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See detailImpaired performance in a working memory binding task in patients with schizophrenia
Burglen, F.; Marczewski, P.; Mitchell, K. J. et al

in Psychiatry Research (2004), 125(3), 247-255

This study investigated feature binding in a working memory task in patients with schizophrenia and in normal controls. Twenty-five patients and 25 controls participated. On each trial, three drawings of ... [more ▼]

This study investigated feature binding in a working memory task in patients with schizophrenia and in normal controls. Twenty-five patients and 25 controls participated. On each trial, three drawings of familiar objects were presented sequentially, each in a different cell of a 3 x 3 grid. In different blocks of trials, participants remembered either individual features (object and location conditions) or an object and its location (combination condition). The results showed that patients were slower and less accurate than controls under all conditions. Accuracy of both groups, was reduced in the combination condition relative to the single-feature conditions, but patients showed disproportionately poorer performance in the combination condition than in the object and location conditions. Thus, patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in working memory, particularly when the task requires binding objects to their locations. This finding demonstrates that processes that establish coherent and temporary episodic representations in working memory are impaired in schizophrenia. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSilica reinforced triblock copolymer gels
Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H. et al

in Polymer (2004), 45(6), 1857-1865

The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has ... [more ▼]

The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of atrazine on sex steroid dynamics, plasma vitellogenin concentration and gonad development in adult goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Spano, L.; Tyler, C. R.; van Aerle, R. et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2004), 66(4), 369-379

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a ... [more ▼]

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a period of 21 days and effects on the concentrations of gonad and plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonad histo-morphology assessed. Atrazine did not show any obvious estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a lack of vitellogenin induction. There were, however, effects of atrazine on plasma androgen concentrations (androgen dynamics) and tissue (plasma and gonad) estrogen concentrations in male goldfish; exposure to 1000 mug/l atrazine induced suppression in both testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, and resulted in elevated 17beta-estradiol, after 21 day of exposure. Further, these suppressive effects on plasma androgens and the induction in estrogen were dose- and time-related. The highest atrazine exposure dose induced structural disruption in the testis and both 100 and 1000 mug/l induced elevated levels of atresia in ovaries. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPLA-coated gold nanoparticles for the labeling of PLA biocarriers
Qiu, Hongjin; Rieger, Jutta ULiege; Gilbert, Bernard ULiege et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2004), 16(5), 850-856

POly-DL-lactide end-capped by a protected thiol was synthesized by bulk ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of DL-lactide initiated by the reaction product of aluminum isopropoxide [Al (iOPr) (3)] with ... [more ▼]

POly-DL-lactide end-capped by a protected thiol was synthesized by bulk ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of DL-lactide initiated by the reaction product of aluminum isopropoxide [Al (iOPr) (3)] with alpha- (2,4-dinitrophenylsulfenyl) ethanol. After the thiol deprotection, PLA-SH was used to stabilize gold nanoparticles. Either these nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of PLA-SH, or PLA-SH was substituted for part of the undecanethiol (C11SH) that stabilized preformed gold nanoparticles. In contrast to C11SH-coated nanoparticles, those stabilized by PLA-SH were successfully entrapped into 100-nm PLA nanocarriers prepared by nanoprecipitation. This is an easy technique to label PLA biocarriers and therefore trace their fate in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailnote sous arrêt du 4 mars 2003 "FENIN c/ Commission"
Petit, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue du Droit de l'Union Européenne (2004)

Résumé et analyse de l'affaire FENIN contre Commission (affaire T-399/99)

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See detailSolid-state NMR study of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites
Calberg, Cédric ULiege; Jérôme, Robert ULiege; Grandjean, Jean ULiege

in Langmuir (2004), 20(5), 2039-2041

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See detailSolar wind control of auroral substorm onset locations observed with the IMAGE-FUV imagers
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Hubert, Benoît ULiege; Grard, Aline ULiege et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2004), 109

The FUV imagers on board the IMAGE satellite provide multispectral snapshots of the polar region every 2 min. The combination of the Wide-Angle Imaging Camera (WIC) with SI12 (Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha ... [more ▼]

The FUV imagers on board the IMAGE satellite provide multispectral snapshots of the polar region every 2 min. The combination of the Wide-Angle Imaging Camera (WIC) with SI12 (Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha) and SI13 (135.6 nm) spectral imagers is used to discriminate between the electron and the proton aurora. We describe a statistical study of the location of 78 substorms observed close to the 2000-2001 winter solstice. The latitudinal distribution of the onsets observed with WIC is asymmetric with a median at 65.6° MLAT and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 3.5°. Their local time distribution is concentrated between 2000 and 0200 MLT with a median at 23.4 +/- 0.3 hours MLT and a FWHM of 1.8 hours. No statistically significant difference is found in the spatial distribution of the proton and electron onsets. All onsets take place within a region of preexisting proton precipitation, indicating that substorm initiation occurs in regions of stretched but dipole-like field lines that cross the equatorial plane close to the Earth. Latitudes of substorm onsets are located at a variable distance from the poleward FUV auroral boundary but remain at a nearly constant distance from the equatorward limit of both proton and electron auroral ovals. The magnetic latitudes of the onsets are correlated with some of the solar wind plasma properties measured by the ACE satellite prior to the substorm breakup. In particular, a clear anticorrelation is found between the onset MLAT and the 1-hour averaged solar wind dynamic pressure. A decrease of the onset latitude is also observed for larger B intensity values. No dependence of the onset MLT on the solar wind speed is observed, in contrast to the relationship expected from the thermal catastrophe model for substorm initiation. Our results are in agreement with models locating the initial instability in the near magnetosphere such as the near-Earth current disruption models. [less ▲]

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See detailAmphiphilic block copolymers of high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) and either epsilon-caprolactone or gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone: Synthesis and characterization
Vangeyte, Patrick; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2004), 42(5), 1132-1142

Ethylene oxide (EO) has been block-polymerized with both epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone (MCL) through the combination of the anionic polymerization of EO and the ... [more ▼]

Ethylene oxide (EO) has been block-polymerized with both epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone (MCL) through the combination of the anionic polymerization of EO and the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-CL and MCL. omega-Hydroxyl poly(ethylene oxide) has been reacted with triethylaluminum (OH/Al = 1) and converted into a macroinitiator for ROP of epsilon-CL and MCL. In toluene at room temperature, this polymerization leads to a bimodal molecular weight distribution as a result of monomer insertion in only some of the aluminum alkoxide bonds. However, in a more polar solvent (methylene chloride) added with 1 equiv of a Lewis base (pyridine), the expected diblock is formed selectively, and this indicates that aggregation of the active species in toluene is responsible for a macroinitiator efficiency of less than 1. A series of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (semicrystalline) and poly(gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone) (amorphous) as the hydrophobic blocks have been prepared and characterized with size exclusion chromatography, H-1 NMR, IR, and wide-angle X-ray scattering. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between polymorphism in IgG Fc receptor IIIa coding gene and biological response to infliximab in Crohn's disease
Louis, Edouard ULiege; El Ghoul, Z.; Vermeire, S. et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2004), 19(5), 511-519

AIM: To test the hypothesis of an association between polymorphism in FCGR3A (the gene coding for FcgammaRIIIa, which is expressed on macrophages and natural killer cells, is involved in antibody ... [more ▼]

AIM: To test the hypothesis of an association between polymorphism in FCGR3A (the gene coding for FcgammaRIIIa, which is expressed on macrophages and natural killer cells, is involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and has recently been associated with a positive response to rituximab, a recombinant immunoglobulin G1 antibody used in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and response to infliximab in Crohn's disease. METHODS: FCGR3A-158 polymorphism was determined using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in 200 Crohn's disease patients who had received infliximab for either refractory luminal (n = 142) or fistulizing (n = 58) Crohn's disease. Clinical and biological responses (according to C-reactive protein levels) were assessed in 200 and 145 patients, respectively. RESULTS: There were 82.9% clinical responders in V/V patients vs. 72.7% in V/F and F/F patients (N.S.). Globally, the decrease in C-reactive protein was significantly higher in V/V patients than in F carriers (P = 0.0078). A biological response was observed in 100% of V/V patients, compared with 69.8% of F carriers (P = 0.0002; relative risk, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.61). In the sub-group of patients with elevated C-reactive protein before treatment, the multivariate analysis selected the use of immunosuppressive drugs and FCGR3A genotype as independent factors influencing the clinical response to infliximab (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Crohn's disease patients with FCGR3A-158 V/V genotype have a better biological and, possibly, clinical response to infliximab. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased IL-6 and TGF-beta(1) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid associated with thoracic radiotherapy
Barthelemy-Brichant, Nicole ULiege; Bosquee, Lionel; Cataldo, Didier ULiege et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2004), 58(3), 758-767

PURPOSE: To assess, in lung cancer patients, the effects of thoracic radiotherapy (RT) on the concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To assess, in lung cancer patients, the effects of thoracic radiotherapy (RT) on the concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven patients with lung cancer requiring RT as part of their treatment were studied. BAL was performed bilaterally before, during, and 1, 3, and 6 months after RT. Before each BAL session, the patient's status was assessed clinically using pulmonary function tests and an adapted late effects on normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale, including subjective and objective alterations. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were used to grade pneumonitis. The TGF-beta(1) and IL-6 levels in the BAL fluid were determined using the Easia kit. RESULTS: The TGF-beta(1) and IL-6 concentrations in the BAL fluid recovered from the irradiated areas were significantly increased by thoracic RT. The increase in TGF-beta(1) levels tended to be greater in the group of patients who developed severe pneumonitis. In the BAL fluid from the nonirradiated areas, the TGF-beta(1) and IL-6 concentrations remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The observed increase in TGF-beta(1) and IL-6 concentrations in the BAL fluid recovered from the irradiated lung areas demonstrated that these cytokines may contribute to the process leading to a radiation response in human lung tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of substrate hydrophobicity on the adsorption of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer
De Cupere, V. M.; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULiege et al

in Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2004), 271(1), 60-68

The adsorption of poly(tert-butylmethacrylate)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino-ethyl) methacrylate) (PtBUMA-b-PDMAEMA) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM ... [more ▼]

The adsorption of poly(tert-butylmethacrylate)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino-ethyl) methacrylate) (PtBUMA-b-PDMAEMA) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis performed on dried samples. The copolymer was dissolved in toluene at concentrations below (0.01 wt%) and above (0.05 and 1 wt%) the CMC; silicon (SiOH) and CH3-grafted silicon (SiCH3) were used as substrates. Whatever the concentration and the substrate, a layer of individual copolymer molecules, 1.5-3 nm thick, formed rapidly. The adsorbed amount was slightly higher and the resistance to AFM tip scraping was stronger on SiOH than oil SiCH3. This is attributed to hydrogen bonding between the PDMAEMA block and the OH groups of the silicon surface, leading to polarization of the adsorbed layer. Above the CMC, on SiOH, randomly scattered dot-like features (about 5 nm high) observed by AFM were attributed to individual micelles, which were not displaced by drying. On SiCH3, the particles found on the top of the adsorbed layer were micelle aggregates, about 50 nm thick, the lateral size of which was strongly influenced by the rate of drying. This further difference between SiCH3 and SiOH is tentatively attributed to the exposure of PDMAEMA by the adsorbed layer formed on SiCH3, while only PtBUMA would be exposed by the layer adsorbed on SiOH. The red blood cell shape and the size of the micelles observed in single layers indicate that the PtBUMA corona was not made compact as a result of drying, (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term multicolour photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of the two gamma Doradus stars HD 12901 and HD 48501
Aerts, C.; Cuypers, J.; De Cat, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 415

We gathered long-term multicolour Geneva UB[SUB]1[/SUB]BB[SUB]2[/SUB]V[SUB]1[/SUB]VG photometric and high-resolution (R=40 000) spectroscopic data of the two gamma Doradus stars HD 12901 and HD 48501. The ... [more ▼]

We gathered long-term multicolour Geneva UB[SUB]1[/SUB]BB[SUB]2[/SUB]V[SUB]1[/SUB]VG photometric and high-resolution (R=40 000) spectroscopic data of the two gamma Doradus stars HD 12901 and HD 48501. The photometry reveals three frequencies for each of the two stars: f[SUB]1[/SUB]=1.21563 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP], f[SUB]2[/SUB]=1.39594 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and f[SUB]3[/SUB]=2.18636 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP] for HD 12901 and f[SUB]1[/SUB]=1.09408 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP], f[SUB]2[/SUB]=1.29054 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and f[SUB]3[/SUB]=1.19924 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP] for HD 48501. The photometric amplitude is each time largest in the Geneva B[SUB]1[/SUB] filter and the variations in all the different filters are perfectly in phase within the measurement errors. Mode identification points out that the six modes are all l=1 modes and that the non-adiabatic temperature variations are extremely small, in contradiction to current theoretical predictions. Our spectra show that all the observed frequencies are intrinsic to the stars and cannot be due to binarity. We detect clear line-profile variations at low amplitude (<1 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) due to the oscillations of both targets. The estimated v sin i from the spectra are Ë 53 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] for HD 12901 and Ë 29 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] for HD 48501. It is at present unclear if the triplet-like structure for HD 48501 is the consequence of rotational splitting or of the large separation expected for high-order gravity modes in the asymptotic regime. Based on observations gathered with the Swiss 0.7 m telescope equipped with the photometer P 7 and with the Swiss 1.2 m Euler telescope equipped with the spectrograph CORALIE, both situated at La Silla, Chile. Reduced data available upon request from the first author. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeic calves in Argentina.
Mercado, E. C.; Gioffre, A.; Rodriguez, Sabrina ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases & Veterinary Public Health (2004), 51(2), 82-8

