important for Orthoptera conservation than the core areas, which host most of the black vulture nests. Management focusing on raptors is in general compatible with conservation of Orthoptera. We suggest the maintenance of forest openings in the buffer zone, the maintenance of forest heterogeneity, the enhancement of periodical livestock grazing, and the use of nine indicator species and Paranocarodes chopardi in the reserve monitoring program. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of transition metal-doped carbon xerogels by solubilization of metal salts in resorcinol-formaldehyde aqueous solution
Job, Nathalie ULiege; Pirard, René ULiege; Marien, José ULiege et al

in Carbon (2004), 42(15), 3217-3227

The pore texture of carbon materials obtained from evaporative drying and pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde aqueous gels is controlled by the initial pH of the precursors solution. In order to produce ... [more ▼]

The pore texture of carbon materials obtained from evaporative drying and pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde aqueous gels is controlled by the initial pH of the precursors solution. In order to produce transition metal-containing carbons with tailored texture, various metallic salts were dissolved in the precursors solution. When necessary, a complexing agent (HEDTA or DTPA) was added to render the metal ions soluble. Ni, Fe and I'd loaded carbon xerogels were synthesized and their pore texture was studied after evaporative drying and after pyrolysis. The carbon texture was also studied with regard to the nature of the metal and the amount of complexing agent. The solubilization of transition metal salts in the resorcinol-formaldehyde aqueous solution does not prevent the texture regulation, even though this texture control is influenced: the limits of the pH interval leading to micro mesoporous carbon materials can slightly differ when a metal salt and/or a complexing agent are added. The pH range shift depends mainly on the amount and nature of the complexing agent, but also slightly on the nature of the metal ion. Nevertheless, the metal particles obtained are rather big (diameter > 15 nm). For catalytic applications, the metal dispersion must be enhanced, especially in the case of expensive metals. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelles recherches dans l'enceinte de la Schola du Trajan à Ostie
Morard, Thomas ULiege

in Revue Archeologique (2004), XXXIV(2002-2003), 204-209

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See detailHypertrichosis, fallot tetralogy, growth and developmental delay
Verloes, Alain ULiege; Massin, Martial; Fransolet, Anne-Catherine et al

in Clinical Dysmorphology (2004), 13

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See detailL'archivage numérique. Conditions, enjeux, effets
Baetens, Jan; Badir, Sémir ULiege

in Protée (2004), 32(2), 108

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See detailRationale for Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment or prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis
Detroz, Bernard ULiege; Laurent, Stanislas; Honore, Pierre ULiege et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2004), 104

Up to now, the prognosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis from GI tract cancers remains very poor. Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy has been proposed in the prevention or treatment of peritoneal ... [more ▼]

Up to now, the prognosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis from GI tract cancers remains very poor. Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy has been proposed in the prevention or treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The rationale for this locoregional approach comes from a better knowledge of the physiopathology of the disease. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy achieves high local drug concentration with limited systemic toxicity. It should be performed during or immediately after surgery to be effective towards microscopic residual tumor cells. A synergistic cytotoxic effect has been demonstrated when heat is combined with antineoplastic drugs. Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy might not be regarded as the panacée but as a promising step in the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Some randomized studies of gastric cancer with macroscopic serosal invasion have suggested the efficacy of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis. In patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, some studies suggest, in selected cases, the positive effect of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy on survival, when combined with cytoreductive surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles study of the electro-optic effect in ferroelectric oxides
Veithen, M.; Gonze, X.; Ghosez, Philippe ULiege

in Physical Review Letters (2004), 93

We first present a method to compute the electro-optic tensor from first principles, explicitly taking into account the electronic, ionic and piezoelectric contributions. We then study the nonlinear optic ... [more ▼]

