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See detailYin Yang 1 cooperates with activator protein 2 to stimulate ERBB2 gene expression in mammary cancer cells.
Begon, Dominique ULiege; Delacroix, Laurence ULiege; Vernimmen, Douglas et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(26), 24428-34

Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 30% of breast cancers and is generally correlated with a poor prognosis. Previous results from our and other laboratories indicated that elevated ... [more ▼]

Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 30% of breast cancers and is generally correlated with a poor prognosis. Previous results from our and other laboratories indicated that elevated transcriptional activity contributes significantly to the overexpression of ERBB2 mRNA in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors account for this overexpression through two recognition sequences located 215 and 500 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines overexpressing ERBB2. In this report, we examined the cooperative effect of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) on AP-2-induced activation of ERBB2 promoter activity. We detected high levels of YY1 transcription factor in mammary cancer cell lines. Notably, we showed that YY1 enhances AP-2alpha transcriptional activation of the ERBB2 promoter through an AP-2 site both in HepG2 and in HCT116 cells, whereas a carboxyl-terminal-truncated form of YY1 cannot. Moreover, we demonstrated the interaction between endogenous AP-2 and YY1 factors in the BT-474 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In addition, inhibition of endogenous YY1 protein by an antisense decreased the transcription of an AP-2-responsive ERBB2 reporter plasmid in BT-474 breast cancer cells. Finally, we detected in vivo AP-2 and YY1 occupancy of the ERBB2 proximal promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data thus provide evidence that YY1 cooperates with AP-2 to stimulate ERBB2 promoter activity through the AP-2 binding sites. [less ▲]

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See detailComet C/2005 K2 (LINEAR)
Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Nielsen, O.; Bryssinck, E.

in International Astronomical Union Circulars [=IAUCs] (2005), 8566

IAUC 8566 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

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See detailQuinone transfer radical polymerization (QTRP) of styrene: Catalysis by different metal complexes
Caille, Jean-Raphaël; Debuigne, Antoine ULiege; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2005), 43(13), 2723-2733

Styrene has been polymerized by a Quinone Transfer Radical Polymerization (QTRP) based on the redox reaction of an ortho-quinone and a metal catalyst. Several metal acetylacetonates have been tested in ... [more ▼]

Styrene has been polymerized by a Quinone Transfer Radical Polymerization (QTRP) based on the redox reaction of an ortho-quinone and a metal catalyst. Several metal acetylacetonates have been tested in this work. The radical polymerization of styrene is largely controlled when phenanthrenequinone (PhQ) is used with catalytic amounts of Co(acac)(2), Ni(acac)(2), Mn(acac)2 or 3, and Al(acac)(3). As a rule, in the presence of all these metallic complexes, the polystyrene molar mass increases with the monomer conversion, and polydispersity (M-w/M-n) is in the 1.3-1.6 range (at least until 40% monomer conversion). Styrene polymerization has also been resumed by polystyrene chains prepared by QTRP. In the specific case of manganese acetylacetonates, an amine or phosphine ligand has to be added for the control to be effective. Finally, two mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed, depending on whether the oxidation state of the metal can be easily changed or not. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental and human impact of an old-timer incinerator in terms of dioxin and PCB level: A case study
Pirard, Catherine ULiege; Eppe, Gauthier ULiege; Massart, Anne-Cécile ULiege et al

in Environmental Science & Technology (2005), 39(13), 4721-4728

The impact of a recently closed old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (POD), polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the ... [more ▼]

The impact of a recently closed old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (POD), polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the surrounding environment and resident serum has been studied in a small rural area of France. Studied soils and eggs from chickens foraging on these soils were sampled in the vicinity of the MSWI under the prevailing wind stream, while comparison samples were collected outside the assumed impact zone. PCB levels observed in soils and eggs did not differ statistically from comparison sites. This confirmed the low impact of MSWI PCB emission on environmental media, compared to other well-known sources. PCDD/PCDF levels in soils and eggs were significantly higher than in comparison samples, pointing out the impact of MSWI emission on the surrounding environment. The high dioxin concentrations in eggs set aside for private consumption would increase the dioxin intake for the studied population. Blood specimens of 10 nonoccupationally exposed volunteers who had lived within a 2 km radius of the incinerator for at least 25 years have been analyzed. When adjusted for age, PCB and PCDD/F blood levels were higher than general European populations and comparable to a similarly exposed Belgian population. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-dependent convection seismic study of five gamma Doradus stars
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege; Grigahcène, A.; Garrido, R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2005), 360

We apply for the first time the time-dependent convection (TDC) treatment of Gabriel and Grigahcène et al. to the photometric mode identification in gamma Doradus (gamma Dor) stars. We consider the ... [more ▼]

We apply for the first time the time-dependent convection (TDC) treatment of Gabriel and Grigahcène et al. to the photometric mode identification in gamma Doradus (gamma Dor) stars. We consider the influence of this treatment on the theoretical amplitude ratios and phase differences. Comparison with the observed amplitudes and phases of the stars gamma Dor, 9 Aurigae, HD 207223 = HR 8330, HD 12901 and 48501 is presented and enables us to identify the degree l of the pulsation modes for four of them. We also determine the mode stability for different models of these stars. We show that our TDC models agree better with observations than with frozen convection models. Finally, we compare the results obtained with different values of the mixing-length parameter alpha. [less ▲]

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See detailCapillary rise in foams under microgravity
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Cox, S. J.; Decauwer, H. et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2005), 261(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 131-134

The motion of liquid into a foam under low-gravity conditions is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The foam is confined to two dimensions in a Hele-Shaw cell and the liquid fraction measured ... [more ▼]

The motion of liquid into a foam under low-gravity conditions is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The foam is confined to two dimensions in a Hele-Shaw cell and the liquid fraction measured by image analysis. The foam imbibition is shown to be a diffusive process. Two models are analysed, corresponding to the limits of rigid and mobile interfaces in the Plateau borders. Liquid fraction profiles are compared to experimental ones. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymerization of (L,L)-lactide and copolymerization with epsilon-caprolactone initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide
Stassin, Fabrice; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2005), 43(13), 2777-2789

Ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of (L,L)-lactide (LA) has been initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). Polymerization is controlled and proceeds at quasi the same ... [more ▼]

Ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of (L,L)-lactide (LA) has been initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). Polymerization is controlled and proceeds at quasi the same rate as in toluene, which indicates that the reactivity of the propagating species is not impaired by parasitic carbonation reaction. Random copolymerization of LA with P-caprolactone (CL) has also been studied in sc CO2, and the reactivity ratios have been determined as 5.8 +/- 0.5 for LA and 0.7 +/- 0.25 for CL. These values have to be compared to 0.7 +/- 0.25 for LA and 0.15 +/- 0.05 for CL in toluene. Good control on ROP of CL and LA in SC CO2 has been confirmed by the successful synthesis of diblock copolymers by sequential polymerization of CL and LA. [less ▲]

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See detailCanine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1): clinical, serological and virological patterns in breeding colonies
Ronsse, Veerle; Verstegen, John; Thiry, Etienne ULiege et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 64(1), 61-74

Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is presumed to be enzootic in the dog population and is associated with reproductive disorders and neonatal mortality. To advise dog breeders towards an effective management ... [more ▼]

Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is presumed to be enzootic in the dog population and is associated with reproductive disorders and neonatal mortality. To advise dog breeders towards an effective management of CHV-1 infected colonies, 27 breeding bitches were studied during one reproductive cycle in field conditions: the effect of cycle stage, kennel size, initial antibody titre, mating and gestation on serologic and viral excretion patterns was evaluated, while the association between reproductive disorders and CHV-1 antibody titres and viral excretion was also analysed. All initially seronegative bitches seroconverted, while 40% of the initially seropositive bitches became seronegative at one or two occasions. No difference in antibody patterns was observed between mated and unmated bitches. Of the mated bitches, 40% experienced infertility, foetal resorption or mummification. No difference in antibody patterns was observed depending on the occurrence of reproductive disorders even if a decrease in antibody titres during early or late-di-oestrus was often present. Significantly higher titres were observed at all cycle stages in large kennels. None of the vaginal and nasal samples or buffy coats tested positive for CHV-1 DNA. The mixed image of clinical and subclinical carriage in this study demonstrated CHV-1 has a complex and difficult to predict clinical behavior. Preventive management with vaccination of reproducing bitches in kennels with reproductive disorders should therefore be advised. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTransient complete atrioventricular block following transvenous electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in a horse
van Loon, G.; De Clercq, D.; Tavernier, R. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2005), 170(1), 124-127

Transvenous electrical cardioversion was attempted in a horse with drug refractory atrial fibrillation. A temporary pacing catheter and two defibrillation catheters were inserted transvenously into the ... [more ▼]

Transvenous electrical cardioversion was attempted in a horse with drug refractory atrial fibrillation. A temporary pacing catheter and two defibrillation catheters were inserted transvenously into the right ventricular apex, the right atrium and the pulmonary artery, respectively. Under general anaesthesia 100, 200, 300 and 360 J monophasic shocks were delivered between both defibrillation catheters but sinus rhythm could not be restored. Immediately after the 200, 300 and 360 J shock, transient third-degree atrioventricular block occurred for a period of, respectively, 15, 40 and 55 s. These periods of profound bradycardia were corrected by temporary right ventricular pacing until spontaneous conduction resumed. It is concluded that temporary right ventricular pacing should be available during electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in horses. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGCLC Research Papers on Article 82 EC: The concept of dominance
Petit, Nicolas ULiege; Geradin, Damien; Hofer, Paul et al

in GCLC College d'Europe (2005)

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See detailInvolvement of both prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex in dual-task performance
Collette, Fabienne ULiege; Olivier, L.; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege et al

in Cognitive Brain Research (2005), 24(2), 237-251

This PET study explored the neural substrate of both dual-task management and integration task using single tasks that are known not to evoke any prefrontal activation. The paradigm included two simple ... [more ▼]

This PET study explored the neural substrate of both dual-task management and integration task using single tasks that are known not to evoke any prefrontal activation. The paradigm included two simple (visual and auditory) discrimination tasks, a dual task and an integration task (requiring simultaneous visual and auditory discrimination), and baseline tasks (passive viewing and hearing). Data were analyzed using SPM99. As predicted, the comparison of each single task to the baseline task showed no activity in prefrontal areas. The comparison of the dual task to the single tasks demonstrated left-sided foci of activity in the frontal gyrus (BA 9/46, BA 10/47 and BA 6), inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40), and cerebellum. By reference to previous neuroimaging studies, BA 9/46 was associated with the coordinated manipulation of simultaneously presented information, BA 10/47 with selection processes, BA 6 with articulatory rehearsal, and BA 40 with attentional shifting. Globally similar regions were found for the integration task, except that the inferior parietal gyrus was not recruited. These results confirm the hypothesis that the left prefrontal cortex is implicated in dual-task performance. Moreover, the involvement of a parietal area in the dual task is in keeping with the hypothesis that a parieto-frontal network sustains executive functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailMR-spectroscopic imaging during visual stimulation in subgroups of migraine with aura
Sandor, P. S.; Dydak, U.; Schoenen, Jean ULiege et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2005), 25(7), 507-518

Migraine pathophysiology possibly involves deficient mitochondrial energy reserve and diminished cortical habituation. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (fMRSI), we studied ... [more ▼]

Migraine pathophysiology possibly involves deficient mitochondrial energy reserve and diminished cortical habituation. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (fMRSI), we studied cortical lactate changes during prolonged visual stimulation to search for different pathophysiological mechanisms in clinically distinct subgroups of migraine with aura. Eleven healthy volunteers (HV) and 10 migraine patients were investigated interictally: five with visual aura (MA) and five with visual symptoms and at least one of the following: paraesthesia, paresis or dysphasia (MAplus). Using MRSI (Philips, 1.5 T) H-1-spectra were repeatedly obtained from a 25 mm-thick slice covering visual and non-visual cortex, with the first and fifth measurements in darkness and the second to fourth with 8-Hz checkerboard stimulation. In MAplus lactate increased only during stimulation, only in visual cortex; in MA resting lactate was high in visual cortex, without further increase during stimulation. This is compatible with an abnormal metabolic strain during stimulation in MAplus, possibly due to dishabituation, and a predominant mitochondrial dysfunction in MA. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat happens with adverse events during 6 months of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
Demyttenaere, K.; Albert, Adelin ULiege; Mesters, P. et al

in Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2005), 66(7), 859-863

Objective: Although adverse events are a key factor in compliance, their evolution during treatment with antidepressants is poorly documented. Therefore, the time course of adverse events during 6 months ... [more ▼]

Objective: Although adverse events are a key factor in compliance, their evolution during treatment with antidepressants is poorly documented. Therefore, the time course of adverse events during 6 months of antidepressant treatment was investigated. Method: 85 psychiatric outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (with the exclusion of other DSM-IV Axis I disorders) were enrolled between September 2002 and March 2003 in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine [N = 421 and paroxetine [N = 43]). At each visit, the presence and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events were assessed systematically using the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU). General linear mixed modeling was used to investigate the predictors of the time course of adverse events. Results: Overall, the number of at least moderately severe adverse events decreased with time. More severely depressed patients reported overall more (at least moderately severe) adverse events than less severely depressed patients (p =.0002), but the decrease in reported adverse events was comparable over time. Men (N = 30) and women (N = 55) reported initially the same number of at least moderately severe adverse events, but the habituation was more rapid in men (p <.0001). Completers (N = 58) and dropouts (N = 27) did not differ initially, but completers' habituation was more rapid (p =.014). The habituation of adverse events was also more rapid in recurrent than in first-episode patients but only in men (p =.0025). Conclusion: The time course of adverse events varies with the severity of depression, sex, completer or dropout status, and recurrent versus first-episode depression. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical specific stream power in gravel-bed rivers
Petit, François ULiege; Gob, Frédéric ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege et al

in Geomorphology (2005), 69(1-4), 92-101

Experiments with marked pebbles were carried out on different sized rivers of the Belgian Ardenne (catchment areas varying from less than I km(2) to 2700 km(2)). Specific stream power required to cause ... [more ▼]

Experiments with marked pebbles were carried out on different sized rivers of the Belgian Ardenne (catchment areas varying from less than I km(2) to 2700 km(2)). Specific stream power required to cause bedload movement was evaluated and critical values were obtained. Three types of relationship between critical specific stream power (omega(0)) and grain size (D) were established. The values for coo in the largest river (the Ourthe) were the lowest and were close to the values obtained for mountainous rivers carrying large boulders. In medium sized rivers (catchment area between 40 and 500 km(2)), the critical unit stream power was higher. It is likely that it is due to the bedform's greater resistance. This resistance would use up some of the energy that can cause movement and transport of bedload. The amount of resistance of the bedform can be expressed as bedform shear stress (tau ''), determined by the relationship between grain shear stress (tau'-that determines movement and transport of the bedload) and the total shear stress (tau). This ratio varies between 0.4 and 0.5 in the medium sized rivers, compared to 0.7 in the Ourthe. In headwater streams (less than 20 km(2)), there is greater loss of energy due to bedform resistance (tau'/tau < 0.3). Critical specific stream power is higher in this third type of river than in the other two. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail"... wähle ich den Schmerz" Mit Dieter Forte "Auf der anderen Seite der Welt"
Pontzen, Alexandra ULiege

in Literaturkritik.de (2005)