Faecal samples from 76 diarrhoeic calves belonging to 36 farms located in the Pampas plain, Argentina, were examined for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A total of 15 STEC strains were ... [more ▼]

Faecal samples from 76 diarrhoeic calves belonging to 36 farms located in the Pampas plain, Argentina, were examined for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A total of 15 STEC strains were isolated from 12 (15.8%) calves which came from six different farms. All stx positive strains assayed by PCR were also positives in the Vero cell cytotoxicity test. The majority (60.0%) of the STEC strains carried the stx(1) gene. Twelve (80.0%) of the STEC isolates which belonged to serotypes O5:H- (n = 4), O26:H11 (n = 4), O26:H- (n = 1), O111:H- (n = 2), and O123:H38 (n = 1) were also enterohaemolysin (EHly) positive and carried the gene encoding for intimin (eae). All the stx positive strains were negative for the bfpA gene. Localized adherence to HEp-2 cells were observed in 83.3% of the eae+ STEC strains. STEC belonging to serotype O5:H- showed atypical biochemical properties, including urease production. Urease was also produced by two strains belonging to serotypes O153:H? and non-typeable, respectively. Resistance to three or more antibiotics was observed in 12 (80.0%) of the STEC isolates. Most of the serotypes of STEC recovered in this survey carried virulence traits that are associated with increased human and bovine pathogenicity. The present study shows that highly virulent STEC strains are being shed by diarrhoeic calves from farms located in a high incidence area of human STEC infections. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome de Down et myxoedeme: description d'un cas et revue de la litterature
Serpe, Philippe ULiege; Gaillard, J. F.; Serpe, J. N. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(3), 131-135

A case of myxedema secondary to undetected hypothyroidism developed in a 48 year old 21-trisomic male. This paper presents a short discussion about different possible diagnoses and a review of the ... [more ▼]

A case of myxedema secondary to undetected hypothyroidism developed in a 48 year old 21-trisomic male. This paper presents a short discussion about different possible diagnoses and a review of the literature concerning the relationship between Down Syndrome and hypothyroidism or other diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailA time-domain homogenization technique for laminated iron cores in 3-D finite-element models
Gyselinck, Johan; Dular, Patrick ULiege

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2004), 40(2, Part 2), 856-859

The authors present a novel time-domain homogenization technique for laminated iron cores in three-dimensional (3-D) FE models of electromagnetic devices when using the magnetic vector potential ... [more ▼]

The authors present a novel time-domain homogenization technique for laminated iron cores in three-dimensional (3-D) FE models of electromagnetic devices when using the magnetic vector potential formulation. The method is based on a polynomial orthogonal decomposition of the variation of the induction throughout the thickness of the laminations. The nonconstant components, due to skin effect, produce additional degrees of freedom and equations for the homogenized core. Insulating layers of finite width between the laminations (fill factor < 1) are taken into account as well. A linear 3-D axisymmetric test case is considered. The results agree well with those obtained with the reference model, in which all laminations are finely discretized and the eddy currents are directly modeled. [less ▲]

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See detailA new model for human intestinal preservation: Comparison of University of Wisconsin and Celsior preservation solutions
De Roover, Arnaud ULiege; de Leval, Laurence ULiege; Gilmaire, Julie ULiege et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2004), 36(2), 270-272

AIM: We compared University of Wisconsin (UW) and Celsior preservation solutions using a new model of human intestinal preservation that mimics the clinical conditions of small bowel procurement. METHODS ... [more ▼]

AIM: We compared University of Wisconsin (UW) and Celsior preservation solutions using a new model of human intestinal preservation that mimics the clinical conditions of small bowel procurement. METHODS: Intestinal grafts were harvested from four multiorgan donors. After classic warm dissection for organ procurement, an ileal segment of 50 cm was immediately flushed with Celsior. After the perfusion of the abdominal organs with UW, a second segment of adjacent ileum was harvested. The two intestinal grafts were then divided into segments by stapling, before immersion into the corresponding preservation solution (Celsior or UW) for 0-, 6-, 12-, or 24-hour incubation at 4 degrees C. A histological score was graded after blinded examination of three random specimens within each ileal graft for each duration of preservation. RESULTS: Control specimens showed normal histology. After 6 hours of preservation, most villi showed complete epithelial detachment although the crypts appeared intact. After 12 hours of preservation, a larger proportion of the villi showed extensive epithelial sloughing. After 24 hours, the damage involved the entire mucosa with the crypt epithelium largely detached from the basal membrane. No statistical difference in histological score was observed between the two preservation solutions. CONCLUSION: This study showed severe histological alterations of graft mucosa after short periods of preservation by UW or Celsior solutions. This model may be useful to evaluate improvements in the quality of preservation of human intestinal transplants. [less ▲]

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See detailRésultats d'un inventaire des reptiles par la méthode des "Plaques Refuges" en Région Wallonne
Graitson, Eric ULiege

in Natura Mosana (2004), 56(4), 73-83

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See detailNon-linear optical measurements and crystalline characterization of CdTe nanoparticles produces by thes electropulse technique
Loicq, Jerôme ULiege; Renotte, Yvon ULiege; Delplancke, Jean-Luc

in New Journal of Physics (2004), 6(32),

We propose to extend the ‘electropulse’ technique to synthesize CdTe nanoparticles for optical components. To do so, we create nuclei of the expected material on a titanium electrode immersed in an ... [more ▼]

We propose to extend the ‘electropulse’ technique to synthesize CdTe nanoparticles for optical components. To do so, we create nuclei of the expected material on a titanium electrode immersed in an electrolytic solution by using an electrochemical pulse. The nanoparticles are expelled from the titanium horn surface by cavitation bubbles, which are produced in the solution by a high intensity ultrasound pulse generated by a piezoelectric crystal. Optical absorption spectra and third-order non-linear optical properties of a colloidal solution of CdTe particles produced by this technique are presented. The non-linear refractive index was characterized using the single-beam z-scan technique, and measurements were carried out at several incidence intensities. Non-linear indices of refraction between −1.2×10−7 and −2×10−8 cm2W−1 were measured. [less ▲]

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See detailHomogenization of lamination stacks in linear magnetodynamics
Krahenbuhl, Laurent; Dular, Patrick ULiege; Zeidan, Tarek et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2004), 40(2, Part 2), 912-915

An effective numerical modeling of devices with lamination stacks cannot be done without replacing the laminations by an equivalent solid region. So far, no convincing model has been proposed, even in the ... [more ▼]

An effective numerical modeling of devices with lamination stacks cannot be done without replacing the laminations by an equivalent solid region. So far, no convincing model has been proposed, even in the "simple" case of linear magnetodynamics-particularly if the resultant current in each sheet does not cancel. In this paper, we define the homogenized fields, and the related material properties. The noteworthy precision of the theoretic homogenized solution is shown and discussed by comparing it with the exact solution of the problem with laminations in the case of a simple "1.5-D" analytical test problem. The three-dimensional finite element solutions-real description of the sheets, refined mesh/homogenized region, coarser mesh-for the same test problem show also a perfect agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailAscorbate potentiates the cytotoxicity of menadione leading to an oxidative stress that kills cancer cells by a non-apoptotic caspase-3 independent form of cell death
Verrax, Julien; Cadrobbi, Julie; Marques, Carole et al

in Apoptosis : An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death (2004), 9(2), 223-233

Hepatocarcinoma cells (TLT) were incubated in the presence of ascorbate and menadione, either alone or in combination. Cell death was only observed when such compounds were added simultaneously, most ... [more ▼]

Hepatocarcinoma cells (TLT) were incubated in the presence of ascorbate and menadione, either alone or in combination. Cell death was only observed when such compounds were added simultaneously, most probably due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by ascorbate-driven menadione redox cycling. TLT cells were particularly sensitive to such an oxidative stress due to its poor antioxidant status. DNA strand breaks were induced by this association but this process did not correspond to oligosomal DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of cell death by apoptosis). Neither caspase-3-like DEVDase activity, nor processing of procaspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed in the presence of ascorbate and menadione. Cell death induced by such an association was actively dependent on protein phosphorylation since it was totally prevented by preincubating cells with sodium orthovanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. Finally, while H2O2, when administered as a bolus, strongly enhances a constitutive basal NF-kappaB activity in TLT cells, their incubation in the presence of ascorbate and menadione results in a total abolition of such a constitutive activity. [less ▲]

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See detailRé-animer l’histoire du cinéma (quand l’animatographe explore le cinématographe)
Tomasovic, Dick ULiege

in Cinémas : revue d'études cinématographiques / Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies (2004), 14(Printemps), 119-141

The manifestly artificial nature of film animation, the constant reinvention of the apparatus and its claims to alterity, all shape its own particular (and problematic) identity; most of all, however ... [more ▼]

The manifestly artificial nature of film animation, the constant reinvention of the apparatus and its claims to alterity, all shape its own particular (and problematic) identity; most of all, however, these elements of animation interrogate cinema itself on historical and aesthetic levels. The study that reflects upon certain emblematic films demonstrates how the enterprise of film animation invites cinema to take stock of itself, to look back upon its history and to consider the possibilities of new developments in perspective and previously unexplored mobile arrangements in its time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailWood formation in in vitro propagated walnut shoots in relation with root formation and development
Kevers, Claire ULiege; Bisbis, Badia; Crèvecoeur, Michèle et al

in Acta Botanica Gallica : Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France (2004), 151(1), 45-53

Lignification and xylem cell multiplication for wood formation were examined in in vitro propagated walnut shoot cuttings after transfer on an auxin-containing rooting medium for one week and subsequently ... [more ▼]

Lignification and xylem cell multiplication for wood formation were examined in in vitro propagated walnut shoot cuttings after transfer on an auxin-containing rooting medium for one week and subsequently during root development in vermiculite in the absence of growth regulators. Lignification in the shoot stems started immediately after the exogenous auxin treatment which implied changes in peroxidase activity and in free IAA levels. Sustained lignification required the completion of the following rooting phases. The lignin was exclusively located in xylem cells, the number of which increased with the number of developing roots. The mutual interactions between the aerial parts of the plants and their roots are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the massive binary HD 159176
De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Pittard, J. M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 416(1), 221-233

We report the analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the close binary HD 159176 (O7 V + O7 V). The observed L-x/L-bol ratio reveals an X-ray luminosity exceeding by a factor similar to7 the expected ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the close binary HD 159176 (O7 V + O7 V). The observed L-x/L-bol ratio reveals an X-ray luminosity exceeding by a factor similar to7 the expected value for X-ray emission from single O-stars. therefore suggesting a wind-wind interaction scenario. EPIC and RGS spectra are fitted consistently with a two temperature mekal optically thin thermal plasma model, with temperatures ranging from similar to2 to 6 x 10(6) K. At first sight, these rather low temperatures are consistent with the expectations for a close binary system where the winds collide well before reaching their terminal velocities. We also investigate the variability of the X-ray light curve of HD,159176 on various short time scales. No significant variability is found and we-conclude that if hydrodynamical instabilities exist in the wind interaction region of HD 159176, they are not sufficient to produce an observable signature in the X-ray emission. Hydrodynamic simulations using wind parameters from the literature reveal some puzzling discrepancies. The most-striking one concerns the predicted X-ray luminosity which is one or more orders of magnitude larger than the observed one. A significant reduction of the mass loss rate of the components compared to the values quoted in the literature alleviates the discrepancy but is not sufficient to fully account for the observed luminosity. Because hydrodynamical models are best for the adiabatic case whereas the colliding winds in HD 159176 are most likely highly radiative, a totally new approach has been envisaged, using a geometrical steady-state colliding wind model suitable for the case of radiative winds. This model successfully reproduces the spectral shape of the EPIC spectrum, but further developments are still needed to alleviate the disagreement between theoretical and observed X-ray luminosities. [less ▲]

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See detailHormonal and temperature responses to flesinoxan in normal volunteers: an antagonist study
Pitchot, William ULiege; Wauthy, Jacques ULiege; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULiege et al

in European Neuropsychopharmacology (2004), 14(2), 151-155

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. In a recent study, in normal volunteers, flesinoxan induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. In a recent study, in normal volunteers, flesinoxan induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and a decrease in body temperature. OBJECTIVES: In order to better define the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in response to flesinoxan, we assessed the influence of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 antagonists on hormonal and temperature responses to flesinoxan. METHODS: Hormonal and temperature responses were studied in 6 volunteers with or without pretreatment with pindolol (30 mg p.o.), a 5-HT1A antagonist, or ritanserin (10 mg p.o.), a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, using a double-blind crossover design. RESULTS: Pindolol significantly antagonized ACTH, PRL, GH and temperature responses to flesinoxan and ritanserin exhibited similar activity on PRL and ACTH responses. CONCLUSIONS: These results show the role of 5-HT1A mechanisms in the PRL, ACTH, GH, and temperature responses to flesinoxan, and the role of 5-HT2 mechanisms in PRL and ACTH responses. Therefore, they confirm the interest of flesinoxan as a 5-HT neuroendocrine probe. [less ▲]

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See detailLuminal contact with University of Wisconsin solution improves human small bowel preservation
De Roover, Arnaud ULiege; de Leval, Laurence ULiege; Gilmaire, Julie ULiege et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2004), 36(2), 273-275