We first present a method to compute the electro-optic tensor from first principles, explicitly taking into account the electronic, ionic and piezoelectric contributions. We then study the nonlinear optic behavior of three paradigmatic ferroelectric oxides. Our calculations reveal the dominant contribution of the soft mode to the electro-optic coefficients in LiNbO3 and BaTiO3 and its minor role in PbTiO3. We identify the coupling between the electric field and the polar atomic displacements along the B-O chains as the origin of the large electro-optic response in perovskite ABO(3) compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailAstronomes célèbres et astronomes moins connus ... (4) Bailly
Biémont, Emile ULiege

in Galactée (2004), 40

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See detailRegional differences in the consumption of Benzodiazepines: an analysis from Belgium
Habraken, H.; De Maeseneer, J.; De Prins, L. et al

in Archives of Public Health (2004), 63

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See detailAstronomes célèbres et astronomes moins connus ... (5) Hubble
Biémont, Emile ULiege

in Galactée (2004), 43

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See detailIntégrer de préoccupations de promotion de la santé dans les politiques locales, est-ce possible ?
Leva, Chantal; Coupienne, V.; Gosset, Christiane ULiege

in Education Santé (2004), 186

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See detailAssurance dépendance en Belgique: réflexions d'un économiste
Jousten, Alain ULiege

in Revue Belge de Sécurité Sociale (2004), 1

L'objet de la présente étude est de porter un regard d'économiste sur la mise en place d'un tel système d'assurance dépendance, et ce aussi bien d'un point de vue tout à fait général que d'un point de vue ... [more ▼]

L'objet de la présente étude est de porter un regard d'économiste sur la mise en place d'un tel système d'assurance dépendance, et ce aussi bien d'un point de vue tout à fait général que d'un point de vue plus particulier qui est celui de la Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailPhonological representations of children with SLI : a study of French.
Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Hupet, Michel

in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2004), 47

The present research examined the quality of the phonological representations of French children with specific language impairment (SLI) and those with normal language development (NLD). Twenty-five ... [more ▼]

The present research examined the quality of the phonological representations of French children with specific language impairment (SLI) and those with normal language development (NLD). Twenty-five children with SLI and fifty normally developing children matched on lexical age level participated in an auditory lexical decision task. The observations gathered in our study can be summarized as follows. First, children with a higher receptive lexical level performed better, and this was true both for children with NLD and children with SLI. Second, both children with NLD and SLI were more likely to reject pseudo-words resulting from a modification affecting the number of syllables of a word than pseudo-words resulting from a slight modification with the number of syllables unchanged. This difference, however, was greater for the children with SLI who appeared to have much difficulty rejecting pseudo-words resulting from slight modifications. Finally, the performance of children with SLI was particularly poor when presented with pseudowords resulting from a slight modification at the beginning or the end of a word. These findings are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of an underspecification of phonological representations in children with SLI. [less ▲]

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See detailA functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes.
Bottini, Nunzio; Musumeci, Lucia ULiege; Alonso, Andres et al

in Nature Genetics (2004), 36(4), 337-8

We report that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (PTPN22) encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a suppressor of T-cell activation, is associated with type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

We report that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (PTPN22) encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a suppressor of T-cell activation, is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The variants encoded by the two alleles, 1858C and 1858T, differ in a crucial amino acid residue involved in association of LYP with the negative regulatory kinase Csk. Unlike the variant encoded by the more common allele 1858C, the variant associated with T1D does not bind Csk. [less ▲]

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See detail- Apprendre l’histoire à l’heure des compétences. Regard sur l’enseignement de l’histoire en Communauté française de Belgique
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULiege

in Le Cartable de Clio. revue romande et tessinoise sur les didactiques de l’histoire (2004), n°4

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See detailDistillation Simulated on Molecular Level
Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

in Molecular Simulation (2004), 30(6), 361-366

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See detailEthnocentrism, Nationalism and Post-Nationalism in the Tales of Subcomandante Marcos
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULiege

in Mexican Studies (2004), 20(1), 123-144

A discourse analysis shows that the literary passages in subcomandante Marcos’ press releases (Relatos de el viejo Antonio, Chiapas, CIACH, 1998 and Don Durito de la Lacandona, Chiapas, CIACH, 1999 ... [more ▼]