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See detailMechanisms responsible for ERBB2 gene overexpression in human breast and non-breast cancer cells. The role of AP-2 transcription factors - Review Article
Delacroix, Laurence; Vernimmen, Douglas; Begon, Dominique et al

in Cancer Therapy (2005), 3(issue B), 365-378

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See detailFurther exploration of controlled and automatic memory processes in early Alzheimer's disease
Adam, Stéphane ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege; Collette, Fabienne ULiege et al

in Neuropsychology (2005), 19(4), 420-427

The authors' aim in this study was to explore automatic and controlled processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using a variant of the word-stem completion task that applies the process-dissociation ... [more ▼]

The authors' aim in this study was to explore automatic and controlled processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using a variant of the word-stem completion task that applies the process-dissociation procedure. Several methodological precautions were taken in order to limit problems observed in previous studies (e.g., poor task sensitivity, ceiling and/or floor effects, no control over comprehension of instructions). Our results (a) confirmed the marked deterioration in controlled processes and (b) showed that when psychometric constraints were limited, automatic memory processes were preserved in AD. These data are in line with those from more global studies in suggesting that AD is characterized by an early deterioration in controlled processes and an initial preservation of automatic processes. [less ▲]

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See detailGrammaticality judgment in French-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment
Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

in Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders (2005), 3(2), 103-109

Grammaticality judgement abilities were examined among French-speaking children with SLI. Rice, Wexler, and Redmond (1999) showed that children’s grammatical judgements paralleled their production: they ... [more ▼]

Grammaticality judgement abilities were examined among French-speaking children with SLI. Rice, Wexler, and Redmond (1999) showed that children’s grammatical judgements paralleled their production: they rejected morphosyntactic errors they were unlikely to commit (e.g., agreement errors), whereas they accepted morphosyntactic errors that they were likely to produce (e.g., violation of tense marking). According to the authors, their findings supported the extended optional infinitive (EOI) account of a morphosyntactic limitation in SLI children based on underlying grammatical representations. They did not support accounts of input processing deficits or production constraints. However, important methodological limitations have challenged their results. In our study, SLI children and their control counterparts were asked to detect different grammatical violations: (1) agreement errors; (2) violations of tense marking; or (3) a control measure: order violations. Contrary to the control children, SLI children appeared to be sensitive to the kind of modification to be detected. They detected significantly fewer verbal morphology-related violations (1 and 2) than order violations (3). These findings, which weaken Rice et al.’s results, are more compatible with other interpretations (e.g., phonological or cognitive) of grammatical disorders in SLI than with an EOI account. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a clinical assessment tool in identifying Asian men with low bone mineral density and comparison of its usefulness to quantitative bone ultrasound
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ross, P. D. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005), 16(7), 849-855

Osteoporosis in men is a largely neglected condition in Asia (and elsewhere), despite the fact that one-third of hip fractures occur in men. Moreover, access to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis in men is a largely neglected condition in Asia (and elsewhere), despite the fact that one-third of hip fractures occur in men. Moreover, access to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We have developed a simple clinical assessment tool to identify high risk Asian men for BMD measurements. Information on risk factors was collected from 420 community-dwelling adult Chinese men aged 50 years and above using a structured questionnaire, and the ability of these risk factors to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T score <= -2.5 was assessed. Multiple regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final clinical risk assessment tool based on only age and weight, similar to the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), described previously for Asian women. The OSTA values of <= -1 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 66%, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.83. The index was validated in another sample of 356 men with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 67 %, and an AUC of 0.85. The usefulness of OSTA was further compared to calcaneal quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in the validation sample of 356 men. The optimal cutoff T score of -1.2 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 75 and 67%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.79. Combining OSTA and QUI gave a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 66% to identify men with low BMD at the femoral neck, and an AUC of 0.86 which was statistically not different from either OSTA or QUI alone. We conclude that OSTA is a simple and effective clinical risk assessment tool for identifying not only female but also male subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural damage diagnosis under varying environmental conditions - Part I: A linear analysis
Yan, Ai-Min; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULiege; De Boe, Pascal et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2005), 19(4), 847-864

A damage detection method is proposed for structural health monitoring under varying environmental and operational conditions. The method is based on principal component analysis (PICA) applied to ... [more ▼]

A damage detection method is proposed for structural health monitoring under varying environmental and operational conditions. The method is based on principal component analysis (PICA) applied to vibration features identified during the monitoring of the structure. The advantage of the method is that it does not require to measure environmental parameters because they are taken into account as embedded variables. The number of principal components of the vibration features is implicitly assumed to correspond to the number of independent environmental factors. Since the environmental effects may be effectively eliminated by the proposed procedure, the residual error of the PCA prediction model remains small if the structure is healthy, and it increases significantly when structural damage occurs. Novelty analysis on the residual errors provides a statistical indication of damage. In the present paper, the environmental conditions are assumed to have a linear (or weakly non-linear) effect on the vibration features, and the PCA-based damage detection method is illustrated using computer-simulated and laboratory testing data. The extension of the proposed method to non-linear cases is addressed in a companion paper where the efficiency of the method is verified using data obtained from a 1-year in situ monitoring of a bridge. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation and graphical representation of the orbit and the imaging parameter of Earth observation satellites
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULiege

in Acta Astronautica (2005), 57(2-8, JUL-OCT), 186-196

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites are widely used for Earth observation applications as weather conditions and cloudiness do not affect them. However, in order to be usable, data provided by those ... [more ▼]

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites are widely used for Earth observation applications as weather conditions and cloudiness do not affect them. However, in order to be usable, data provided by those satellites need to be processed. This processing requires determination of imaging parameters that are closely linked to the spacecraft position and velocity on its orbit. For example, the difference in velocity of the Earth's surface and the spacecraft produces Doppler shift in the received signal. This decay, called Doppler centroid, is one of the most important parameters required by spaceborne SAR signal processing. As an illustration, the Antarctic anomaly that occurred in ERS data processing induced severe azimuth ambiguities ("ghosting") in the whole image. Those parameters also vary in relation to the attitude angles of the platform. In order to estimate the Doppler centroid, determination of orbital parameters and their evolution has to be made. In this paper, the method to perform orbital osculating elements calculation and imaging parameters determination for SAR satellites, starting from state vectors or two-line elements files and attitude angles, will be introduced as well as the perturbation due to the Earth flatness, called the J2 perturbation. The near-circular orbit often used by Earth observation satellites makes the perturbation equations of the J2 parameter unstable, and the introduction of new orbital parameters is required in order to be able to determine the evolution of the orbital parameters. Simulations will be performed and the resulting osculating elements will be presented and explained for short-term and long-term variations for different kinds of orbits, such as GEO, SSO, LEO and Molnya-orbit. Full analysis of the imaging parameters will be made for the SAOCOM satellite with particular attention to the Doppler centroid phenomenon: its sensitivity with relation to the attitude angles and the way to cancel it by setting the yaw steering dynamically. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases of Bacillus subtilis
Musumeci, Lucia ULiege; Bongiorni, Cristina; Tautz, Lutz et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2005), 187(14), 4945-4956

In gram-negative organisms, enzymes belonging to the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress ... [more ▼]