AIM: Under clinical conditions small bowel mucosa is stored without any contact between the mucosa and the preservation solution. We evaluated the impact of luminal contact with University of Wisconsin ... [more ▼]

AIM: Under clinical conditions small bowel mucosa is stored without any contact between the mucosa and the preservation solution. We evaluated the impact of luminal contact with University of Wisconsin solution (UW) on the structural quality of small bowel preservation. METHODS: Segments of ileum harvested from stable multi-organ donors were flushed with UW. For each donor, ileal segments were placed in UW without any contact between the mucosa and the preservation solution (group A), as is practiced in clinical conditions. Adjacent segments were cut on their antimesenteric side and placed in UW so that their mucosa was widely in contact with the solution (group B). The grafts preserved in ice were removed from the preservation fluid at different times (0, 3, 6, or 12 hours). Tissues were studied by optical microscopy after H [less ▲]

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See detailUn bilan des vaccinations en 2002-2003
Miermans, Marie-Christine ULiege

in Promouvoir la santé à l'école (2004), (5), 2-3

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See detailComment je traite ... la mucite bucco-pharyngee lors d'une radiotherapie cervico-faciale
Piret, Pascal ULiege; Deneufbourg, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(3), 120-7

Oral mucositis the major acute effect of head and neck radiotherapy. According to the degree, irradiation may be compromised in dose and overall time with consequences on outcome. Up to now there is no ... [more ▼]

Oral mucositis the major acute effect of head and neck radiotherapy. According to the degree, irradiation may be compromised in dose and overall time with consequences on outcome. Up to now there is no standard accepted protocol. A strict program of local and general hygiene is mandatory. Analgesics are often required. Amifostine acts as a protector of salivary glands GM-CSF and G-CSF stimulate proliferation of mucosal basal cells. Sucralfate plays a barrier role. Camomile plant extract is anti-inflammatory, well tolerated and cheap. Povidone-iodine is better than chlorhexidine as an antiseptic agent. PTA lozenges with polymixin E, tobramycin and amphotericin B showed a marked power of selective microbial decontamination. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dislocation du secteur minier au Katanga (RDC). Pillage ou recomposition?
Rubbers, Benjamin ULiege

in Politique Africaine (Paris, France : 1981) (2004), 93

New actors appeared in the mining sector of Katanga, formerly the monopoly of a public corporation, and transformed its relationship to the state and the global economy. By contrast with a legalist ... [more ▼]

New actors appeared in the mining sector of Katanga, formerly the monopoly of a public corporation, and transformed its relationship to the state and the global economy. By contrast with a legalist approach, this article tries to better understand their role in the future of Katanga by following their career in the recent history of the region. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial support and health-related quality of life in hip and knee osteoarthritis
Ethgen, Olivier ULiege; Vanparijs, Philippe ULiege; Delhalle, S. et al

in Quality of Life Research (2004), 13(2), 321-330

Objective: To document the association between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A prospective survey including the SF-36 and the ... [more ▼]

Objective: To document the association between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A prospective survey including the SF-36 and the Social Support questionnaire (SSQ) was administered to 108 hip and knee OA patients attending an outpatient physical rehabilitation and rheumatology clinic. Multiple regression analysis were performed to study the relation between social support and each dimension of the SF-36, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, number of comorbid conditions, socioeconomic status, site of survey completion and severity of OA which was gauged with the pain dimension of the WOMAC, an OA-specific health status instrument. Results: Greater social companionship transactions were associated with higher physical functioning ( standardized regression coefficients: beta = 0.26, p < 0.01), general health (β = 0.32, p < 0.001), mental health (beta = 0.25, p < 0.01), social functioning (β = 0.20, p < 0.05) and vitality ( b = 0.25, p < 0.05). Satisfaction with problem-oriented emotional support was related to better physical functioning (β = 0.22, p < 0.01), mental health (beta = 0.38, p < 0.001), role-emotional (B = 0.23, p < 0.01), social functioning (beta = 0.19, p < 0.05) and vitality ( b = 0.26, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Social support components significantly account for HRQoL. Health interventions in OA, primary dedicated to pain and physical disability, could be supplemented with social support component to enhance health outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailSalinity, depth and the structure and composition of microbial mats in continental Antarctic lakes
Sabbe, Koen; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Verleyen, Elie et al

in Freshwater Biology (2004), 49(3), 296-319

1. Lakes and ponds in the Larsemann Hills and Bolingen Islands (East-Antarctica) were characterised by cyanobacteria-dominated, benthic microbial mats. A 56-lake dataset representing the limnological ... [more ▼]

1. Lakes and ponds in the Larsemann Hills and Bolingen Islands (East-Antarctica) were characterised by cyanobacteria-dominated, benthic microbial mats. A 56-lake dataset representing the limnological diversity among the more than 150 lakes and ponds in the region was developed to identify and quantify the abiotic conditions associated with cyanobacterial and diatom communities. 2. Limnological diversity in the lakes of the Larsemann Hills and Bolingen Islands was associated primarily with conductivity and conductivity-related variables (concentrations of major ions and alkalinity), and variation in lake morphometry (depth, catchment and lake area). Low concentrations of pigments, phosphate, nitrogen, DOC and TOC in the water column of most lakes suggest extremely low water column productivity and hence high water clarity, and may thus contribute to the ecological success of benthic microbial mats in this region. 3. Benthic communities consisted of prostrate and sometimes finely laminated mats, flake mats, epilithic and interstitial microbial mats. Mat physiognomy and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratios were strongly related to lake depth, but not to conductivity. 4. Morphological-taxonomic analyses revealed the presence of 26 diatom morphospecies and 33 cyanobacterial morphotypes. Mats of shallow lakes (interstitial and flake mats) and those of deeper lakes (prostrate mats) were characterised by different dominant cyanobacterial morphotypes. No relationship was found between the distribution of these morphotypes and conductivity. In contrast, variation in diatom species composition was strongly related to both lake depth and conductivity. Shallow ponds were mainly characterised by aerial diatoms (e.g. Diadesmis cf. perpusilla and Hantzschia spp.). In deep lakes, communities were dominated by Psammothidium abundans and Stauroforma inermis. Lakes with conductivities higher than +/-1.5 mS cm(-1) became susceptible to freezing out of salts and hence pronounced conductivity fluctuations. In these lakes P. abundans and S. inermis were replaced by Amphora veneta. Stomatocysts were important only in shallow freshwater lakes. 5. Ice cover influenced microbial mat structure and composition both directly by physical disturbance in shallow lakes and by influencing light availability in deeper lakes, as well as indirectly by generating conductivity increases and promoting the development of seasonal anoxia. 6. The relationships between diatom species composition and conductivity, and diatom species composition and depth, were statistically significant. Transfer functions based on these data can therefore be used in paleolimnological reconstruction to infer changes in the precipitation-evaporation balance in continental Antarctic lakes. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and BMD to predict vertebral fracture risk
Sarkar, S.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Crans, G. G. et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004), 19(3), 394-401

The change in BMD is a poor predictor of vertebral fracture risk after raloxifene treatment. One-year percent change in bone turnover and BMD was used to predict vertebral fracture risk. The percent ... [more ▼]

The change in BMD is a poor predictor of vertebral fracture risk after raloxifene treatment. One-year percent change in bone turnover and BMD was used to predict vertebral fracture risk. The percent change in osteocalcin was determined to be a better predictor of vertebral fracture risk than BMD. Introduction: The association between baseline BMD and fracture risk is well understood. However, the relationship between changes in BMD and fracture risk is not well defined. It has previously been demonstrated that BMD change was a poor predictor of vertebral fracture risk in raloxifene-treated women, whereas bone turnover markers were significantly associated with fracture risk. In the current analysis, we explore the prediction of vertebral fracture risk using changes in both BMD and bone turnover. Materials and Methods: The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 7705 women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene 60 or 120 mg/day for 3 years. Markers of bone turnover were measured in one-third of the study population (n = 2503), and the present analyses include these women. Logistic regression models were constructed using one-year percent changes in BMD and bone turnover and relevant baseline demographics to predict the risk of vertebral fracture with pooled raloxifene therapy at 3 years. All covariates were standardized before modeling to facilitate direct comparisons between changes in BMD and bone turnover. Results and Conclusion: Prevalent vertebral fracture status (p < 0.0001), baseline lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.0001), and number of years postmenopausal (p = 0.0005) were independent predictors of fracture risk in raloxifene-treated patients. Therapy-by-change in femoral neck BMD (p = 0.02) and therapy-by-change in osteocalcin (OC; p = 0.01) were also significant for all treatment groups, indicating that changes in BMD and OC have different effects on fracture risk for the placebo and pooled raloxifene groups. The final model included significant baseline variables and change in OC (p = 0.01), whereas change in femoral neck BMD was not significant. After adjustment of each significant baseline variable, the percent change in OC was better able to predict the reduction in vertebral fracture risk than the percent change in femoral neck BMD in patients treated with raloxifene. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and two novel classes of PBP inhibitors, arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones
Zervosen, Astrid ULiege; Lu, Wei-Ping; Chen, Zhouliang et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004), 48(3), 961-969

Several non-beta-lactam compounds were active against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. The MICs of arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones were lower ... [more ▼]

Several non-beta-lactam compounds were active against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. The MICs of arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones were lower than those of ampicillin and cefotaxime for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus M1339 and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium EF12. Several compounds were found to inhibit the cell wall synthesis of S. aureus and the last two steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis catalyzed by ether-treated cells of Escherichia coli or cell wall membrane preparations of Bacillus megaterium. The effects of the arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-one derivatives on E. coli PBP 3 and PBP 5, Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP 2xS (PBP 2x from a penicillin-sensitive strain) and PBP 2xR (PBP 2x from a penicillin-resistant strain), low-affinity PBP 2a of S. aureus, and the Actinomadura sp. strain R39 and Streptomyces sp. strain R61 DD-peptidases were studied. Some of the compounds exhibited inhibitory activities in the 10 to 100 muM concentration range. The inhibition of PBP 2xS by several of them appeared to be noncompetitive. The dissociation constant for the best inhibitor (K-i = 10 muM) was not influenced by the presence of the substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatization of androgens into estrogens reduces response latency to a noxious thermal stimulus in male quail
Evrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege

in Hormones & Behavior (2004), 45(3), 181-189

We recently demonstrated the presence of estrogen synthase (aromatase) and of estrogen receptors in the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord in male and female ... [more ▼]

We recently demonstrated the presence of estrogen synthase (aromatase) and of estrogen receptors in the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord in male and female Japanese quail. The spinal laminae I-II receive and process abundant sensory information elicited, among others, by acute noxious stimulation of the skin and resulting in rapid, reflex-like withdrawal behavior. In the present study, we demonstrate that systemic treatment with estradiol or testosterone markedly decreases the latency of the foot withdrawal in the hot water test. A simultaneous treatment with an aromatase inhibitor blocks the effects of testosterone demonstrating, hence, that they are mediated by a conversion of testosterone into an estrogen by aromatase. Furthermore, the testosterone- or estradiol-induced decrease in foot withdrawal latency is blocked by a treatment with the estradiol receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, indicating that the effects are largely mediated by the interaction of estradiol with estrogen receptors. Together, these data suggest that sex steroids modulate sensitivity to noxious stimuli possibly by a direct action at the level of the dorsal hom of the spinal cord. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDeletion of a cyclic AMP receptor protein homologue diminishes germination and affects morphological development of Streptomyces coelicolor
Derouaux, Adeline ULiege; Halici, S.; Nothaft, H. et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2004), 186(6), 1893-1897

Open reading frame SCO3571 of Streptomyces coelicolor encodes a protein of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) superfamily of regulatory proteins. A mutant revealed a dramatic defect in ... [more ▼]

Open reading frame SCO3571 of Streptomyces coelicolor encodes a protein of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) superfamily of regulatory proteins. A mutant revealed a dramatic defect in germination, followed by growth delay and earlier sporulation. This phenotype correlates with those of an adenylate cyclase (cya) mutant that cannot synthesize cAMP. This finding suggests that S. coelicolor may use a Cya-cAMP-CRP system to trigger complex physiological processes such as morphogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on obesity and glucose metabolism
Vörös, Gabor; Maquoi, Erik ULiege; Collen, Désiré et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2004), 2(3), 507-513

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of transmembrane tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on adipose tissue development and insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: TNF-alpha and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of transmembrane tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on adipose tissue development and insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: TNF-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha-deficient mice expressing non-cleavable transmembrane TNF-alpha (Tg-tmTNF-alpha) and TNF-alpha/lymphotoxin-alpha double knockout (control) mice were kept on high-fat diet for 15 weeks. The food intake and feeding efficiency of Tg-tmTNF-alpha mice were significantly higher compared with control mice. At the end of the study, Tg-tmTNF-alpha mice had a significantly higher total body weight, as well as subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue mass. Histological analysis revealed that the expression of Tg-tmTNF-alpha resulted in a significantly increased adipocyte area and blood vessel density. Plasma leptin levels correlated positively with adipose tissue mass. The plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were significantly increased and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly decreased in Tg-tmTNF-alpha mice. Fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were not different between the two genotypes and intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Transmembrane TNF-alpha enhances adipose tissue formation without altering insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in mice with nutritionally induced obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailRéserve des Prés de la Lienne (Lierneux). Suivi de l'évolution de la végétation dans la zone de fauche à Geranium sylvaticum après 4 années de gestion
Rouxhet, Serge ULiege

in Adoxa (2004), 42

Au sein de la réserve naturelle domaniale des Prés de la Lienne (commune de Lierneux, province de Liège), subsiste une prairie de fauche maigre à fétuque et géranium des bois, relevant de l'association ... [more ▼]

Au sein de la réserve naturelle domaniale des Prés de la Lienne (commune de Lierneux, province de Liège), subsiste une prairie de fauche maigre à fétuque et géranium des bois, relevant de l'association Alchemillo-Trisetetum Lambert 1962. Un suivi de l'évolution de la végétation a été effectué pendant quatre années de gestion par la fauche. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary mode, tempo, and phylogenetic association of continuous morphological traits in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULiege; Jacquemart, A. L.