A discourse analysis shows that the literary passages in subcomandante Marcos’ press releases (Relatos de el viejo Antonio, Chiapas, CIACH, 1998 and Don Durito de la Lacandona, Chiapas, CIACH, 1999) express both the ethnical, national and post-national demands of the EZLN. The analysis reveals three tensions in the discourse, which seem to reflect the divergent pressures on the EZLN. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in varicella zoster virus-infected keratinocytes during herpes zoster: another immune evasion strategy?
Nikkels, Arjen ULiege; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in American Journal of Dermatopathology (2004), 26(1), 27-32

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC-II, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in infected cell lines allows some viruses to escape host immunity. In ... [more ▼]

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC-II, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in infected cell lines allows some viruses to escape host immunity. In skin lesions of varicella zoster virus (VZV), MHC-II transcripts were demonstrated in keratinocytes around vesicles, but not in VZV-infected cells. Whether other immunoevasive mechanisms are present during herpes zoster (HZ) is not yet elucidated. The aim of the study was to disclose the temporal immunohistochemical expression of immune escape mechanisms during HZ. Sequential skin biopsies were performed in 5 HZ patients. VZV IE63, CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD68, L1, HLA-DR, HLA-ABC, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFNgamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and ICAM-1 expressions were assessed on frozen sections using immunohistochemistry. Controls consisted of normal skin, herpes simplex virus (HSV) skin infections, and other distinct bullous skin diseases. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 expressions were not observed in VZV- and HSV-infected keratinocytes, contrasting with their upregulation in the surrounding epidermis and inside nonviral blisters. However, HLA-ABC expressions were not inhibited in VZV-infected keratinocytes. Furthermore, the CD4/CD8 ratio remained unmodified during the infection evolution, and this ratio was variable among patients. Increased IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and IL-6 expressions were present, but IL-10 expression only increased in later stages. In contrast to in vitro MHC-I and MHC-II downregulation, VZV infection is related to MHC-II but not MHC-I expression on infected keratinocytes. The absence of ICAM-1 expression on infected keratinocytes may reduce their antigen presentation capacities to LFA-1 ligand-bearing T cells. This may represent another VZV-associated immune escape mechanism. Increased IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and IL-6 expressions suggest a TH1 profile. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des caractéristiques projectives des objets spatiaux et de leurs relations
Billen, Roland ULiege; Clementini, Eliseo

in Revue Internationale de Géomatique (2004), 14(2), 145-165

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See detailLa génétique des migraines : des canaux ioniques aux polymorphismes de nucléotide ?
FUMAL, Arnaud ULiege; Schoenen, Jean ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(6), 367-377

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See detailMeasurement of shrinkage and cracks associated to convective drying of soft materials by X-ray microtomography
Léonard, Angélique ULiege; Blacher, Silvia ULiege; Marchot, Pierre ULiege et al

in Drying Technology (2004), 22(7), 1695-1708

Traditionally, the measurement of shrinkage occurring during drying is performed by destructive or poorly accurate techniques such as volume displacement methods. Cracks detection and quantification are ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, the measurement of shrinkage occurring during drying is performed by destructive or poorly accurate techniques such as volume displacement methods. Cracks detection and quantification are realised either by destructive techniques or sophisticated but expensive nondestructive ones (NMR imaging). X-ray microtomography in combination with image analysis provides an accurate, nondestructive and easy to use technique to determine simultaneously shrinkage and crack extent. Results reported in this article concern drying of wastewater sludges whose management will become a real challenge in the years to come. These results show a clear relation between drying kinetics and crack development. This could be related to the development of internal diffusional limitations inducing moisture gradients and mechanical stresses leading to cracks formation. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacological characterization of N-tert-butyl-N’-[2-(4’-methylphenylamino)-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl]urea (BM-573), a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor in a rat model of arterial thrombosis and its effects on bleeding time
Dogné, Jean-Michel ULiege; Hanson, Julien ULiege; De leval, X. et al