In gram-negative organisms, enzymes belonging to the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress resistance and synthesis of the polysaccharide capsule. LMPTPs have been identified also in gram-positive bacteria, but their functions in these organisms are presently unknown. We cloned two putative LMPTPs from Bacillus subtilis, YfkJ and YwlE, which are highly similar to each other in primary structure as well as to LMPTPs from gram-negative bacteria. When purified from overexpressing Escherichia coli strains, both enzymes were able to dephosphorylate p-nitrophenyl-phosphate and phosphotyrosine-containing substrates in vitro but showed significant differences in kinetic parameters and sensitivity to inhibitors. Transcriptional analyses showed that yfkJ was transcribed at a low level throughout the growth cycle and underwent a σB-dependent transcriptional upregulation in response to ethanol stress. The transcription of ywlE was growth dependent but stress insensitive. Genomic deletion of each phosphatase-encoding gene led to a phenotype of reduced bacterial resistance to ethanol stress, which was more marked in the ywlE deletion strain. Our study suggests that YfkJ and YwlE play roles in B. subtilis stress resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailLe lichen sclereux vulvaire
Gillard, Patricia ULiege; Vanhooteghem, Olivier ULiege; Richert, Bertrand ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(7-8), 656-660

Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a frequent mucocutaneous disease especially affecting 50 to 60 year-old women but with a possible onset at very young age. Symptoms are most disabling including pruritus and ... [more ▼]

Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a frequent mucocutaneous disease especially affecting 50 to 60 year-old women but with a possible onset at very young age. Symptoms are most disabling including pruritus and dyspareunia. Vulvar mucosa gradually becomes more white and atrophied. Degeneration into epidermoid carcinoma is possible. Treatment only consists of topical corticosteroids. [less ▲]

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See detailDétestation de la mélancolie. Note sur la mémoire et sur l'oubli
Havelange, Carl ULiege

in vu d'ici (2005), 19

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See detailThe antiangiogenic factor, 16-kDa human prolactin, induces endothelial cell cycle arrest by acting at both the G(0)-G(1) and the G(2)-M phases
Tabruyn, Sébastien ULiege; Nguyen, Ngoc-Quynh-Nhu ULiege; Cornet, Anne ULiege et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2005), 19(7), 1932-1942

The 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) is a potent antiangiogenic factor that has been shown to prevent tumor growth in a xenograph mouse model. In this paper we first demonstrate ... [more ▼]

The 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) is a potent antiangiogenic factor that has been shown to prevent tumor growth in a xenograph mouse model. In this paper we first demonstrate that 16K hPRL inhibits serum-induced DNA synthesis in adult bovine aortic endothelial cells. This inhibition is associated with cell cycle arrest at both the G(0)-G(1) and the G(2)-M phase. Western blot analysis revealed that 16K hPRL strongly decreases levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, but not cyclin E. The effect on cyclin D1 is at least partially transcriptional, because treatment with 16K hPRL both reduces the cyclin D1 mRNA level and down-regulates cyclin D1 promoter activity. This regulation may be due to inhibition of the MAPK pathway, but it is independent of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta pathway. Lastly, 16K hPRL induces the expression of negative cell cycle regulators, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1). In summary, 16K hPRL inhibits serum-induced proliferation of endothelial cells through combined effects on positive and negative regulators of cell cycle progression. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural damage diagnosis under varying environmental conditions - Part II: local PCA for non-linear cases
Yan, A. M.; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULiege; De Boe, P. et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2005), 19(4), 865-880

It is well known that changes in vibration features of structures due to damage may be masked by the effects of environmental variations. This influence has to be eliminated in the structural health ... [more ▼]

It is well known that changes in vibration features of structures due to damage may be masked by the effects of environmental variations. This influence has to be eliminated in the structural health-monitoring process, especially when a long-term in situ monitoring is expected. In the companion paper [1] a linear method based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been proposed and has shown encouraging results for linear or even weakly non-linear cases. The present paper concerns a further extension of the proposed method to handle non-linear cases, which may be encountered in some complex structures. The method involves a two-step procedure, namely a clustering of the data space into several regions and then the application of PCA La each local region. The application of local PCA allows performing a piecewise linearisation of the non-linear problem. A close look at the choice of the distortion function used in data clustering leads to two new clustering strategies. Whereas the first strategy is specifically suitable for the application treated in this paper, the second one is more general. The local PCA-based damage detection method is applied for the structural health monitoring of a real bridge using vibration data measured in situ over a one-year period. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Surface Utilization Using Heuristic Approaches
Langer, Yves; Bay, Maud ULiege; Crama, Yves ULiege et al

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2005), 52(3), 141-147

We present a scheduling problem that arises in factories producing large building blocks. This is a three dimensional bin-packing problem with two spatial dimensions and a time dimension. We propose an ... [more ▼]

We present a scheduling problem that arises in factories producing large building blocks. This is a three dimensional bin-packing problem with two spatial dimensions and a time dimension. We propose an algorithm based on the guided local search heuristic of Faroe and al. (Informs Journal of Computing,vol.15, 2003). The algorithm is especially developped to consider real-life issues. Finally the algorithm is applied on an industrial problem and shows excellent performances in speed and quality of the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro and in vivo evaluation of [I-123]-VEGF(165) as a potential tumor marker
Cornelissen, B.; Oltenfreiter, R.; Kersemans, V. et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2005), 32(5), 431-436

One of the research challenges in oncology is to develop new biochemical methods for noninvasive tumor therapy evaluation to determine,whether the chemotherapeutics is effective. Vascular endothelial ... [more ▼]

One of the research challenges in oncology is to develop new biochemical methods for noninvasive tumor therapy evaluation to determine,whether the chemotherapeutics is effective. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was labeled with radioiodine and evaluated in vitro as well as in vivo, using A2058, a melanoma cell line overexpressing VEGFR-1 and -2. Saturation binding analysis with [I-125]-VEGF resulted in a K-d of 0.1 nM. Internalization assays indicate the preserved ligand induced internalization and metabolization of the tracer. Biodistribution studies with [I-123]-VEGF in wild type and A2058 tumor-bearing athymic mice showed low background activity and a tumor to reference tissue ratio of maximum 6.12. These results suggest that [I-123]-VEGF is a potentially suitable tracer for tumor therapy evaluation. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmaceutical and nutraceutical management of canine osteoarthritis: Present and future perspectives
Henrotin, Yves ULiege; Sanchez, Christelle ULiege; Balligand, Marc ULiege

in Veterinary Journal (2005), 170(1), 113-123

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal diseases and causes of lameness in the dogs. The osteoarthritic disease process involves the entire synovial joint, encompassing the ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal diseases and causes of lameness in the dogs. The osteoarthritic disease process involves the entire synovial joint, encompassing the synovium, cartilage and underlying bone. Joint failure results from an abnormal mechanical strain causing damage to normal tissue or failure of pathologically impaired articular cartilage and bone under the influence of normal physiological strain or a combination of both. In both cases, the end point is cartilage loss and joint impairment. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes show an altered phenotype characterised by an excess production of catabolic factors, including metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen species. These factors constitute potential therapeutic targets and some new drugs and nutraceuticals have been proposed to promote the return to homeostasis. Until now, the therapeutic management of OA in dogs has been dominated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but some new compounds, including diacerhein, with potential structure-modifying effects, are already used to treat OA in humans and could be helpful to manage OA in the dog. In addition, novel nutraceuticals, such as avocado/soybean unsaponifiable substances, have shown symptomatic effects in knee OA in humans, and could offer an alternative to prevent OA progression. This paper provides an overview of recent discoveries in the pathophysiology and in the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis in dogs. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Concept of Dominance in EC Competition Law
Petit, Nicolas ULiege; Geradin, Damien; Hofer, Paul et al

in GCLC (2005)

The first prong of Article 82 of the EC Treaty, which prohibits abuses of a dominant position, requires, prior to the identification of abusive behaviour, evidence that the firm under scrutiny enjoys a ... [more ▼]