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2004), 17(2), 279-287

Evolutionary significance of morphological characters that have traditionally been used for species delineation in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium was tested by partitioning the environmentally and ... [more ▼]

Evolutionary significance of morphological characters that have traditionally been used for species delineation in the aquatic moss genus Amblystegium was tested by partitioning the environmentally and genetically induced morphological variation and focusing on morphological evolution using comparative methods. Cultivation experiments under controlled condition showed that most of the morphological variation in nature resulted from plasticity. Information regarding genetically fixed morphological variation and genetic similarity derived from polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeat markers was combined into an explicit model of morphological evolution. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters indicated that evolution of most characters tended to accelerate in the most recent taxa and was often independent from the phylogeny. Constraining the different characters to be independent from each other most often produced a less likely result than when the characters were free to evolve in a correlated fashion. Thus, the morphological characters that have traditionally been used to circumscribe different Amblystegium species lack the independence, diagnostic value for specific lineages, and stability that would be required for distinguishing different species. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite-element analysis of a double-winding induction motor with a special rotor bars topology
Oliveira, Ana Margarida; Kuo-Peng, Patrick; Sadowski, Nelson et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2004), 40(2, Part 2), 770-773

A model allowing the simulation of induction machines with different rotor bars configurations is presented. The electrical machine is modeled by using two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element method and its ... [more ▼]

A model allowing the simulation of induction machines with different rotor bars configurations is presented. The electrical machine is modeled by using two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element method and its equations are directly coupled with those of the circuit. A general and new contribution is added for the consideration of special rotor bars topologies. The movement is taken into account by means of the moving band technique, the Maxwell stress tensor, and the mechanical oscillation equation. The model is applied to a brushless doubly fed induction motor. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in matrix gene and protein expressions after single or repeated exposure to one minimal erythemal dose of solar-simulated radiation in human skin in vivo
Seite, S.; Colige, Alain ULiege; Deroanne, Christophe ULiege et al

in Photochemistry and Photobiology (2004), 79(3), 265-271

Damage to the skin extracellular matrix (ECM) is the hallmark of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes induced in unexposed human skin in vivo after ... [more ▼]

Damage to the skin extracellular matrix (ECM) is the hallmark of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes induced in unexposed human skin in vivo after single or repeated (five times a week for 6 weeks) exposure to I minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UV solar-simulated radiation. Morphological and biochemical analyses were used to evaluate the structural ECM components and the balance between the degrading enzymes and their physiologic inhibitors. A three-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) (P < 0.02, unexposed versus exposed) was observed after both single and repeated exposures. Fibrillin 1 mRNA level was increased by chronic exposure (P < 0.02) and unaltered by a single MED. On the contrary, a single MED significantly enhanced mRNA levels of interleukin-la (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta (P < 0.02) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant decrease in Type-I procollagen localized just below the dermal-epidermal junction in both types of exposed sites. At the same location, the immunodetected tenascin was significantly enhanced, whereas a slight increase in Type-III procollagen deposits was also observed in chronically exposed areas. Although we were unable to observe any change in elastic fibers in chronically exposed buttock skin, a significant increase in lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin deposits on these fibers was observed. These results demonstrate the existence of a differential regulation, after chronic exposure compared with an acute one, of some ECM components and inflammatory mediators. [less ▲]

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See detailFatal overdosage with cisplatin
Charlier, Corinne ULiege; Kintz, Pascal; Dubois, Nathalie ULiege et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2004), 28(2), 138-140

This paper presents a case of fatal overdosage due to an accidental massive administration (750 mg instead of 170 mg) of cisplatin, an anticancer agent, to a 63-year-old patient suffering from lymphoma ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a case of fatal overdosage due to an accidental massive administration (750 mg instead of 170 mg) of cisplatin, an anticancer agent, to a 63-year-old patient suffering from lymphoma. Platinum was measured in various postmortem samples by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Heart and peripheral blood concentrations of platinum were 1515 and 1253 micro g/L, respectively. Concentrations in urine and bile were 1038 and 501 micro g/L, respectively. Renal dialysis was started immediately after the end of cisplatin perfusion, when the mistake was noticed, but the patient deceased at day 16, presenting renal and hepatic insufficiency, ototoxicity, and pancytopenia. [less ▲]

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See detailLe traitement de l’obésité chez le chien
Diez, Marianne ULiege; Jeusette, Isabelle; Nguyen, Patrick

in Le nouveau praticien vétérinaire (2004)

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See detailModeling of 3-D stranded inductors with the magnetic vector potential formulation and spatially dependent turn voltages of reduced support
Dular, Patrick ULiege; Gyselinck, Johan

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2004), 40(2, Part 2), 1298-1301

An alternative method is developed to take three-dimensional stranded inductors into account with the magnetic vector potential magnetodynamic formulation. The definition of the turn voltages as a ... [more ▼]

An alternative method is developed to take three-dimensional stranded inductors into account with the magnetic vector potential magnetodynamic formulation. The definition of the turn voltages as a continuous spatially dependent quantity of reduced support enables us to simplify the turn circuit relations, relating currents and turn voltages. The continuous extension of these relations for all the wire turns then reduces the bandwidth in the system matrix in comparison with the usual method. The voltage of each turn is, moreover, directly known and, hence, does not require a postprocessing. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Un greffon hepatique pour deux receveurs : le foie partage ou split liver
Detry, Olivier ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege; Meurisse, Michel ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(3), 117

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See detailDifferential effects of testosterone on neuronal populations and their connections in a sensorimotor brain nucleus controlling song production in songbirds: a manganese enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging study
Van Meir, V.; Verhoye, M.; Absil, Philippe ULiege et al

in Neuroimage (2004), 21(3), 914-923

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two ... [more ▼]

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two neuron classes exhibit multiple neurochemical differences and are differentially replaced by new neurons during adult life: high rates of neuronal replacement are observed in RA-projecting neurons only. The activity of these two types of neurons may also be modulated differentially by steroids. We analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging the effect of testosterone on the volume of RA and area X and on the dynamics of Mn2+ accumulation in RA and area X of female starlings that had been injected with MnCl2 through a permanent cannula implanted in HVC. Repeated visualization 6 weeks apart (before and after testosterone treatment) identified a volume increase of both nuclei in testosterone-treated birds associated with a concomitant decrease in controls. Following testosterone treatment, the total amount of Mn2+ transported to RA and area X increased but the dynamics of accumulation, reflecting in part the activity of HVC neurons, was specifically altered in area X but not in RA. These data indicate that testosterone differentially affects the RA- and area X-projecting neurons in HVC. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ME-MRI) thus provides repeated measures of connected brain areas and demonstrates testosterone-dependent regionally specific changes in brain activity and functional connectivity. The slow time scales investigated by this technique (compared to functional MRI) appear ideally suited for characterizing slow processes such as those involved in brain plasticity and learning. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFronts in the Southern Indian Ocean as inferred from satellite sea surface temperature data
Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Ginzburg, Anna I.; Frankignoulle, M. et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2004), 45(1-2), 55-73

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) of NOAA satellites was used to investigate the structure and space-time ... [more ▼]

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) of NOAA satellites was used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60degreesS and 20-150degreesE) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient maps provided an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South Subtropical fronts (NSTF and SSTF, respectively), the Agulhas Front (AF), the Subantarctic Front (SAF), and the Polar Front (PF). Mean location of the fronts and associated SST and SST gradients with corresponding standard deviations were calculated at each 10degrees-spaced longitude. A double structure of the NSTF, SAF, and PF was demonstrated as well as the meandering of all fronts with amplitudes of 2-5degrees in latitude and wavelength of several degrees in longitude. Convergence and transient interaction between neighboring fronts appear to occur not only in the Crozet and Kerguelen regions, but in other regions as well. The mean locations and SST range of every front are in good agreement with previous work based on hydrographic surveys [J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 3675], although some details are different (in particular, the larger zonal extent of the NSTF and the wider frontal SST ranges than previously observed). A good correspondence of the measurements made during two hydrographic surveys in the Kerguelen region (22 January-3 February 1999) and in the Tasmania region (3-22 March 1998) with satellite SST and SST gradient maps was found. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging a cognitive model of apraxia: The neural substrate of gesture-specific cognitive processes
Peigneux, Philippe ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege; Garraux, Gaëtan ULiege et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2004), 21(3), 119-142

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press]. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in healthy volunteers using (H2O)-O-15 PET during performance of four tasks commonly used for testing upper limb apraxia, i.e., pantomime of familiar gestures on verbal command, imitation of familiar gestures, imitation of novel gestures, and an action-semantic task that consisted in matching objects for functional use. We also re-analysed data from a previous PET study in which we investigated the neural basis. of the visual analysis of gestures. First; we found that two sets of discrete brain areas are predominantly engaged in the imitation of familiar and novel gestures, respectively. Segregated brain activation for novel gesture mutation concur with neuropsychological reports to support the hypothesis that knowledge about the organization of the human body mediates the transition from visual perception to motor execution when imitating novel gestures [Goldenberg Neuropsychologia 1995;35.63-72]. Second, conjunction analyses revealed distinctive neural bases for most of the gesture-specific cognitive processes proposed in this cognitive model of upper limb apraxia. However, a functional analysis of brain imaging data suggested that one single memory store may be used for "to be-perceived" and "to-be-produced" gestural representations, departing from Rothi et al.'s proposal. Based on the above considerations, we suggest and discuss a revised model for upper limb apraxia that might best account for both brain imaging findings and neuropsychological dissociations reported in the apraxia literature. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved antigenic methods for differential diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and cervine alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1
Keuser, V.; Schynts, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2004), 42(3), 1228-1235

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four ... [more ▼]

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four other alphaherpesviruses of ruminants-namely, BoHV-5, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) and CvHV-2-diagnostic tests able to discriminate BoHV-1 from these related viruses are needed to avoid misdiagnosis, especially because some of these viruses are able to cross the species barrier. In this study, murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for BoHV-1, BoHV-5, CpHV-1, CvHV-1, and CvHV-2 were produced with the aim of setting up an immunofluorescence assay able to discriminate between these related herpesviruses. Produced MAbs were selected for their viral specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cells. Radioimmunoprecipitation characterization of the selected MAbs revealed that four of them are directed against glycoprotein C (gC) and one of them is directed against gD of these related viruses. The obtained results demonstrate that the antibodies produced allow an unambiguous discrimination of each of the four alphaherpesviruses related to BoHV-1. [less ▲]

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See detailNetworks of equities in financial markets
Bonanno, G.; Caldarelli, G.; Lillo, F. et al

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2004), 38(2), 363-371

We review the recent approach of correlation based networks of financial equities. We investigate portfolio of stocks at different time horizons, financial indices and volatility time series and we show ... [more ▼]

We review the recent approach of correlation based networks of financial equities. We investigate portfolio of stocks at different time horizons, financial indices and volatility time series and we show that meaningful economic information can be extracted from noise dressed correlation matrices. We show that the method can be used to falsify widespread market models by directly comparing the topological properties of networks of real and artificial markets. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrogen dynamics in Posidonia oceanica cuttings: implications for transplantation experiments
Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Vangeluwe, Denis; Eisinger, Michael et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2004), 48(5-6), 465-470

A N-15 tracer study was performed during an experimental transplantation trial of natural Posidonia oceanica cuttings. The experiment was done in situ at 17 m depth in the Revellata Bay (Calvi, NW Corsica ... [more ▼]

A N-15 tracer study was performed during an experimental transplantation trial of natural Posidonia oceanica cuttings. The experiment was done in situ at 17 m depth in the Revellata Bay (Calvi, NW Corsica, France). Despite high survival rates of transplants (>90%) after one year, the weight and the N content of transplants are significantly lower than those of reference plants. In absence of roots, the transplants are not able to meet their N requirement because, leaf uptake is insufficient to replenish the N lost during the natural leaf decay. This could constitute a major cause of long-term failure for transplantation experiments or natural recolonisation processes. The increase of the N-15 content in the roots shows that the plant re-allocates the nitrogen of one organ (i.e. leaves, rhizomes) to ensure the growth of another (i.e. roots). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines
Hansenne, Isabelle ULiege; Rasier, G.; Charlet-Renard, C. et al

in Clinical & Developmental Immunology (2004), 11(1), 45-51

Neurohypophysial oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) genes are transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors ... [more ▼]

Neurohypophysial oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) genes are transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThree putative murine Teashirt orthologues specify trunk structures in Drosophila in the same way as the Drosophila teashirt gene.
Manfroid, Isabelle ULiege

in Development (2004), 131

Drosophila teashirt (tsh) functions as a region-specific homeotic gene that specifies trunk identity during embryogenesis. Based on sequence homology, three tsh-like (Tsh) genes have been identified in ... [more ▼]