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (2004), 309(2), 498-505

The present study was undertaken to characterize the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of BM-573 [N-tert-butyl-N'-[2-(4'-methylphenylamino)-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl] urea], an original combined ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken to characterize the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of BM-573 [N-tert-butyl-N'-[2-(4'-methylphenylamino)-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl] urea], an original combined thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor in rats, and to determine its effects on mice bleeding time. Intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 5 mg/kg BM-573 to rats inhibited U-46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9,11-methanoepoxy-prostaglandin F-2)-induced washed platelet aggregation 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h after drug administration with a maximum antiplatelet effect observed after 1 and 2 h. In a rat model of thrombosis induced by ferric chloride application on the abdominal aorta, BM-573 significantly reduced the thrombus weight by 92.53, 80.20, 64.75, and 18.21% at doses of 5, 2, 0.5, and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. Time to occlusion of abdominal aorta in the BM-573-treated group (41.50+/-5.21 min) was significantly prolonged compared with the vehicle-treated rats (16.16+/-0.79 min). Like furegrelate, seratrodast, and acetylsalicylic acid, BM-573 did not affect the tail bleeding time induced by tail transection in mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, BM-573, a close derivative of the loop diuretic torasemide, failed to induce a significant increase in diuresis in rat and did not produce a decrease in blood glucose concentration as observed with the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the nitrobenzenic sulfonylurea BM-573, an original combined thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor, is a potent antithrombotic agent that does not affect bleeding time. Moreover, BM-573 lost the diuretic property of torasemide and has no impact on glycemia. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromagnetic force density in a ferromagnetic material
Henrotte, François; Vande Sande, Hans; Deliège, Geoffrey ULiege et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2004), 40(2), 553-556

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See detailPresentation of neuroendocrine self in the thymus: toward a novel type of vaccine/immunotherapy
Geenen, Vincent ULiege; Brilot, Fabienne; Hansenne, Isabelle et al

in Drug Design Reviews - Online (2004), 1

Slightly after the emergence some 400 millions years ago of the first signs of adaptive immune response, tolerogenic pathways developed in order to preserve the integrity of self from potential autoimmune ... [more ▼]

Slightly after the emergence some 400 millions years ago of the first signs of adaptive immune response, tolerogenic pathways developed in order to preserve the integrity of self from potential autoimmune toxicity. Amongst those tolerogenic pathways, the thymus occupies a central place both by deleting self-reactive T cells that are produced in the thymus during random recombination of gene segments encoding the variable parts of the T-cell receptor for antigen (TCR) (negative selection), and by generating self-antigen specific regulatory T cells (Tr). A repertoire of neuroendocrine-related genes are transcribed by thymic stromal cells — epithelial and ‘nurse’ cells (TEC/TNC), dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MF) — in such a way that a dominant protein precursor is expressed in the thymus environment. Oxytocin (OT) and neurokinin A (NKA) are the dominant thymic precursors for the neurohypophysial hormone and tachykinin families, respectively. With regard to the insulin gene family, all members are transcribed following a precise cell topography and hierarchy in the profile of gene expression: IGF2 (TEC/TNC) > IGF1 (MF) >> INS (medullary TEC and/or DC). This hierarchy implies that IGF-2 is more tolerated than IGF-1, and much more than Insulin (Ins). The low level of INS transcription in the thymus also explains why Ins displays immunogenic properties, as well as the significant prevalence (±40%) of anti-Ins autoantibodies in the general population. Ins administration failed in providing tolerance or protection toward islet ß cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In contrast, the presentation of IGF-2 B11-25, the homologous sequence of Ins B9-23, to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from DQ8+ T1D adolescents significantly increases IL-10 secretion and IL10 expression. Given the potent regulatory/suppressive properties of IL-10 on the autoimmune response toward islet ß cells, these data support that IGF-2 derived sequences constitute a strong basis for the development of an antigen-specific driven tolerogenic approach for T1D prevention and/or cure. [less ▲]