The first prong of Article 82 of the EC Treaty, which prohibits abuses of a dominant position, requires, prior to the identification of abusive behaviour, evidence that the firm under scrutiny enjoys a dominant position. Surprisingly, this issue seems to be sometimes overlooked. Enforcers, practitioners and scholars have recently paid greater attention to the concept of abuse than to the question of dominance when discussing Article 82 EC. This should not, however, be interpreted as a sign that the law of dominance is clear. Quite to the contrary, the concept of dominance raises a wide array of questions which are discussed in the sections that follow [less ▲]

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See detailPrice Discrimination Under Ec Competition Law: Another Antitrust Theory in Search of Limiting Principles
Petit, Nicolas ULiege; Geradin, Damien

in GCLC (2005)

Price discrimination is one of the most complex areas of EC competition law. There are several reasons for this. First, the concept of price discrimination covers many different practices (discounts and ... [more ▼]

Price discrimination is one of the most complex areas of EC competition law. There are several reasons for this. First, the concept of price discrimination covers many different practices (discounts and rebates, tying, selective price cuts, discriminatory input prices set by vertically-integrated operators, etc.) whose objectives and effects on competition significantly differ. From the point of view of competition law analysis, it is thus not easy to classify these practices under a coherent analytical framework. Second, there is a consensus among economists that the welfare effects of the (various categories of) price discrimination are ambiguous. It is hard to say a priori whether a given form of price discrimination increases or decreases welfare. The response to this question may indeed depend on which type of welfare standard (total or consumer) is actually pursued. Moreover, even if one agrees on a given standard, the welfare effects of discriminatory prices generally depend on factual issues, such as whether it increases or decreases total output. Third, the exact scope of Article 82(c), the only Treaty provision dealing with discrimination, is not entirely clear. While the European Commission (hereafter, the Commission) and the Community courts have applied Article 82(c) to many different practices, there are good reasons to believe that this provision should be applied to a limited set of circumstances, most forms of discrimination being adequately covered by Article 82(b) or other provisions of the Treaty. Against this background, the main objective of this paper is to throw some light on the compatibility of price discrimination with EC competition law. In order to do so, this paper does not seek to propose a grand unifying theory that would provide a single test offering a way to distinguish between practices compatible and incompatible with the EC Treaty. Instead, we offer an analytical framework which distinguishes between different categories of price discrimination depending on their effects on competition. Different tests may thus be needed to assess the compatibility of the practices belonging to these categories with EC competition law. Another objective of the paper is to show that Article 82(c) should only be applied to the limited circumstances where a non-vertically integrated dominant firm price discriminates between customers with the effect of placing one or several of them at a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis other customers (secondary line price discrimination). In contrast, Article 82(c) should not be applied to pricing measures designed to harm the dominant firm's competitors (first line price discrimination) or to fragment the single market across national lines. As will be seen, relying on Article 82(c) to condemn such practices goes against the letter and the spirit of this provision and may also apply a wrong test to such practices. It is also not necessary since other Treaty provisions can be used to achieve this objective. [less ▲]

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See detailCareer end for teachers: Towards a better understanding of stress and early retirement
Hansez, Isabelle ULiege; Bertrand, Françoise ULiege; De Keyser, Véronique ULiege et al

in Travail Humain (Le) (2005), 68(3), 193-223

An increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liege ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liege, Belgium. This aimed to determine what led them to withdraw from their jobs and the degree to which stress contributed to their decisions. Various adjustments were made in favour of elderly workers, such as working time and training. The question of whether these are sufficient to keep them motivated in their job was raised. A questionnaire was developed to try and identify the reasons why teachers resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in terms of career-end adjustments. The key concepts included in this tool were personal factors, job-related factors (i.e. working conditions, organizational and structural changes and job recognition) and employment-related factors. This questionnaire was combined with a subjective stress measure (MSP-A, Lemyre [less ▲]

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See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the multiple system HD 167971 (O5-8V+O5-8V+(O81)) and the young open cluster NGC6604
De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Blomme, Ronny et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 437(3), 1029-1046

We discuss the results of two XMM-Newton observations of the open cluster NGC 6604 obtained in April and September 2002. We concentrate mainly on the multiple system HD 167971 (O5- 8V + O5- 8V + (O8I ... [more ▼]

We discuss the results of two XMM-Newton observations of the open cluster NGC 6604 obtained in April and September 2002. We concentrate mainly on the multiple system HD 167971 (O5- 8V + O5- 8V + (O8I)). The soft part of the EPIC spectrum of this system is thermal with typical temperatures of about 2 x 106 to 9 x 106 K. The nature ( thermal vs. non-thermal) of the hard part of the spectrum is not unambiguously revealed by our data. If the emission is thermal, the high temperature of the plasma (similar to 2.3 x 10(7) to 4.6 x 10(7) K) would be typical of what should be expected from a wind-wind interaction zone within a long period binary system. This emission could arise from an interaction between the combined winds of the O5- 8V + O5- 8V close binary system and that of the more distant O8I companion. Assuming instead that the hard part of the spectrum is non-thermal, the photon index would be rather steep (similar to 3). Moreover, a marginal variability between our two XMM-Newton pointings could be attributed to an eclipse of the O5 - 8V + O5 - 8V system. The overall X-ray luminosity points to a significant X-ray luminosity excess of about a factor 4 possibly due to colliding winds. Considering HD 167971 along with several recent X-ray and radio observations, we propose that the simultaneous observation of non-thermal radiation in the X-ray (below 10.0 keV) and radio domains appears rather unlikely. Our investigation of our XMM-Newton data of NGC 6604 reveals a rather sparse distribution of X-ray emitters. Including the two bright non-thermal radio emitters HD 168112 and HD 167971, we present a list of 31 X-ray sources along with the results of the cross-correlation with optical and infrared catalogues. A more complete spectral analysis is presented for the brightest X-ray sources. Some of the members of NGC 6604 present some characteristics suggesting they may be pre-main sequence star candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CINEMA Project: A Video-Based Human-Computer Interaction System for Audio-Visual Immersion
Dardenne, Renaud; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULiege; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULiege et al

in ERCIM News (2005), 62

Numerous studies are currently focusing on the modelling of humans and their behavior in 3D environments. The CINEMA project has similar goals but differentiates itself by aiming at enhanced interactions ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies are currently focusing on the modelling of humans and their behavior in 3D environments. The CINEMA project has similar goals but differentiates itself by aiming at enhanced interactions, the creation of mixed reality, and the creation of interactive and reactive acoustical environments. Part of the project consists in gesture recognition of a user, who is given the real-time control of auralization and audio spatialization processes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of auditory distractors on song discrimination in male canaries (Serinus canaria)
Appeltants, D.; Gentner, T. Q.; Hulse, S. H. et al

in Behavioural Processes (2005), 69(3), 331-341

Male songbirds such as canaries produce complex learned vocalizations that are used in the context of mate attraction and territory defense. Successful mate attraction or territorial defense requires that ... [more ▼]