Drosophila teashirt (tsh) functions as a region-specific homeotic gene that specifies trunk identity during embryogenesis. Based on sequence homology, three tsh-like (Tsh) genes have been identified in the mouse. Their expression patterns in specific regions of the trunk, limbs and gut raise the possibility that they may play similar roles to tsh in flies. By expressing the putative mouse Tsh genes in flies, we provide evidence that they behave in a very similar way to the fly tsh gene. First, ectopic expression of any of the three mouse Tsh genes, like that of tsh, induces head to trunk homeotic transformation. Second, mouse Tsh proteins can rescue both the homeotic and the segment polarity phenotypes of a tsh null mutant. Third, following ectopic expression, the three mouse Tsh genes affect the expression of the same target genes as tsh in the Drosophila embryo. Fourth, mouse Tsh genes, like tsh, are able to induce ectopic eyes in adult flies. Finally, all Tsh proteins contain a motif that recruits the C-terminal binding protein and contributes to their repression function. As no other vertebrate or fly protein has been shown to induce such effects upon ectopic expression, these results are consistent with the idea that the three mouse Tsh genes are functionally equivalent to the Drosophila tsh gene when expressed in developing Drosophila embryos. [less ▲]

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See detailTherapeutic effect of the combination of etanercept and methotrexate compared with each treatment alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: double-blind randomised controlled trial
Klareskog, L.; van der Heijde, D.; de Jager, J. P. et al

in Lancet (2004), 363(9410), 675-681

Background Etanercept and methotrexate are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but no data exist on concurrent initiation or use of the combination compared with either drug alone. We aimed ... [more ▼]

Background Etanercept and methotrexate are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but no data exist on concurrent initiation or use of the combination compared with either drug alone. We aimed to assess combination treatment with etanercept and methotrexate versus the monotherapies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods In a double-blind, randomised, clinical efficacy, safety, and radiographic study, 686 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to treatment with etanercept 25 mg (subcutaneously twice a week), oral methotrexate (up to 20 mg every week), or the combination. Clinical response was assessed by criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). The primary efficacy endpoint was the numeric index of the ACR response (ACR-N) area under the curve (AUC) over the first 24 weeks. The primary radiographic endpoint was change from baseline to week 52 in total joint damage and was assessed with the modified Sharp score. Analysis was by intention to treat. Findings Four patients did not receive any drug; thus 682 were studied. ACR-N AUC at 24 weeks was greater for the combination group compared with etanercept alone and methotrexate alone (18.3% years [95% CI 17.1-19.6] vs 14.7%-years [13.5-16.0], p<0.0001, and 12.2%-years [11.0-13.4], p<0.0001; respectively). The mean difference in ACR-N AUC between combination and methotrexate alone was 6.1 (95% CI 4.5-7.8, p<0.0001) and between etanercept and methotrexate was 2.5 (0.8-4.2, p=0.0034). The combination was more efficacious than methotrexate or etanercept alone in retardation of joint damage (mean total Sharp score -0.54 [95% CI -1.00 to -0.07] vs 2.80 [1.08 to 4.51], p<0.0001, and 0.52 [-0.10 to 1.15], p=0.0006; respectively). The mean difference in total Sharp score between combination and methotrexate alone was -3.34 (95% CI -4.86 to -1.81, p<0.0001) and between etanercept and methotrexate was -2.27 (-3.81 to -0.74, p=0.0469). The number of patients reporting infections or adverse events was similar in all groups. Interpretation The combination of etanercept and methotrexate was significantly better in reduction of disease activity, improvement of functional disability, and retardation of radiographic progression compared with methotrexate or etanercept alone. These findings bring us closer to achievement of remission and repair of structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing export production at the NE Atlantic Margin: potential and limits of the Ba proxy
Fagel, Nathalie ULiege; Dehairs, Frank; Peinert, Ralf et al

in Marine Geology (2004), 204(1-2), 11-25

Barium (Ba), aluminium (Al), and zirconium (Zr) were measured in sediment trap material deployed at two margin settings of the NE Atlantic: the Bay of Biscaye at Goban Spur and the NW Iberian Margin. The ... [more ▼]

Barium (Ba), aluminium (Al), and zirconium (Zr) were measured in sediment trap material deployed at two margin settings of the NE Atlantic: the Bay of Biscaye at Goban Spur and the NW Iberian Margin. The Particulate Organic Carbon (POC)/Ba ratios of the trapped material in both margin environments are clearly higher compared to the open ocean. Although lateral advection of POC may partly explain these higher POC/Ba ratios for margin systems, it is clear that the yield of authigenic particulate Ba during organic matter degradation in the water column is lower in margin environments. In order to assess export production in margin settings we optimised transfer functions based on trapped Ba fluxes that were originally elaborated for open ocean settings. Calculations of export production based on trapped Ba flux and POC/Ba ratio were compared with calculations based on trapped POC flux only. Export production based on Ba flux show greater internal consistency amongst traps along the same mooring, suggesting that this approach has advantages over the one based on POC flux only. Estimated export productions are of the same order of magnitude as estimates of new production, but systematically fall short of the latter. This systematic discrepancy needs further investigation. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Conseil d'Etat et le principe de précaution. Chronique d'une naissance annoncée.
Pâques, Michel ULiege

in Journal des Tribunaux (2004)

New case Law of the Belgian Council of State in the field of Environmental protection and risk

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See detailDiterpenes from the leaves of Croton Zambesicus
Block, Sébastien; Baccelli, Chiara; Tinant, Bernard et al

in Phytochemistry (2004), 65

Two new trachylobane- and one isopimarane-type diterpenoids: ent-18-hydroxy-trachyloban-3-one; ent-trachyloban-3-one; isopimara-7,15-dien-3b-ol, were isolated from the leaves of Croton zambesicus ... [more ▼]

Two new trachylobane- and one isopimarane-type diterpenoids: ent-18-hydroxy-trachyloban-3-one; ent-trachyloban-3-one; isopimara-7,15-dien-3b-ol, were isolated from the leaves of Croton zambesicus, together with trans-phytol, b-sitosterol, a-amyrin and stigmasterol. The structures were determined by extensive NMR techniques and X-ray analysis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been evaluated on cancer and non-cancer cell-lines. [less ▲]

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See detailTuning of the morphology of core-shell-corona micelles in water. I. Transition from sphere to cylinder
Lei, Liangcai; Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Macromolecules (2004), 37(3), 1089-1094

Poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) ABC triblock copolymers commonly form core-shell-corona (CSC) micelles in water. These micelles consist of a PS ... [more ▼]

Poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) ABC triblock copolymers commonly form core-shell-corona (CSC) micelles in water. These micelles consist of a PS spherical core, a P2VP shell, and a PEO corona. However, when the micelles are formed in the presence of a solvent selective for the PS block (benzene), the micellar morphology exhibits a sphere-to-rod transition, as result of the increased volume fraction of the core-forming blocks. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirm that a PS rod-like core is surrounded by a P2VP shell and an external PEO corona. Nevertheless, the rod-like micelles coexist with spherical micelles that should be thermodynamically less stable, because of a higher stretching of the PS chains in the core. The P2VP chains are also in a stretched conformation, whatever the pH. The P2VP shell has been used as nanoreactor for the production of gold nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailNanostructured PMMA: from lamellar sheets to double-layered vesicles
Koulic, Christian; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Macromolecules (2004), 37(3), 888-893

PMMA was nanostructured by similar to100 nm liposome-like vesicular objects by melt blending with 20 wt % of a symmetric poly(styrene)-b-poly(isoprene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PIP-b-PMMA ... [more ▼]

PMMA was nanostructured by similar to100 nm liposome-like vesicular objects by melt blending with 20 wt % of a symmetric poly(styrene)-b-poly(isoprene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PIP-b-PMMA) triblock copolymer in the dry-brush regime. Whenever the blend was prepared by casting toluene solution, thus under zero-shear conditions, a continuous network of lamellar copolymer sheets was formed in PMMA, which however underwent a transition to the aforementioned vesicles upon application of large amplitude oscillatory shear. [less ▲]

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See detailEncheliophis chardewalli: A new species of carapidae (Ophidiiformes) from French Polynesia, with a redescription of Encheliophis vermicularis
Parmentier, Eric ULiege

in Copeia (2004), (1), 62-67

A specimen of Encheliophis was found in the coelomic cavity of a sea cucumber in Moorea (French Polynesia). The skeletal morphology (skull, girdles, vertebrae) reveal it to be a new species, described ... [more ▼]

A specimen of Encheliophis was found in the coelomic cavity of a sea cucumber in Moorea (French Polynesia). The skeletal morphology (skull, girdles, vertebrae) reveal it to be a new species, described herein as Encheliophis chardewalli. It is separable from all described species of Encheliophis (except Encheliophis vermicularis) by the lack of pectoral fins and from E. vermicularis by the larger and fewer teeth on the lower jaw (14 vs more than 20 in E. vermicularis) and by seven branchiostegal rays (vs six in E. vermicularis). [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the catalytic domain of MMP-16/MT3-MMP: Characterization of MT-MMP specific features
Lang, R.; Braun, M.; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULiege et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2004), 336(1), 213-225

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) have attracted strong attention, because four of them can activate a key player in the tumor scenario, proMMP-2/progelatinase A. In addition to this ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) have attracted strong attention, because four of them can activate a key player in the tumor scenario, proMMP-2/progelatinase A. In addition to this indirect effect on the cellular environment, these MT-MMPs degrade extracellular matrix proteins, and their overproduction is associated with tumor growth. We have solved the structure of the catalytic domain (cd) of MT3-MMP/MMP-16 in complex with the hydroxamic acid inhibitor batimastat. CdMT3-MMP exhibits a classical MMP-fold with similarity to MT1-MMP. Nevertheless, it also shows unique properties such as a modified MT-specific loop and a closed S1' specificity pocket, which might help to design specific inhibitors. Some MT-MMP-specific features, derived from the crystal structures of MT-1-MMP determined previously and MT3-MMP, and revealed in recent mutagenesis experiments, explain the impaired interaction of the MT-MMPs with TIMP-1. Docking experiments with proMMP-2 show some exposed loops including the MT-loop of cdMT3-MMP involved in the interaction with the proMMP-2 prodomain in the activation encounter complex. This model might help to understand the experimentally proven importance of the MT-loop for the activation of proMMP-2. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFT-IR measurement of tagitinin C after solvent extraction from Tithonia diversifolia
Ziemons, Eric ULiege; Goffin, Eric ULiege; Lejeune, Robert ULiege et al

in Talanta (2004), 62(2), 383-387

Tagitinin C, an antiplasmodial compound, identified as one major compound of the subtropical medicinal plant, Tithonia diversifolia, was, determined by FT-IR spectroscopy method. The crude ether extracts ... [more ▼]

Tagitinin C, an antiplasmodial compound, identified as one major compound of the subtropical medicinal plant, Tithonia diversifolia, was, determined by FT-IR spectroscopy method. The crude ether extracts from aerial parts of the plant were evaporated to dryness and re-dissolved in tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) before analysis. The magnitude of the absorbance of the very specific C=O stretching vibration (v(c=o)) at 1664.8 cm(-1) was exploited in order to quantify tagitinin C. The determination coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration scale was 0.9994, the detection limit was lower than 3 mug ml(-1) and the quantification limit was lower than 10 mug ml(-1). Recovery values from 100.5 to 101.7% were found for spiked concentration levels from 19.91 to 89.95 mug ml(-1). The main characteristics of the curves obtained from the calibration standards and from the standard addition technique were not statistically different (Student t-test) suggesting that matrix effects were negligible. The results obtained for the determination of tagitinin C in the crude ether extract from aerial parts of T diversifolia by LC and FT-IR spectroscopic method agreed well: 0.76 +/- 0.02 and 0.773 +/- 0.009, of tagifinin C in dried plant respectively. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of the beta Cep star HD 129929. I. Observations, oscillation frequencies and stellar parameters
Aerts, C.; Waelkens, C.; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 415

We have gathered and analysed a timeseries of 1493 high-quality multicolour Geneva photometric data of the B3V beta Cep star HD 129929. The dataset has a time base of 21.2 years. The occurrence of a ... [more ▼]

We have gathered and analysed a timeseries of 1493 high-quality multicolour Geneva photometric data of the B3V beta Cep star HD 129929. The dataset has a time base of 21.2 years. The occurrence of a beating phenomenon is evident from the data. We find evidence for the presence of at least six frequencies, among which we see components of two frequency multiplets with an average spacing of Ë 0.0121 c d[SUP]-1[/SUP] which points towards very slow rotation. This result is in agreement with new spectroscopic data of the star and also with previously taken UV spectra. We provide the amplitudes of the six frequencies in all seven photometric filters. The metal content of the star is Z=0.018± 0.004. All these observational results will be used to perform detailed seismic modelling of this massive star in a subsequent paper. Based on data gathered with the Swiss 0.7m telescope equipped with the photometer P7 of the Geneva Observatory and with the FEROS spectrograph attached to the ESO 2.2 m telescope, both situated at La Silla in Chile; the reduced photometric multicolour data are provided in Table 1, which is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/241 [less ▲]

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See detailVLT + UVES spectroscopy of the low-ionization intrinsic absorber in SDSS J001130.56+005550.7
Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Hall, Patrick; Brinkmann, J.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 415