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See detailHypercholesterolaemia in a family of rough collie dogs.
Jeusette, Isabelle; Grauwels, Magda ULiege; Cuvelier, Christine ULiege et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (2004), 45(6), 319-24

A family of five privately owned rough collie dogs was referred for corneal lipidosis and also suffered from hypercholesterolaemia. The hypercholesterolaemia was characterised by an increase in the alpha ... [more ▼]

A family of five privately owned rough collie dogs was referred for corneal lipidosis and also suffered from hypercholesterolaemia. The hypercholesterolaemia was characterised by an increase in the alpha-2 high density lipoprotein-1 band and was due to an increase in the cholesterol content of the very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and possibly the high density lipoprotein-1 fractions. A low-fat and energy-restricted diet did not reduce either total cholesterol or the corneal lipidosis. Corneal lipidosis regressed with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation. However, the effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on total cholesterol were transient and variable. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic and functional confirmation of the causality of the DGAT1 K232A quantitative trait nucleotide in affecting milk yield and composition
Grisart, B.; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege; Karim, Latifa ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2004), 101(8), 2398-2403

We recently used a positional cloning approach to identify a nonconservative lysine to alanine substitution (K232A) in the bovine DGAT1 gene that was proposed to be the causative quantitative trait ... [more ▼]

We recently used a positional cloning approach to identify a nonconservative lysine to alanine substitution (K232A) in the bovine DGAT1 gene that was proposed to be the causative quantitative trait nucleotide underlying a quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting milk fat composition, previously mapped to the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 14. We herein generate genetic and functional data that confirm the causality of the DGAT1 K232A mutation. We have constructed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map of the 3.8-centimorgan BULGE30-BULGE9 interval containing the QTL and show that the association with milk fat percentage maximizes at the DGAT1 gene. We provide evidence that the K allele has undergone a selective sweep. By using a baculovirus expression system, we have expressed both DGAT1 alleles in Sf9 cells and show that the K allele, causing an increase in milk fat percentage in the live animal, is characterized by a higher V-max in producing triglycerides than the A allele. [less ▲]

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See detailLck dephosphorylation at Tyr-394 and inhibition of T cell antigen receptor signaling by Yersinia phosphatase YopH.
Alonso, Andres; Bottini, Nunzio; Bruckner, Shane et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(6), 4922-8

A key virulence factor for Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which the bacterium injects into host cells. We report that treatment of human T lymphocytes ... [more ▼]

A key virulence factor for Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which the bacterium injects into host cells. We report that treatment of human T lymphocytes with a recombinant membrane-permeable YopH resulted in severe reduction in intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of T cell activation. The primary signal transducer for the T cell antigen receptor, the Lck tyrosine kinase, was specifically precipitated by a substrate-trapping YopH mutant, and Lck was dephosphorylated at its positive regulatory site, Tyr-394, in cells containing active YopH. By turning off Lck, YopH blocks T cell antigen receptor signaling at its very first step, effectively preventing the development of a protective immune response against this lethal bacterium. [less ▲]

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See detailYaken detachment fold, Southern Tianshan, China
Hubert, Aurelia ULiege; Suppe, J.; Wang, X. et al

in American Association of Petroleum Geologists Atlas (2004)

Yakeng anticline illustrates the importance of working in the thickness domain when interpreting detachment folds. Measure- ments in the thickness domain show that Yakeng has 1.2 km shorten- ing above a ... [more ▼]