Male songbirds such as canaries produce complex learned vocalizations that are used in the context of mate attraction and territory defense. Successful mate attraction or territorial defense requires that a bird be able to recognize individuals based on their vocal performance and identify these songs in a noisy background. In order to learn more about how birds are able to solve this problem, we investigated, with a two-alternative choice procedure, the ability of adult male canaries to discriminate between conspecific song segments from two different birds and to maintain this discrimination when conspecific songs are superimposed with a variety of distractors. The results indicate that male canaries have the ability to discriminate, with a high level of accuracy song segments produced by two different conspecific birds. Song discrimination was partially maintained when the stimuli were masked by auditory distractors, but the accuracy of the discrimination progressively declined as a function of the number of masking distractors. The type of distractor used in the experiments (other conspecific songs or different types of artificial white noise) did not markedly affect the rate of deterioration of the song discrimination. These data indicate that adult male canaries have the perceptual abilities to discriminate and selectively attend to one ongoing sound that occurs simultaneously with one or more other sounds. The administration of a noradrenergic neurotoxin did not impair markedly the discrimination learning abilities although the number of subjects tested was too small to allow any firm conclusion. In these conditions, however, the noradrenergic lesion significantly increased the number failures to respond in the discrimination learning task suggesting a role, in canaries, of the noradrenergic system in some attentional processes underlying song learning and processing. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of end-functional poly(vinyl acetate) by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization
Debuigne, Antoine ULiege; Caille, Jean-Raphaël; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Macromolecules (2005), 38(13), 5452-5458

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) chains prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization in the presence of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate (Co(acac)(2)) were quenched by radical scavengers, such as thiol ... [more ▼]

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) chains prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization in the presence of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate (Co(acac)(2)) were quenched by radical scavengers, such as thiol compounds and nitroxides, to displace the covalently bonded Co(acac)(2) moiety and to end-cap them with a reactive group. The cobalt complex was completely removed by filtration, as confirmed by the induction coupled plasma (ICP) analysis of the polymer before and after treatment. Growing poly(vinyl acetate) chains can be end-functionalized either by addition of an appropriately functionalized nonpolymerizable olefin or by displacement of the Co(acac)(2) moiety by a functionalized nitroxide. This strategy allows PVAc to be synthesized with a predictable molecular weight, a reasonably low polydispersity (M-w/M-n similar to 1.1-1.3), and a functional omega end group, e.g., hydroxyl and epoxy. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-related performance of human papillomavirus testing used as an adjunct to cytology for cervical carcinoma screening in a population with a low incidence of cervical carcinoma
Petignat, P.; Faltin, D.; Goffin, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Cancer (2005), 105(3), 126-132

BACKGROUND. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing has been proposed as a replacement for cytology or as an adjunct to cytology for primary cervical carcinoma screening. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing has been proposed as a replacement for cytology or as an adjunct to cytology for primary cervical carcinoma screening. The objective of this study was to assess the age-specific prevalence of HR-HPV infection and the correlation between HR-HPV status and cytologic diagnosis. METHODS. The authors enrolled 7254 women receiving routine cytologic screening in a cross-sectional study that was conducted during 12 months. Cervical samples were collected using liquid-based cytology to perform both Papanicolaou smears and HR-HPV testing. Analyses were performed using age stratification, and the cytologic results were considered as the reference diagnosis for parameter analysis tests. RESULTS. The overall rate of HR-HPV infection was 11.4% (95% confidence interval, 9-12%) and was higher in younger women compared with older women (age < 30 years vs. >= 30 years; 16% vs. 8.5%, respectively; P < 0.0001). The overall rate of abnormal cytology was 3.2% and, similarly, was more prevalent in younger women (6.1% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.0001). The best balance between sensitivity and specificity for high-grade lesions or worse occurred predominantly in older age groups (age >= 50 years). CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of HR-HPV was age-dependent, with the strongest correlation between HR-HPV positivity and disease observed among older women, who potentially may derive the most benefit. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Western Mediterranean Deep Water: A proxy for climate change
Rixen, M.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULiege; Levitus, S. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2005), 32(12),

[ 1] Reconstructions of Mediterranean ocean temperature fields back to 1950 show a proxy relationship between heat content changes in the North Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water ( WMDW ... [more ▼]

[ 1] Reconstructions of Mediterranean ocean temperature fields back to 1950 show a proxy relationship between heat content changes in the North Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water ( WMDW) formed in the Gulf of Lions in winter, because of consistent air-sea heat fluxes over these areas, strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation ( NAO). [less ▲]

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See detailTrends of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2 (HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) measurements near 30 degrees N latitude
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Boone, Christopher D.; Nassar, Ray et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2005), 32(16),

[ 1] Volume mixing ratios ( VMRs) of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CHClF2 ( HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere have been derived from solar occultation measurements recorded with spaceborne high resolution ... [more ▼]

[ 1] Volume mixing ratios ( VMRs) of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CHClF2 ( HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere have been derived from solar occultation measurements recorded with spaceborne high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ( ACE) VMRs measured during 2004 have been compared with those obtained in 1985 and 1994 by the Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy ( ATMOS) instrument. Trends are estimated by referencing the measured VMRs to those of the long-lived constituent N2O to account for variations in the dynamic history of the sampled air masses. Pressure-gridded measurements covering 10-100 hPa ( similar to 16 to 30 km altitude) were used in the analysis that includes typically 25 degrees N-35 degrees N latitude. The VMR changes provide further evidence of the impact of the emission restrictions imposed by the Montreal Protocol and its strengthening amendments and adjustments and are consistent with model predictions and known sources and sinks of halocarbons. Decreases in the lower stratospheric mixing ratios of CCl3F and HCl are measured in 2004 with respect to 1994, providing important confirmation of recent ground-based solar absorption measurements of a decline in inorganic chlorine. Trends estimates are compared with other reported measurements and model predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat indices quantify regional myocardial function during supine bicycle in healthy subject: natural strain and strain rate?
Pierre-Justin, G.; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege; Pierard, Luc ULiege

in International Journal of Cardiology (2005), 102(1), 21-31

BACKGROUND: Evaluation and quantification of regional myocardial function remain a challenge for imaging techniques in stress test. Strain and strain rate can be calculated from velocity gradients in time ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Evaluation and quantification of regional myocardial function remain a challenge for imaging techniques in stress test. Strain and strain rate can be calculated from velocity gradients in time and space. This new technique has been developed to allow quantifiable stress echocardiography. The aim of this study was to define normal regional strain rate and strain values for both radial and deformation longitudinal myocardial deformation during supine bicycle. METHODS: Real-time color Doppler myocardial velocities were acquired as data superimposed on an underlying two-dimensional (2D) grey-scale image at a frame rate > 150/s, a depth of 16 cm, and a sector angle of 60 degrees in 18 healthy volunteers, mean age 34+/-7 years (25-43 years). During acquisition, a complete cardiac cycle of each view was acquired at rest and during supine bicycle (from 25 W to maximal charge). Maximal systolic velocity, strain rate, and strain were processed offline for both radial (basal posterior wall segment) and longitudinal (septum, lateral, inferior, anterior walls) function. For analysis, each wall was divided into three segments (basal, mid, apical). All the velocity and SR/S values were averaged over three consecutive cycles. RESULTS: During exercise, heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased significantly from rest to peak stress (69+/-14 vs. 152+/-7 beats/min, p < 0.0001 and 118+/-9 vs. 178+/-28 mm Hg, p < 0.001). For the Lax view, both the mean velocity and mean strain rate increased significantly between rest and peak exercise, respectively, for the velocity and for the strain rate. Similarly is said for the Sax view. In contrast, the systolic strain response was biphasic during exercise, basal, mid, and apical segments of walls showed a significant increase of velocity in each workload step. The resting base-apex velocity gradient observed at rest remained in all walls throughout supine bicycle. The mean peak systolic SR data were homogeneous throughout in all segments analysed at rest. This homogeneity remained at peak exercise. The SR increased significantly between rest and peak exercise, respectively, p < 0.0117. The segmental systolic strain response was biphasic. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that strain rate imaging may represent a new and interesting method for quantifying regional myocardial function during supine bicycle, which appears to be less influenced by tethering than Doppler tissue imaging. Further studies are needed to determine whether this approach will be clinically useful. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in British Medical Journal (2005), 330(7505), 856-860