We analyse high-resolution VLT+UVES spectra of the low-ionization intrinsic absorber observed in the BAL QSO SDSS J001130.56+005550.7. Two narrow absorption systems at velocities -600 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP ... [more ▼]

We analyse high-resolution VLT+UVES spectra of the low-ionization intrinsic absorber observed in the BAL QSO SDSS J001130.56+005550.7. Two narrow absorption systems at velocities -600 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and -22 000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] are detected. The low-velocity system is part of the broad absorption line (BAL), while the high-velocity one is well detached. While most narrow absorption components are only detected in the high-ionization species, the lowest velocity component is detected in both high- and low-ionization species, including in the excited Si II[SUP]*[/SUP] and C II[SUP]*[/SUP] lines. From the analysis of doublet lines, we find that the narrow absorption lines at the low-velocity end of the BAL trough are completely saturated but do not reach zero flux, their profiles being dominated by a velocity-dependent covering factor. The covering factor is significantly smaller for Mg II than for Si IV and N V , which demonstrates the intrinsic nature of absorber. From the analysis of the excited Si II[SUP]*[/SUP] and C II[SUP]*[/SUP] lines in the lowest velocity component, we find an electron density ~=10[SUP]3[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]. Assuming photoionization equilibrium, we derive a distance ~=20 kpc between the low-ionization region and the quasar core. The correspondence in velocity of the high- and low-ionization features suggests that all these species must be closely associated, hence formed at the same distance of Ë 20 kpc, much higher than the distance usually assumed for BAL absorbers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile (ESO 267.A-5698). [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of the beta Cep star HD 129929. II. Seismic constraints on core overshooting, internal rotation and stellar parameters
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege; Thoul, Anne ULiege; Scuflaire, Richard ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 415

We perform a detailed seismic study of the beta Cep star HD 129929. Our analysis is based on the recent derivation of six pulsation frequencies. These frequencies are unambiguously identified from the ... [more ▼]

We perform a detailed seismic study of the beta Cep star HD 129929. Our analysis is based on the recent derivation of six pulsation frequencies. These frequencies are unambiguously identified from the seismic modelling and the photometric amplitudes to be the radial fundamental, the l=1, p[SUB]1[/SUB] triplet, two consecutive components of the l=2, g[SUB]1[/SUB] quintuplet. A non-adiabatic analysis allows us to constrain the metallicity of the star to Z \in [0.016, 0.022]. In addition, the fitting of three independent frequencies, two of which correspond to axisymmetric (m=0) modes, allows us to constrain the core overshooting parameter to alpha[SUB]ov[/SUB]=0.10 ± 0.05, as well as the other global parameters of the star. Finally, from the observation of the l=1 triplet and part of the l=2 quintuplet, we derive constraints on the internal rotation of this star. [less ▲]

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See detailPicosecond laser for performance of efficient nonlinear spectroscopy from 10 to 21 mm
Mani, A. A.; Schultz, Z. D.; Gewirth, A. A. et al

in Optics Letters (2004), 29(3), 274-276

Laser tunability from 10 to 21 mm is obtained by use of an optical parametric oscillator based on a KTP crystal followed by a difference-frequency stage with a CdSe crystal. An all-solid-state picosecond ... [more ▼]

Laser tunability from 10 to 21 mm is obtained by use of an optical parametric oscillator based on a KTP crystal followed by a difference-frequency stage with a CdSe crystal. An all-solid-state picosecond Nd:YAG oscillator mode locked by a frequency-doubling nonlinear mirror is used for synchronous pumping. [less ▲]

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See detailNebulised salbutamol administered during sputum induction improves bronchoprotection in patients with asthma
Delvaux, Muriel ULiege; Henket, Monique ULiege; Lau, L. et al

in Thorax (2004), 59(2), 111-115

Background: Inhalation of hypertonic or even isotonic saline during sputum induction may cause bronchospasm in susceptible patients with asthma, despite premedication with 400 mug inhaled salbutamol ... [more ▼]

Background: Inhalation of hypertonic or even isotonic saline during sputum induction may cause bronchospasm in susceptible patients with asthma, despite premedication with 400 mug inhaled salbutamol delivered by pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). The bronchoprotection afforded by additional inhaled salbutamol administered through the ultrasonic nebuliser during sputum induction was investigated. Methods: Twenty patients with moderate to severe asthma underwent sputum induction by inhaling saline 4.5% (or 0.9% if post-bronchodilation forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <65% predicted) for 10 minutes according to two protocols given 1 week apart in random order. At visit A the patients received 400 mg salbutamol administered through a pMDI + spacer 20 minutes before induction while at visit B the premedication was supplemented by 1500 mg nebulised salbutamol inhaled throughout the induction procedure. Both the investigator and the patients were blind to the nebulised solution used. FEV1 was recorded during sputum induction at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes. Sputum cell counts and histamine, tryptase and albumin levels in the supernatants were determined. Results: The mean (SE) maximal reduction in FEV1 over the 10 minute period of sputum induction was 11.7 (2.8)% at visit A, which was significantly greater than at visit B (2.6 (1.2)%; mean difference 9% (95% CI 2.7 to 15.4), p < 0.01). Total and differential sputum cell counts as well as albumin, tryptase, and histamine levels did not differ between the two visits. Conclusion: The addition of inhaled salbutamol through an ultrasonic nebuliser markedly improves bronchoprotection against saline induced bronchoconstriction in patients with moderate to severe asthma undergoing sputum induction without affecting cell counts and inflammatory markers. [less ▲]

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See detailAcidophilic adaptation of family 11 endo--1,4-xylanases: Modeling and mutational analysis
De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ULiege; Ruelle, Virginie; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette ULiege et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2004), 13(5), 12091218

Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to the low molecular mass family 11 of endo--1,4-xylanases. Its three-dimensional structure has been solved at 2.0 Å and its optimum temperature and pH for enzymatic ... [more ▼]

Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to the low molecular mass family 11 of endo--1,4-xylanases. Its three-dimensional structure has been solved at 2.0 Å and its optimum temperature and pH for enzymatic activity are 60°C and 6.0, respectively. Aspergillus kawachii xylanase XynC belongs to the same family but is an acidophilic enzyme with an optimum pH of 2.0. Structural comparison of Xyl1 and XynC showed differences in residues surrounding the two glutamic acid side chains involved in the catalysis that could be responsible for the acidophilic adaptation of XynC. Mutations W20Y, N48D, A134E, and Y193W were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and combined in multiple mutants. Trp 20 and Tyr 193 are involved in substrate binding. The Y193W mutation inactivated Xyl1 whereas W20Y decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 to 5.0 and slightly increased its specific activity. The N48D mutation also decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 by one unit. The A134E substitution did not induce any change, but when combined with N48D, a synergistic effect was observed with a 1.4 unit decrease in the optimum pH. Modeling showed that the orientations of residue 193 and of the fully conserved Arg 131 are different in acidophilic and alkaline xylanases whereas the introduced Tyr 20 probably modifies the pKa of the acid-base catalyst via residue Asn 48. Docking of a substrate analog in the catalytic site highlighted striking differences between Xyl1 and XynC in substrate binding. Hydrophobicity calculations showed a correlation between acidophilic adaptation and a decreased hydrophobicity around the two glutamic acid side chains involved in catalysis. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-adiabatic theoretical observables in delta Scuti stars
Moya, A.; Garrido, R.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 414

Phase differences and amplitude ratios at different colour photometric bands are currently being used to discriminate pulsation modes to facilitate mode identification of kappa-driven non-radial pulsating ... [more ▼]

Phase differences and amplitude ratios at different colour photometric bands are currently being used to discriminate pulsation modes to facilitate mode identification of kappa-driven non-radial pulsating stars. In addition to physical inputs (e.g., mass, T_eff, etc.), these quantities depend on the non-adiabatic treatment of the atmosphere. This paper presents theoretical results concerning delta Scuti pulsating stars. The envelope of each of these stellar structures possesses a convection zone whose development is determined by various factors. An interacting pulsation-atmosphere physical treatment is introduced which supplies two basic non-adiabatic physical quantities: the relative effective temperature variation and the phase lag phi[SUP]T[/SUP], defined as the angle between effective temperature variation and radial displacement. These quantities can be used to derive the phase differences and amplitude ratios. Numerivalues for these quantities depend critically on the alpha MLT parameter used to calculate the convection in the envelope. The dependence on alpha was analyzed and it was found that the use of colour observations may be of considerable importance in testing the MLT. Finally, examples are given of how alpha introduces uncertainties in the theoretical predictions regarding phases and amplitudes of photometric variations in delta Scuti pulsating stars. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum osteocalcin in donkeys as evaluated with an equine-specific radioimmunoassay
Carstanjen, B.; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Youssao, I. et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2004), 88(1-2), 1-6

The purpose of this study was to validate an equine-specific osteocalcin (OC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for use in donkeys and to establish age-related changes in serum OC concentrations in healthy donkeys ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to validate an equine-specific osteocalcin (OC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for use in donkeys and to establish age-related changes in serum OC concentrations in healthy donkeys. Serial dilutions of donkey serum showed parallelism with standard curves obtained with the equine-specific OC RIA. There was a tight linear regression between donkey serum OC values obtained with the equine specific OC RIA and a commercially available bovine-specific OC RIA. Serum OC levels of 27 healthy donkeys, analysed with the equine-specific OC RIA, showed a tight negative logarithmic regression with age. Least square means and standard error of serum OC values were 67 +/- 10 mug/l in 0.6-4-year-old donkeys (group 1), 32 +/- 9 mug/l in 5-9-year-old donkeys (group 2) and 15 +/- 11 mug/l in >9-year-old donkeys (group 3). Serum OC values were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. The equine-specific OC RIA may be a useful and practical tool to assess bone metabolism and skeletal diseases in donkeys. [less ▲]

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See detailReduction in PINP, a marker of bone metabolism, with raloxifene treatment and its relationship with vertebral fracture risk
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Sarkar, S.; Zegels, Brigitte ULiege et al

in BONE (2004), 34(2), 344-351

In the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, defined by low bone mineral density and/or prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), were randomized ... [more ▼]

In the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial, 7705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, defined by low bone mineral density and/or prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), were randomized to placebo or raloxifene (60 or 120 mg/day). All women received daily calcium (500 mg) and vitamin D (400-600 IU) supplements. Our previous analyses found that changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover are poorly predictive of the reduction in VF risk observed with raloxifene. This present study evaluated the effects of raloxifene on type I procollagen N-terminal propeptide (PINP), a new marker of bone turnover. Logistic regression analysis models evaluated the relationships between the changes at 1 year in PINP, serum osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and urinary excretion of type I collagen C-telopeptide fragments normalized to creatinine (CTx/Cr), and the risk of new VF at 3 years for placebo and pooled raloxifene. A subset of 967 women (mean age = 68 years) from the MORE cohort had PINP, OC, BSAP, and CTx evaluated at baseline. Both doses of raloxifene significantly decreased (P < 0.001) all biochemical markers of bone turnover from baseline. Compared to baseline, PINP levels were decreased by medians of 11.0% and 40.8% in the placebo and pooled raloxifene groups, respectively. In addition, the placebo and pooled raloxifene groups decreased serum OC by 8.5% and 31.8%, BSAP by 15.8% and 34.6%, and urinary CTx/Cr excretion by 5.6% and 46.5%, respectively, from baseline. In the pooled raloxifene group, the logistic regression relationship between 3-year VF risk and 1-year percentage change for each biochemical marker was statistically significant with PINP (slope estimate = 0.0085, P = 0.009), OC (slope estimate = 0.0068, P = 0.035), and BSAP (slope estimate = 0.0056, P = 0.039), but not with CTx/Cr (slope estimate = 0.0027, P = 0.192). Furthermore, the percent decrease in PINP at 1 year could account for 28% of the total reduction in vertebral fracture risk. In conclusion, a 1-year decrease in PINP, BSAP, or OC, but not CTx/Cr, may be predictive of the 3-year VF risk reduction with raloxifene therapy in this subset of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'implantation : premier dialogue entre la mère et l'embryon
PERRIER d'HAUTERIVE, Sophie ULiege

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2004), 33

Implantation : the first maternal-embryo crosstalk. Despite progress in assisted reproduction technologies, the lack of control of implantation remains a major obstacle to obtain successful pregnancies ... [more ▼]

Implantation : the first maternal-embryo crosstalk. Despite progress in assisted reproduction technologies, the lack of control of implantation remains a major obstacle to obtain successful pregnancies. It is of prime importance to determine the characteristic features of a receptive endometrium. Embryo implantation is a complex event involving apposition followed by the adhesion of the blastocyst to the maternal endometrium, and finally the invasion of this endometrium. Though implantation could occur in any human tissue, the endometrium is the only tissue where embryo implantation cannot occur except during a restricted period called the “implantation window”. During this window, the endometrium is highly receptive to the embryo. Maternal-embryo crosstalk is favored by the implantation window. The molecular basis of the implantation window remains to be defined In the present study, we investigated the role of hCG, TGFß1, IGF1 and IGF2 in the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by human epithelial endometrial cells in culture. Epithelial endometrial cells were obtained from endometrial biopsy in 28 fertile women. HCG and TGFß1 added to primary cultures of human epithelial endometrial cells showed a stimulatory effect on LIF secretion and a reducing effect on IL-6 secretion. All these findings suggest a role for hCG and TGFß1 in human embryo implantation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa déchéance d'un droit d'usufruit, d'usage, d'habitation ou d'emphytéose : causes et effets
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULiege

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2004), 1

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See detailPower systems stability control: Reinforcement learning framework
Ernst, Damien ULiege; Glavic, Mevludin; Wehenkel, Louis ULiege

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2004), 19(1), 427-435

In this paper, we explore how a computational approach to learning from interactions, called reinforcement learning (RL), can be applied to control power systems. We describe some challenges in power ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we explore how a computational approach to learning from interactions, called reinforcement learning (RL), can be applied to control power systems. We describe some challenges in power system control and discuss how some of those challenges could be met by using these RL methods. The difficulties associated with their application to control power systems are described and discussed as well as strategies that can be adopted to overcome them. Two reinforcement learning modes are considered: the online mode in which the interaction occurs with the real power system and the offline mode in which the interaction occurs with a simulation model of the real power system. We present two case studies made on a four-machine power system model. The first one concerns the design by means of RL algorithms used in offline mode of a dynamic brake controller. The second concerns RL methods used in online mode when applied to control a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) aimed to damp power system oscillations. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of steel beam-columns in case of fire - comparisons with Eurocode 3
Vila Real, Paulo; Lopes, Nuno; da Silva, Luis Simoes et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2004), 39(1), 23-39

This paper presents a numerical study of the behaviour of steel I-beams subjected to fire and a combination of axial force and bending moments. A geometrical and material non-linear finite element program ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a numerical study of the behaviour of steel I-beams subjected to fire and a combination of axial force and bending moments. A geometrical and material non-linear finite element program, specially established in Liege for the analysis of structures submitted to fire, has been used to determine the resistance of a beam-column at elevated temperature, using the material properties of Eurocode 3, part 1-2. The numerical results have been compared with those obtained with the Eurocode 3, part 1-2 (1995) and the new version of the same Eurocode (2002). The results have confirmed that the new proposal for Eurocode 3 (2002) is more conservative than the ENV-EC3 (1995) approach. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCervical cord exostosis compressing the axis in a boy with hereditary multiple exostoses: Case illustration
Korinth, M. C.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULiege; Rohde, V.

in Journal of Neurosurgery (2004), 100(2 SUPPL.), 223

[No abstract available]

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See detailEvaluation of pleural disease with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging
Duysinx, Bernard ULiege; Nguyen, Delphine; Louis, Renaud ULiege et al

in CHEST (2004), 125(2), 489-493

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to distinguish between benign and malignant disease in exudative pleural effusions and ... [more ▼]

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to distinguish between benign and malignant disease in exudative pleural effusions and pleural thickening. DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 consecutive patients presenting with either pleural thickening or an exudative pleural effusion. SETTING: Department of pulmonary medicine of a university hospital. METHODS: FDG-PET was performed on each subject before invasive procedures were used to determine the etiologic diagnosis. FDG-PET data were analyzed by visual interpretation. RESULTS: Sixty-three of 98 patients were found to have malignant pleural disease after histologic analysis. Sixty-one of 63 patients with histologically confirmed malignant disease showed FDG uptake within the area of pleural thickening. Uptake was graded as intense in 51 cases and moderate in 10 cases. Only two patients with malignant pleural disease did not show increased FDG uptake. FDG-PET imaging showed an absence of FDG uptake, and correctly classified 31 of 35 benign lesions. For the remaining four lesions, intense FDG uptake was seen in one case of parapneumonic effusion, while moderate and localized uptake was observed in one parapneumonic, one tuberculous, and one uremic pleurisy. The sensitivity of the method to identify malignancy was 96.8% with a negative predictive value of 93.9%, while its specificity was 88.5% and its positive predictive value was 93.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that FDG-PET is an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pleural diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailBlock-to-granular-like transition in dense bubble flows
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULiege; Trabelsi, Samy ULiege; Caps, Hervé ULiege

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2004), 65(3), 316-322

We have experimentally investigated 2-dimensional dense bubble flows underneath inclined planes. Velocity profiles and velocity fluctuations have been measured. A broad second-order phase transition ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally investigated 2-dimensional dense bubble flows underneath inclined planes. Velocity profiles and velocity fluctuations have been measured. A broad second-order phase transition between two dynamical regimes is observed as a function of the tilt angle theta. For low theta values, a block motion is observed. For high theta values, the velocity pro. le becomes curved and a shear velocity gradient appears in the flow. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear bodies and compartmentalization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in higher plants
Docquier, Sarah; Tillemans, Vinciane ULiege; Deltour, Roger et al

in Chromosoma (2004), 112(5), 255-266

We studied the fine structural organization of nuclear bodies in the root meristem during germination of maize and Arabidopsis thaliana using electron microscopy (EM). Cajal bodies (CBs) were observed in ... [more ▼]

We studied the fine structural organization of nuclear bodies in the root meristem during germination of maize and Arabidopsis thaliana using electron microscopy (EM). Cajal bodies (CBs) were observed in quiescent embryos as well as germinating cells in both species. The number and distribution of CBs were investigated. To characterize the nuclear splicing domains, immunofluorescence labelling with antibodies against splicing factors (U2B" and m3G-snRNAs) and in situ hybridisation (with U1/U6 antisense probes) were performed combined with confocal microscopy. Antibodies specific to the Arabidopsis SR splicing factor atRSp31 were produced. AtRSp31 was detected in quiescent nuclei and in germinating cells. This study revealed an unexpected nuclear speckled organization of atRSp31 in root epidermal cells where micro clusters of interchromatin granules were also observed by EM. Therefore, we examined the distribution of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged atRSp31 in living cells after Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. When expressed transiently, atRSp31-GFP exhibited a speckled distribution in leaf cells. Treatments with -amanitin, okadaic acid, staurosporine or heat-shock induced the speckles to reorganize. Furthermore, we have generated stable Arabidopsis transgenics expressing atRSp31-GFP. The distribution of the fusion protein was identical to the endogenous atRSp31. Three-dimensional time-lapse confocal microscopy showed that speckles were highly dynamic domains over time. [less ▲]

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See detailFeature extraction using auto-associative neural networks
Kerschen, Gaëtan ULiege; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege

in Smart Materials & Structures (2004), 13(1), 211-219

Modal analysis is now mature and well accepted in the design of mechanical structures. It determines the vibration mode shapes and the corresponding natural frequencies. However, the validity of modal ... [more ▼]

Modal analysis is now mature and well accepted in the design of mechanical structures. It determines the vibration mode shapes and the corresponding natural frequencies. However, the validity of modal analysis is limited to structures showing a linear behaviour. In non-linear structural dynamics, it is well known that mode shapes are no longer useful for the characterization of the dynamic response. The purpose of the present paper is to define new features which efficiently capture the dynamics of a non-linear structure. The proposed methodology takes advantage of auto-associative neural networks to compute one-dimensional curves which allow for non-linear dependences between the coordinates. Synthetic data sampled from a non-linear normal mode motion are used to illustrate the method and to develop intuition about its implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium's Undocumented Hold Lessons for EU
Martiniello, Marco ULiege; Rea, Andrea

in Migration Information Source (2004)

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See detailSome like it cold: biocatalysis at low temperatures
Georlette, D.; Blaise, Vinciane ULiege; Collins, T. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (2004), 28(1), 25-42

In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on a class of organisms called psychrophiles. These organisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, often display metabolic fluxes more or less ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on a class of organisms called psychrophiles. These organisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, often display metabolic fluxes more or less comparable to those exhibited by mesophilic organisms at moderate temperatures. Psychrophiles have evolved by producing, among other peculiarities, "cold-adapted" enzymes which have the properties to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures. Thermal compensation in these enzymes is reached, in most cases, through a high catalytic efficiency associated, however, with a low thermal stability. Thanks to recent advances provided by X-ray crystallography, structure modelling, protein engineering and biophysical studies, the adaptation strategies are beginning to be understood. The emerging picture suggests that psychrophilic enzymes are characterized by an improved flexibility of the structural components involved in the catalytic cycle, whereas other protein regions, if not implicated in catalysis, may be even more rigid than their mesophilic counterparts. Due to their attractive properties, i.e., a high specific activity and a low thermal stability, these enzymes constitute a tremendous potential for fundamental research and biotechnological applications. (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiplication of an ancestral gene encoding secreted fungalysin preceded species differentiation in the dermatophytes Trichophyton and Microsporum
Jousson, O.; Lechenne, B.; Bontems, O. et al

in Microbiology-Sgm (2004), 150(Part 2), 301-310

Dermatophytes are human and animal pathogenic fungi which cause cutaneous infections and grow exclusively in the stratum corneum, nails and hair. In a culture medium containing soy proteins as sole ... [more ▼]

Dermatophytes are human and animal pathogenic fungi which cause cutaneous infections and grow exclusively in the stratum corneum, nails and hair. In a culture medium containing soy proteins as sole nitrogen source a substantial proteolytic activity was secreted by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. This proteolytic activity was 55-75% inhibited by o-phenanthroline, attesting that metalloproteases were secreted by all three species. Using a consensus probe constructed on previously characterized genes encoding metalloproteases (MEP) of the M36 fungalysin family in Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae and M. canis, a five-member MEP family was isolated from genomic libraries of T rubrum, T mentagrophytes and M. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of genomic and protein sequences revealed a robust tree consisting of five main clades, each of them including a MEP sequence type from each dermatophyte species. Each MEP type was remarkably conserved across species (72-97% amino acid sequence identity). The tree topology clearly indicated that the multiplication of MEP genes in dermatophytes occurred prior to species divergence. In culture medium containing soy proteins as a sole nitrogen source secreted Meps accounted for 19-36% of total secreted protein extracts; characterization of protein bands by proteolysis and mass spectrometry revealed that the three dermatophyte species secreted two Meps (Mep3 and Mep4) encoded by orthologous genes. [less ▲]

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See detailAdenylation-dependent conformation and unfolding pathways of the NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus
Georlette, D.; Blaise, Vinciane ULiege; Bouillenne, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Biophysical Journal (2004), 86(2), 1089-1104

In the last few years, an increased attention has been focused on NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases. This is mostly due to their potential use as antibiotic targets, because effective inhibition of these ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, an increased attention has been focused on NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases. This is mostly due to their potential use as antibiotic targets, because effective inhibition of these essential enzymes would result in the death of the bacterium. However, development of an efficient drug requires that the conformational modifications involved in the catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases are understood. From this perspective, we have investigated the conformational changes occurring in the thermophilic Thermus scotoductus NAD(+)-DNA ligase upon adenylation, as well as the effect of cofactor binding on protein resistance to thermal and chemical (guanidine hydrochloride) denaturation. Our results indicate that cofactor binding induces conformational rearrangement within the active site and promotes a compaction of the enzyme. These data support an induced "open-closure" process upon adenylation, leading to the formation of the catalytically active enzyme that is able to bind DNA. These conformational changes are likely to be associated with the protein function, preventing the formation of nonproductive complexes between deadenylated ligases and DNA. In addition, enzyme adenylation significantly increases resistance of the protein to thermal denaturation and GdmCl-induced unfolding, establishing a thermodynamic link between ligand binding and increased conformational stability. Finally, chemical unfolding of deadenylated and adenylated enzyme is accompanied by accumulation of at least two equilibrium intermediates, the molten globule and premolten globule states. Maximal populations of these intermediates are shifted toward higher GdmCl concentrations in the case of the adenylated ligase. These data provide further insights into the properties of partially folded intermediates. [less ▲]

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See detailAnevrysmes mycotiques primaires de l'aorte sous-renale. A propos de deux cas
Rousie, Céline ULiege; Van Damme, Hendrik ULiege; Limet, Raymond ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 89-94

Infrarenal mycotic aneurysms are rare. The classic symptomatic triad is abdominal pain, fever and a pulsatile, rapidly growing abdominal mass. We present two cases of mycotic abdominal aneurysm, recently ... [more ▼]

Infrarenal mycotic aneurysms are rare. The classic symptomatic triad is abdominal pain, fever and a pulsatile, rapidly growing abdominal mass. We present two cases of mycotic abdominal aneurysm, recently managed. The principles of diagnosis and treatment of mycotic aneurysm are reviewed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailChondromodulation en 2003: reve ou realite?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande (2004), 124(2), 85-7

The use of drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis, with a view to obtain a long-term symptomatic as well as structural benefit, is still in a preliminary state. Nowadays, matricial precursors, such as ... [more ▼]

The use of drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis, with a view to obtain a long-term symptomatic as well as structural benefit, is still in a preliminary state. Nowadays, matricial precursors, such as glucosamine sulfate, are an interesting approach in this indication. They have demonstrated a symptomatic efficacy comparable to that of N.S.A.I.D., with significantly reduced side-effects. Glucosamine sulfate also appears to positively interfere with the structural evolution of osteoarthritis by preventing joint space narrowing which characterizes the evolution of the disease. Encouraging results have also been obtained with chondroitin sulfate and diacerein. As for other molecules, new studies should be undertaken to confirm the results already obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Cirrhose autoimmune traitee par transplantation hepatique 'a partir d'un lobe hepatique droit preleve chez un donneur vivant
Detry, Olivier ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege; Coimbra Marques, Carla ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 69-74

The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who suffered from end-stage liver failure due to chronic autoimmune hepatitis. Liver failure was complicated by severe portal hypertension ... [more ▼]