Yakeng anticline illustrates the importance of working in the thickness domain when interpreting detachment folds. Measure- ments in the thickness domain show that Yakeng has 1.2 km shorten- ing above a basal two levels of major detachment, basal diapirism, basement folding, and a 2.4-km-thick growth sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de "Le donazioni tra fidanzati nel diritto romano" de Paolo Ferretti
Gerkens, Jean-François ULiege

in Revue Historique de Droit Français et Etranger (2004), 82(2), 291

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See detailThe age as a diagnostic of the dynamics of marine ecosystem models
Delhez, Eric ULiege; Lacroix, Geneviève; Deleersnijder, Eric

in Ocean Dynamics (2004), 54(2), 221-231

The constituent-oriented age theory (CAT) worked out by Delhez et al. (1999) is a flexible tool that can be applied to diagnose complex models. It is shown here how this can be used to quantify the pace ... [more ▼]

The constituent-oriented age theory (CAT) worked out by Delhez et al. (1999) is a flexible tool that can be applied to diagnose complex models. It is shown here how this can be used to quantify the pace at which an ecosystem model works. At the cost of the introduction of one additional evolution equation for each compartment of the ecosystem model, the mean age of the biological material forming these compartments can be computed. The information obtained in this way complements the information provided by the concentration data; while the latter measures the standing stocks, the former provides an integrated assessment of the interaction rates and matter fluxes. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simple Lotka-Volterra system and a one-dimensional vertical model of the nitrogen cycle in the Ligurian Sea. The theory can be used to study the biological compartments individually or the ecosystem as a whole. In particular, the age is a valuable tool to quantify the overall cycling rate of nitrogen in the food web. [less ▲]

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See detailA model for ternary projective relations between regions
Billen, Roland ULiege; Clementini, Eliseo

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2004)

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See detailQuality characteristics and oxidative stability of date seed oil during storage
Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe ULiege; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Food Science & Technology International (2004), 10(5), 333-338

Studies were conducted on some quality characteristics of date seed oil from two date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Deglet Nour and Allig. The following values were obtained for Deglet Nour and ... [more ▼]

Studies were conducted on some quality characteristics of date seed oil from two date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Deglet Nour and Allig. The following values were obtained for Deglet Nour and Allig cultivars respectively: unsaponifiable matter 8.92-7.76%, iodine value 45.49-44.08, total phenols 520.81-220.32 mug/g oil, chlorophylls 0.86-0.58 mug/g oil, viscosity 18.50-20.50 mPa.s, refractive index 1.457-1.462, acidity 1.06-2.10mg KOH/g oil and peroxide index 16.00-25.00 meq O-2/100g oil. Lipid fractionation of date seed oil yielded 98.30-97.30% neutral lipids, 97.26-96.90% triglycerides, 0.25-0.18% phospholipids and 0.36-0.31% sterols. Gas-liquid chromatography revealed that the major unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (39.17-42.13%) while the main saturated fatty acid was lauric acid (24.34-22.56%). Date seed oil showed high medium molecular weight triglycerides (C32-C42, about 27%). Extinction coefficients at 232 nm and 270 nm increased slightly during 40 days in oven (60degreesC) showing that date seed oil could be easily stored. The production of oil from date seeds provides the use of a renewable resource, and at the same time adding value to agricultural products. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of glutathione as a mechanism of indirect protection against spontaneous ex vivo apoptosis associated with bovine leukemia virus.
Sanchez Alcaraz, Teresa; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Reichert, Michal et al

in Journal of virology (2004), 78(12),

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See detailA new paradigm in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: strontium ranelate (Protelos°)
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in Medicographia (2004), 26(3), 238-243

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See detailUne visite insolite au Parc National Henri Pittier (Vénézuela)
Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege; Balsacq, R.