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See detailThe adaptor Grb7 is a novel calmodulin-binding protein: functional implications of the interaction of calmodulin with Grb7.
Hongbing, Li; Sánchez-Torres, Juan; del Carpio, Alan F et al

in Oncogene (2005), 24(26), 4206-4219

We demonstrate using Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography and overlay with biotinylated CaM that the adaptor proteins growth factor receptor bound (Grb)7 and Grb7V (a naturally ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate using Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography and overlay with biotinylated CaM that the adaptor proteins growth factor receptor bound (Grb)7 and Grb7V (a naturally occurring variant lacking the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain) are CaM-binding proteins. Deletion of an amphiphilic basic amino-acid sequence (residues 243–256) predicted to form an alpha-helix located in the proximal region of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain demonstrates the location of the CaM-binding domain. This site is identical in human and rodents Grb7, and shares great homology with similar regions of Grb10 and Grb14, and the Mig10 protein from Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that Grb7 and Grb7V are present in the cytosol and bound to membranes, while the deletion mutants (Grb7Delta and Grb7VDelta) have less capacity to be associated to membranes. Grb7Delta maintains in part the capacity to bind phosphoinositides, and CaM competes for phosphoinositide binding. Activation of ErbB2 by heregulin beta1 decreases the pool of Grb7 associated to membranes. The cell-permeable CaM antagonist W7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide), but not the CaM-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93, prevents this effect. Highly specific cell-permeable CaM inhibitory peptides decrease the association of Grb7 to membranes. This suggests that CaM regulates the intracellular mobilization of Grb7 in living cells. Direct interaction between enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-Grb7 and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP)-CaM chimeras at the plasma membrane of living cells was demonstrated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET signal dramatically decreased in cells loaded with a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator, and was significantly attenuated when enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-Grb7 chimera (EYFP-Grb7)Delta instead of EYFP-Grb7 was used. Finally, we show that conditioned media from cells transiently transfected with Grb7Delta and Grb7VDelta lost its angiogenic activity, in contrast to those from cells transiently transfected with their wild-type counterparts [less ▲]

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See detailAre electrografted polymers chemisorbed or physisorbed onto their substrate ?
Cuenot, Stéphane; Gabriel, Sabine ULiege; Jérôme, Christine ULiege et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2005), 206(12), 1216-1220

AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to evaluate the mechanical strength of the link between a polymer and the substrate onto which the polymer is electrografted. Poly(N-succinimidyl ... [more ▼]

AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to evaluate the mechanical strength of the link between a polymer and the substrate onto which the polymer is electrografted. Poly(N-succinimidyl acrylate) was electrografted onto gold substrates and brought into contact with an aminothiol-functionalized AFM tip. Bridging of single polymer chains resulting from the strong coupling between the activated esters on the polymer and amine groups on the tip was investigated. We found that the link between the polymer and the gold substrate can withstand a force far beyond the force characteristic for physisorption on gold. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - mai 2005
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege; Horion, S. et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2005), 4(2), 6

Si la situation météorologique est globalement normale en Belgique, dans certaines régions, le manque de précipitations cumulées depuis le début du printemps commence à inquiéter. A ce stade de l’année ... [more ▼]

Si la situation météorologique est globalement normale en Belgique, dans certaines régions, le manque de précipitations cumulées depuis le début du printemps commence à inquiéter. A ce stade de l’année culturale, les prévisions de rendements indiquent le maïs fourrager comme étant la culture la plus touchée par les conditions climatiques qui prévalent depuis plusieurs mois. Par contre, sur le plan national, par rapport à l’année passée, l’orge d’hiver et la pomme de terre Bintje marquent une certaine stabilité, tandis que le froment d’hiver et la betterave sucrière devraient voir leurs rendements légèrement augmenter. [less ▲]

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See detailComparisons between ACE-FTS and ground-based measurements of stratospheric HCl and ClONO2 loadings at northern latitudes
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULiege; Zander, Rodolphe ULiege; Duchatelet, Pierre ULiege et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2005), 32(15),

We report first comparisons of stratospheric column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) derived from infrared solar spectra recorded in 2004 at selected northern latitudes ... [more ▼]

We report first comparisons of stratospheric column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) derived from infrared solar spectra recorded in 2004 at selected northern latitudes by the spaceborne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments at the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change)-affiliated sites of Thule ( Greenland), Kiruna ( Sweden), Jungfraujoch ( Switzerland), and Egbert and Toronto ( Canada). Overall, and within the respective uncertainties of the independent measurement approaches, the comparisons show that the ACE-FTS measurements produce very good stratospheric volume mixing ratio profiles. Their internal precision allows to identify characteristic distribution features associated with latitudinal, dynamical, seasonal and chemical changes occurring in the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission overview
Bernath, Peter; McElroy, C. T.; Abrams, Mark et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2005), 32(15),

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ( ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit ( altitude ... [more ▼]

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ( ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit ( altitude 650 km, inclination 74 degrees) on 12 Aug. 2003. The primary ACE instrument is a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm(-1)) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 mm ( 750 - 4400 cm(-1)). The satellite also features a dual spectrophotometer known as MAESTRO with wavelength coverage of 285 - 1030 nm and spectral resolution of 1 - 2 nm. A pair of filtered CMOS detector arrays records images of the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 mu m. Working primarily in solar occultation, the satellite provides altitude profile information ( typically 10 - 100 km) for temperature, pressure, and the volume mixing ratios for several dozen molecules of atmospheric interest, as well as atmospheric extinction profiles over the latitudes 85 degrees N to 85 degrees S. This paper presents a mission overview and some of the first scientific results. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse of primary production and calcification to changes of pCO(2) during experimental blooms of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi
Delille, Bruno ULiege; Harlay, Jérôme ULiege; Zondervan, Ingrid et al

in Global Biogeochemical Cycles (2005), 19(2),

[1] Primary production and calcification in response to different partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2) ("glacial,'' "present,'' and "year 2100'' atmospheric CO2 concentrations) were investigated during a ... [more ▼]

[1] Primary production and calcification in response to different partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2) ("glacial,'' "present,'' and "year 2100'' atmospheric CO2 concentrations) were investigated during a mesocosm bloom dominated by the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. The day-to-day dynamics of net community production (NCP) and net community calcification (NCC) were assessed during the bloom development and decline by monitoring dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity ( TA), together with oxygen production and 14 C incorporation. When comparing year 2100 with glacial PCO2 conditions we observed: ( 1) no conspicuous change of net community productivity (NCPy); ( 2) a delay in the onset of calcification by 24 to 48 hours, reducing the duration of the calcifying phase in the course of the bloom; ( 3) a 40% decrease of NCC; and ( 4) enhanced loss of organic carbon from the water column. These results suggest a shift in the ratio of organic carbon to calcium carbonate production and vertical flux with rising atmospheric PCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailA Monte Carlo model of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V. et al

in Annales Geophysicae (2005), 23

Hydrogen line profiles measured from space-borne or ground-based instruments provide useful information to study the physical processes occurring in the proton aurora and to estimate the proton flux ... [more ▼]