The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who suffered from end-stage liver failure due to chronic autoimmune hepatitis. Liver failure was complicated by severe portal hypertension, hypersplenism and refractory ascites. Liver transplantation was indicated. She was listed for cadaveric whole liver transplantation, but her infrequent blood group (B) increased waiting time. Her condition deteriorated to Child C liver failure and living related liver transplant was considered. Her father was compatible and proposed himself for donation. Right lobe procurement was decided in order to provide sufficient liver mass. No transfusion of red cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma was used either in the donor or the recipient. Both recipient and donor left the ward at postoperative day 14, without complication. They were both asymptomatic and with normal liver tests at one year follow-up. Living related liver transplantation using the right lobe may offer an alternative to liver transplant candidates in this period of organ donor shortage. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan tablets in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation for the acute treatment of migraine: Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Carpay, J.; Schoenen, Jean ULiege; Ahmad, F. et al

in Clinical Therapeutics (2004), 26(2), 214-223

Background: Sumatriptan tablets have been developed in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation designed to facilitate tablet disintegration and drug dispersion and to potentially mitigate the ... [more ▼]

Background: Sumatriptan tablets have been developed in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation designed to facilitate tablet disintegration and drug dispersion and to potentially mitigate the effects of gastric stasis that can accompany migraine. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan 50- and 100-mg tablets in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation compared with those of placebo in patients with migraine. Methods: This clinical trial had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Exclusion criteria included >6 migraines monthly during either of the 2 months before screenings uncontrolled hypertension; suspected or confirmed cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, and ophthalmic, basilar, or hemiplegic migraine. Sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg and placebo were taken on an outpatient basis during the mild-pain phase of a single migraine attack. Patients recorded details of the treated migraine on a diary card and rated pain severity immediately before dosing and 30 minutes, 45 minutes, I hour, and 2 hours after dosing using a 4-point scale (from 0 = none to 3 = severe). The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who were pain free 2 hours after dosing. Additional efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who were pain free at 30 minutes, 45 minutes, and 1 hour after dosing, the proportion who were migraine free through 2 hours after dosing; and the proportion with a sustained pain-free response. Results: Patients' mean age ranged from 39.7 to 41.5 years across the 3 groups, and the majority were women (79.7%-85.9%) and white (98.7%-100%). One hundred thirty-seven patients received sumatriptan 50 mg, 142 sumatriptan 100 mg, and 153 placebo. In the intent-to-treat population (n = 432), 51.1% of patients who received sumatriptan 50 mg and 66.2% of patients who received sumatriptan 100 mg were pain free 2 hours after dosing, compared with 19.6% of the placebo group (P < 0.001, each sumatriptan dose vs placebo). In an exploratory analysis, the 2-hour pain-free rate with sumatriptan 100 mg was significantly better than that with sumatriptan 50 mg (P = 0.007). Significantly more patients who received sumatriptan 100 mg were pain free compared with placebo at 30 minutes (P < 0.01), 45 minutes (P < 0.001), and 1 hour after dosing (P < 0.001); similar pain-free results were observed in patients who received sumatriptan 50 mg at 45 minutes (P < 0.05) and 1 hour (P < 0.01). In the per-protocol population (n = 313), pain-free efficacy 2 hours after dosing was 52.7% with sumatriptan 50 mg and 74.8% with sumatriptan 100 mg, compared with 21.0% with placebo (P < 0.001, each sumatriptan dose VS placebo). These rates were greater than those in the overall study population, ∼12.0% of whom treated moderate or severe pain. The only drug-related adverse events reported in ≥3% of patients in any treatment group were nausea and vomiting (<1%, 5%, and 2% in the sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg and placebo groups, respectively), chest symptoms (2 %, 3 %, and 0%), and malaise and fatigue (1%, 3 %, and < 1%). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: In this study, sumatriptan tablets in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release oral formulation provided pain-free efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine. Efficacy was maximized with the 100-mg dose compared with the 50-mg dose, and by treating early when pain was mild. In the intent-to-treat population, 51.1% of patients who received sumatriptan 50 mg and 66.2% of those who received sumatriptan 100 mg were pain free 2 hours after dosing. In the per-protocol population, 3 of 4 patients taking the 100-mg tablets for mild pain within 1 hour of its onset were pain free at 2 hours. Sumatriptan tablets were generally well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailRoughness evolution of some X-UV reflective materials induced by low energy (< 1 keV) ion beam milling
Gailly, Patrick ULiege; Jamar, Claude ULiege; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULiege et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2004), 216

Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an advanced technique that is been used for more than 10 years as a final step in the manufacturing of optical elements. It makes use of ion sputtering to correct shape defects ... [more ▼]

Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an advanced technique that is been used for more than 10 years as a final step in the manufacturing of optical elements. It makes use of ion sputtering to correct shape defects but this process may eventually lead to the degradation of the surface roughness. In this study, the evolution of roughness for some optical materials subjected to the ion beam figuring process has been investigated by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Emphasis has been made on electroplated nickel, PVD gold and CVD silicon carbide. These materials are often used for X-ray and UV applications but only limited data on their behavior under ion milling is currently available. Roughness measurements have been performed at different etching depths down to 5 mum which is representative of typical IBF treatments. The effects of using different inert gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) with ion energies ranging from 200 to 900 eV have been studied. The observed trends are an important increase of the roughness for electroplated nickel, a slight decrease for PVD gold and a slight increase for CVD silicon carbide. Results are discussed in relation to previous related works and within sputtering considerations. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding bilingual memory: models and data
French, R.; Jacquet, Maud ULiege

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2004), 8(2), 87-93

Bilingual memory research in the past decade and, particularly, in the past five years, has developed a range of sophisticated experimental, neuropsychological and computational techniques that have ... [more ▼]

Bilingual memory research in the past decade and, particularly, in the past five years, has developed a range of sophisticated experimental, neuropsychological and computational techniques that have allowed researchers to begin to answer some of the major long-standing questions of the field. We explore bilingual memory along the lines of the conceptual division of language knowledge and organization, on the one hand, and the mechanisms that operate on that knowledge and organization, on the other. Various interactive-activation and connectionist models of bilingual memory that attempt to incorporate both organizational and operational considerations will serve to bridge these two divisions. Much progress has been made in recent years in bilingual memory research, which also serves to illuminate general (language-independent) memory processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge de la douleur chronique en équipe pluridisciplinaire
Fontaine, Robert ULiege; Fuchs, Sonia; Hardy, Régine ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 81-88

Assessment of chronic pain is one of medicine's most difficult challenges. A structured and flexible multidisciplinary approach allows full characterisation of the various components of the pain syndrome ... [more ▼]

Assessment of chronic pain is one of medicine's most difficult challenges. A structured and flexible multidisciplinary approach allows full characterisation of the various components of the pain syndrome. This then allows the use of a rational combination of pharmacologic, physical, psychological, and surgical techniques. It is essential to gain the patient's confidence, collaboration, and compliance. Patients can better manage their situation when their needs are clarified and when care is oriented toward concrete therapeutic objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ybxI gene of Bacillus subtilis 168 encodes a class D beta-lactamase of low activity
Colombo, Maria-Luigi; Hanique, Sophie; Baurin, Stéphane L. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004), 48(2), 484-490

The ybxI gene of Bacillus subtilis 168 encodes a preprotein of 267 amino acid residues, including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues. The YbxI primary structure exhibits high similarity scores with ... [more ▼]

The ybxI gene of Bacillus subtilis 168 encodes a preprotein of 267 amino acid residues, including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues. The YbxI primary structure exhibits high similarity scores with two members of the superfamily of the serine penicillin-recognizing enzymes: the class D beta-lactamases and the hydrophilic carboxy-terminal domains of the BlaR and MecR penicillin receptors. To determine the function and the activity of this putative penicillin-recognizing enzyme, we have subcloned the ybxI gene in the pET-26b expression vector. Transformation of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) by the recombinant plasmid pCIP51 resulted in the export of the mature YbxI in the periplasm as a water-soluble protein. The recombinant protein was purified to 95% homogeneity. YbxI interacts with several beta-lactam antibiotics and can hydrolyze some of them. YbxI is not inactivated by clavulanic acid. The YbxI function and its enzymatic activity in B. subtilis remain unknown. The acyl-enzyme obtained after incubation of YbxI with a fluorescent derivative of ampicillin can be detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, confirming that YbxI can be acylated by beta-lactam antibiotics. YbxI does not hydrolyze some of the standard substrates of D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases, the targets of penicillin. YbxI belongs to the penicillin-recognizing enzyme family but has an activity intermediate between those of a penicillin-binding protein and a beta-lactamase. [less ▲]

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See detailAn educational simulation tool for power system control and stability
Vournas, Costas; Potamianakis, Emmanuel G.; Moors, Cédric et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2004), 19(1), 48-55

This paper presents a Simulink-based educational tool developed for the purpose of illustrating power system control and stability notions as well as introducing students to realistic, though tractable in ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a Simulink-based educational tool developed for the purpose of illustrating power system control and stability notions as well as introducing students to realistic, though tractable in size, design problems. Relevant courses are taught to last-year undergraduate as well as graduate students at the University of, Liege, Belgium, and the National Technical University of Athens, Greece.. After a brief description of the corresponding curricula, the paper describes the simulation tool and gives examples of problems and assignments given to the students. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro titration of Theileria parva tick derived stabilates
Marcotty, T.; Speybroeck, N.; Berkvens, D. et al

in Parasitology (2004), 128(Part 2), 131-137

Immunization agairist the protozoan Theileria parva by infection and treatment has proved to be very efficient for the Control Of East Coast fever, an acute and often-fatal lymphoproliferative tick-borlic ... [more ▼]

Immunization agairist the protozoan Theileria parva by infection and treatment has proved to be very efficient for the Control Of East Coast fever, an acute and often-fatal lymphoproliferative tick-borlic disease of cattle in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. The immunizing dose of live T. Parva sporozites used in this method is usually determined by in vitro titration. An alternative in vivo method of quantitification of sporozoites ill whole tick-derived stabilites is proposed. The method consists of incubating serially diluted T. Parva stabilities with boville peripheral blood lymphocytes, the host cell that is infected naturally. Allowing the cultures to incubate undisturbed for the full cultivation period (10 days) reduced the variability amoung replicate titrations. fungal contaminations were avoided by centrifuging stabilates at 400 g prior to the incubation, which did not precipiate sporozoites significantly. Fungistics, Nysatin and Flucytosine did not appear to interfere with the in vitro development of 2 stabilates but their effect on fungal growth was limited. In vitro titration data were compared to in vivo infection data for 2. In vivo titration of T. parva sporozoites should allow more ethicl and efficient research on the preparation and storage of T. Parva tick-derived stabilates. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of HER-2 oncogene expression by cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2
Benoit, Valérie; Relic, Biserka ULiege; de Leval, Laurence ULiege et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(8), 1631-1635

The oncoprotein HER-2/neu is a prosurvival factor and its overexpression has been correlated with adverse prognosis in breast cancers. High levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a proinflammatory and ... [more ▼]

The oncoprotein HER-2/neu is a prosurvival factor and its overexpression has been correlated with adverse prognosis in breast cancers. High levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a proinflammatory and antiapoptotic enzyme, were detected in HER-2-positive tumors and this observation was linked to an HER-2-mediated induction of COX-2 gene transcription. Here, we report that COX-2 expression, and synthesis of its major enzymatic product, PGE2, leads in turn to an enhanced HER-2 expression. Moreover, COX-2 enzymatic inhibition dramatically reduced HER-2 protein levels, efficiently increased the cancer cells sensitility to chemotherapeutic treatment and acted in synergy with HER-2 inhibitor, trastuzumab. Therefore, we propose an original model where HER-2 and COX-2 transcriptionally regulate each other in a positive loop. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches sur la médecine antique à l'Université de Liège
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

in Lettre d'Informations du Centre Jean-Palerne (2004), NS 3

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See detailCaractérisation géotechnique de l’apparition de hors profils lors du creusement d’un tunnel : application au tunnel de Soumagne
Viroux, Sébastien; Schmitz, Robrecht; Charlier, Robert ULiege

in Tunnels et Ouvrages Souterrains (2004), 181

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See detailDetection and characterization of SNPs useful for identity control and parentage testing in major European dairy breeds
Werner, F. A. O.; Durstewitz, G.; Habermann, F. A. et al

in Animal Genetics (2004), 35(1), 44-49

We propose the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) instead of polymorphic microsatellite markers for individual identification and parentage control in cattle. To this end, we present an initial ... [more ▼]

We propose the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) instead of polymorphic microsatellite markers for individual identification and parentage control in cattle. To this end, we present an initial set of 37 SNP markers together with a gender-specific SNP for identity control and parentage testing in the Holstein, Fleckvieh and Braunvieh breeds. To obtain suitable SNPs, a total of 91.13 kb of random genomic DNA was screened yielding 531 SNPs. These, and 43 previously identified SNPs, were subjected to the following selection criteria: (1) the frequency of the minor allele must be larger than 0.1 in at least two of the three examined breeds, and (2) markers should not be linked closely. Allele frequencies were estimated by analysing sequencing traces of pooled DNA or by genotyping individual DNA samples. The selected SNP loci were physically mapped by radiation hybrid mapping or by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and tested against the neutral mutation hypothesis. The presented marker set theoretically allows probabilities of identity less than 10(-13) for individual verification and exclusion powers exceeding 99.99% for parentage testing. [less ▲]

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