in Parcs & Réserves (2004), 59(3), 24-27

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See detailMetals at finite temperature: a modified smearing scheme
Verstraete, Matthieu ULiege; Gonze, Xavier

in Computational Materials Science (2004), 30

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See detailModelling of mass-transfer induced instabilities at liquid-liquid interfaces based on molecular simulations
Schott, Robin; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

in Molecular Physics (2004), 102(4), 331-339

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See detailStructural and electronic properties of Ag--Pd superlattices
Verstraete, Matthieu ULiege; Sporken, R.; Johnson, R. L. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2004), 70

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See detailMUNE in the last 30 years: what can we expect of it in practice?
WANG, François-Charles ULiege; GERARD, Pascale ULiege; BOUQUIAUX, Olivier ULiege

in Correspondances en Nerf & Muscle (2004)

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See detailNumerical determination of 3D temperature fields in steel joints
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire & Materials (2004), 28(2-4, MAR-AUG), 63-82

A numerical study was undertaken to investigate the temperature field in steel joints and to compare the temperatures in the joints with the temperatures of the adjacent steel members on the hypothesis ... [more ▼]

A numerical study was undertaken to investigate the temperature field in steel joints and to compare the temperatures in the joints with the temperatures of the adjacent steel members on the hypothesis that the thermal protection is the same on the joint and in the members. Very brief information is given on the numerical model, supplemented with parametric studies made in order to determine the required level of discretization in the time and in the space domain. A simplified assumption for representing the thermal insulation is also discussed and validated. Different numerical analyses are performed, with a variation of the following parameters: (i) type of joints, from very simple to more complex configurations, with welds and/or bolts, all of them representing joints between elements located in the same plane; (ii) unprotected joints or protected by one sprayed material; (iii) ISO, hydrocarbon or one natural fire scenario. The fact that the thermal attack from the fire might be less severe because the joints are usually located in the corner of the compartment is not taken into account. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations de l'ESH-ESC 2003 pour la prise en charge de l'hypertension artérielle en médecine générale
Persu, Alexandre; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Van de Borne, Philippe

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(9), 489-496

Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension are regularly updated. This article summarizes the last international guidelines in this field published last year. The decision to initiate an ... [more ▼]

Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension are regularly updated. This article summarizes the last international guidelines in this field published last year. The decision to initiate an antihypertensive treatment will not only depend on blood pressure [less ▲]

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See detailInterés medicinal de las comunidades vegetales de la comarca de La Safor (Valencia)
Martínez-Solís, Isabel; Sanahuja, Maria A.; Moreno, Lucrecia et al

in Revista de Fitoterapia (2004), 4(2), 165-168

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See detailPlasmin-activated doxorubicin prodrugs containing a spacer reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis without systemic toxicity
Devy, L.; de Groot, F. M.; Blacher, Silvia ULiege et al

in FASEB Journal (2004), 18(3), 565-567

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced ... [more ▼]

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced in many cancers. ST-9905, which contains an elongated self-elimination spacer, is activated more rapidly in vitro by plasmin than is ST-9802. Prodrug activation in vitro depended on the level of urokinase produced by tumor cells and was inhibited by aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor. Comparison of equimolar concentrations of ST-9905, ST-9802, and Dox in EF43.fgf-4 and MCF7 models revealed that both prodrugs, in sharp contrast to Dox, displayed antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities without discernible toxicity. Although MCF7 cells are poor urokinase producers in vitro, prodrug efficacy in this model may be explained by production of plasmin by tumor-infiltrating host cells. Mice treated with equitoxic concentrations (maximum tolerated doses) of prodrugs showed 100% survival and negligible body weight loss, in contrast to results after Dox treatment. ST-9905 was substantially more effective than ST9802 and induced similar tumor growth inhibition as Dox but without apparent toxicity. This finding may be explained by the elongated spacer, which facilitates enzymatic prodrug activation. These data validate both the use of elongated spacers in vivo and the concept of targeting anticancer prodrugs to tumor-associated plasmin. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalyst consumption during growth of carbon nanofilaments on Pd seeds
Breton, Yannick; Fleurier, Romain; Salvetat, Jean-Paul et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2004), 85

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See detailSalmonella spp. in food of animal origin: a continuous threat for public health?
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Clinquart, Antoine ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 174-193

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in ... [more ▼]

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in host cells requires type III secretion-systems, little is known, at present, about virulence mechanisms. Among the cultural detection methods, the use of semi-solid media seems more efficient than the others for Salmonella recovery. The techniques based on genetic amplification may be useful in order to further characterize the isolated strains. Salmonella can be isolated from the intestine of numerous animal species and its survival in the surroundings may be quite long. Several serotypes may cause clinical salmonellosis while others may be responsible for animal species of a carrier state. In this abstract, the influence of swine production system will be developed. The sustainable and ongoing surveillance are justified by the fact that Salmonella leads to numerous foodborne cases and outbreaks and is responsible of important economic and social costs. This surveillance aims to improve the sanitary quality of food from "farm to fork". The preventive methods available for the pre-harvest production step and for the slaughterhouse will be also evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailThe genus Iowatrypa Copper, 1973 (Brachiopoda) in the Les Valisettes Formation (late Frasnian of the Philippeville Anticlinorium, southern Belgium)
Mottequin, Bernard ULiege

in Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Sciences de la Terre (2004), 74

A new species of the genus Iowatrypa Copper, 1973 [I. philippevillensis n. sp. (Pseudogruenewaldtiinae)] is described from the late Frasnian (Upper Palmatolepis rhenana Zone) Les Valisettes Formation ... [more ▼]

A new species of the genus Iowatrypa Copper, 1973 [I. philippevillensis n. sp. (Pseudogruenewaldtiinae)] is described from the late Frasnian (Upper Palmatolepis rhenana Zone) Les Valisettes Formation (Philippeville Anticlinorium). [less ▲]

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See detailLes relations entre attention et langage
Poncelet, Martine ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2004), 218

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See detailPolitics in China. Moving Frontiers
Florence, Eric ULiege

in China Information (2004), Volule XVIII(n°2),

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See detailDeficit in decoding emotional facial expression in Parkinson's disease
Dujardin, K.; Blairy, Sylvie ULiege; Duhem, S. et al

in Neuropsychologia (2004), 42

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See detailPrehensile wear on flint tools
Rots, Veerle ULiege

in Lithic Technology (2004), 29(1), 7-32

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See detailLanreotide Autogel for acromegaly: a new addition to the treatment armamentarium.
Ciccarelli, Antonio; Daly, Adrian ULiege; Beckers, Albert ULiege

in Treatments in Endocrinology (2004), 3(2), 77-81

Since their introduction into clinical practice, somatostatin analogs have been the pharmacological therapy of choice for the treatment of acromegaly. The first preparations of somatostatin analogs ... [more ▼]

Since their introduction into clinical practice, somatostatin analogs have been the pharmacological therapy of choice for the treatment of acromegaly. The first preparations of somatostatin analogs available for clinical use were administered subcutaneously two or three times daily, which was not optimal with respect to patient compliance. The introduction of long-acting formulations of somatostatin analogs has overcome this inconvenience. Lanreotide Autogel, a new viscous, supersaturated, aqueous solution of lanreotide, is available in a prefilled syringe and administered by deep subcutaneous injection every 28 days. Lanreotide Autogel has different pharmacokinetic properties from the earlier lanreotide slow-release (SR) formulation, which may account for its better tolerability. Furthermore, lanreotide Autogel is at least as efficacious as the other somatostatin analogs in lowering growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in the majority and in restoring safe GH and age-normalized IGF-1 levels in about 50-60% of patients with acromegaly. In conclusion, lanreotide Autogel is a valuable new addition to the acromegaly treatment armamentarium. Patients receiving intramuscular lanreotide SR injections every 7-14 days can be switched to an appropriate dose of deep subcutaneous lanreotide Autogel every 28 days, without any impact on safety or loss of efficacy. [less ▲]

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