Hydrogen line profiles measured from space-borne or ground-based instruments provide useful information to study the physical processes occurring in the proton aurora and to estimate the proton flux characteristics. The line shape of the hydrogen lines is determined by the velocity distribution of H atoms along the line-of-sight of the instrument. Calculations of line profiles of auroral hydrogen emissions were obtained using a Monte Carlo kinetic model of proton precipitation into the auroral atmosphere. In this model both processes of energy degradation and scattering angle redistribution in momentum and charge transfer collisions of the high-energy proton/hydrogen flux with the ambient atmospheric gas are considered at the microphysical level. The model is based on measured cross sections and scattering angle distributions and on a stochastic interpretation of such collisions. Calculations show that collisional angular redistribution of the precipitating proton/hydrogen beam is the dominant process leading to the formation of extended wings and peak shifts in the hydrogen line profiles. All simulations produce a peak shift from the rest line wavelength decreasing with increasing proton energy. These model predictions are confirmed by analysis of ground-based H-beta line observations from Poker Flat, showing an anti-correlation between the magnitude of the peak shift and the extent of the blue wing of the line. Our results also strongly suggest that the relative extension of the blue and red wings provides a much better indicator of the auroral proton characteristic energy than the position of the peak wavelength. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysicians' communication with a cancer patient and a relative - A randomized study assessing the efficacy of consolidation workshops
Delvaux, N.; Merckaert, I.; Marchal, S. et al

in Cancer (2005), 103(11), 2397-2411

BACKGROUND. Although patients with cancer are often accompanied by a relative during medical interviews, to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the efficacy of communication skills training ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Although patients with cancer are often accompanied by a relative during medical interviews, to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the efficacy of communication skills training programs on physicians' communication skills in this context. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy of 6 consolidation workshops, 3 hours in length, that were conducted after a 2.5-day basic training program. METHODS. After attending the basic training program, physicians were assigned randomly to consolidation workshops or to a waiting list. Training efficacy was assessed through simulated and actual interviews that were recorded on an audio tape at baseline, after consolidation workshops for the consolidation-workshops group, and 5 months after the end of basic training for the waiting-list group. Communication skills were assessed according to the Cancer Research Campaign Workshop Evaluation Manual. Patients' and relatives' perceptions of and satisfaction with physicians' communication performance were assessed using a 15-item questionnaire. RESULTS. Sixty-two physicians completed the training program. Compared with physicians who participated to the basic training program, when addressing the patient, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops used more open, open directive, and screening questions (P = 0.011 in simulated patient interviews and P = 0.005 in actual patient interviews) and elicited and clarified psychologic concerns more often (P = 0.006 in simulated patient interviews and P < 0.001 in actual patient interviews). When they addressed the relative, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops gave less premature information (P = 0.032 in simulated patient interviews and P < 0.001 in actual patient interviews). When they addressed the patient and the relative simultaneously, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops used more empathy, educated guesses, alerting to reality, confronting, negotiating, and summarizing (P = 0.003 in simulated patient interviews and P = 0.024 in actual patient interviews). Patients, but not relatives, who interacted with physicians in the consolidation-workshops group were more satisfied globally with the interviews (P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS. Six 3-hour consolidation workshops resulted in improved communication skills addressed to patients and to relatives. The current results showed that the transfer of skills addressing relatives' concerns remained limited and that consolidation workshops should focus even more systematically on the practice of three-person interviews. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society. [less ▲]

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See detailAméliorer une presentation PowerPoint. Etude de l’impact d’une formation sur la qualité de 10 diaporamas.
Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege; Feyens, Clémence

in Revue Internationale des Technologies en Pédagogie Universitaire (2005), 2(2), 48-62

Ce texte décrit un dispositif de formation visant l’amélioration des présentations PowerPoint. Mis en oeuvre par le LabSET (Université de Liège) pour une importante agence de la Commission européenne, il ... [more ▼]

Ce texte décrit un dispositif de formation visant l’amélioration des présentations PowerPoint. Mis en oeuvre par le LabSET (Université de Liège) pour une importante agence de la Commission européenne, il a donné lieu, à son démarrage et à son terme, à un audit approfondi de 10 diaporamas (346 diapositives). La grille d’évaluation utilisée réinvestit les travaux de S. Villeneuve (2004) tels que décrits dans l’article « Les logiciels de présentation en pédagogie. Effi cacité de l’utilisation des logiciels de présentation en pédagogie universitaire » publié dans le vol. 1, n° 1 de cette même revue. Les 37 « recommandations » théoriques défi nies par l’auteur à l’intention « des personnes souhaitant faire un usage pédagogique efficace » des logiciels de présentation trouvent donc l’occasion d’une confrontation pragmatique avec des diaporamas concrets. Aussi bien le dispositif de formation, auquel la comparaison des diapositives avant et après traitement fournit une mesure d’efficacité, que l’instrument d’évaluation des diaporamas ont un potentiel en pédagogie universitaire, tant il est vrai que le recours aux logiciels de présentation constitue souvent pour les enseignants une première démarche d’intégration des technologies à leurs pratiques pédagogiques. [less ▲]

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See detailBarium distribution across the Southern Ocean frontal system in the Crozet-Kerguelen Basin
Jacquet, S. H. M.; Dehairs, F.; Cardinal, D. et al

in Marine Chemistry (2005), 95(3-4), 149-162

We investigated the dissolved and excess particulate Ba distribution (Ba-xs, an estimate of biogenic Ba considered to consist mainly of barite [BaSO4]) across the complex frontal system of the Crozet ... [more ▼]

We investigated the dissolved and excess particulate Ba distribution (Ba-xs, an estimate of biogenic Ba considered to consist mainly of barite [BaSO4]) across the complex frontal system of the Crozet-Kerguelen Basin (Southern Ocean; 42-47 degrees S, 62-65 degrees E). Ba-xs profiles show the characteristic mesopelagic maximum (depth range between 150 and 400 in) reaching up to 1000 pM in the Subantarctic Zone and Subtropical Front, the highest value observed for Southern Ocean mesopelagic waters. Dissolved Ba (concentrations between 38 and 104 nM) correlates with silicate and alkalinity, but the regression is not perfect, reflecting the involvement of different biogenic carriers in the control of the water column distribution of these compounds. Dissolved Ba in the upper 500 in appears strongly influenced by cross-frontal exchanges, involving both northward and southward transport of water masses. In the mesopelagic waters (150-400 m) of the Polar Front Zone, a dissolved Ba depletion faces the Ba, maximum. This depletion appears mainly maintained by cross-frontal advection of waters containing less Ba and originating north of the Subantarctic Front. Overall, no clear evidence that precipitation of barite reflected by the occurrence of Baxs maxima does measurably influence the distribution of dissolved Ba was found. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConvection-pulsation coupling. II. Excitation and stabilization mechanisms in delta Sct and gamma Dor stars
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege; Grigahcène, A.; Garrido, R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 435

We apply here the Time Dependent Convection (TDC) treatment presented in our earlier paper in this series to the study of delta Sct and gamma Dor pulsating stars. Stabilization of the delta Sct p-modes at ... [more ▼]

We apply here the Time Dependent Convection (TDC) treatment presented in our earlier paper in this series to the study of delta Sct and gamma Dor pulsating stars. Stabilization of the delta Sct p-modes at the red edge of the Instability Strip (IS) and the driving of the gamma Dor g-modes are explained by our models. Theoretical IS obtained with different values of the Mixing Length (ML) parameter alpha are compared to observations and a good agreement is obtained for alpha between 1.8 and 2. The influence of each term of our TDC treatment (perturbation of convective flux, turbulent pressure, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation) on the eigenfrequencies and on the driving and damping mechanisms is investigated. Finally, we show that our TDC models predict the likely existence of hybrid stars with both delta Sct p-modes and gamma Dor g-modes oscillations. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of delta Scuti Stars: Problems and Prospects
Goupil, Marie-José; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege; Samadi, R. et al

in Journal of Astrophysics & Astronomy (2005), 26

We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of delta Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these ... [more ▼]

We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of delta Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these difficulties have influenced are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailShared brain areas but not functional connections controlling movement timing and order
Garraux, Gaëtan ULiege; McKinney, Christopher; Wu, Tao et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2005), 25(22), 5290-5297

Virtually every aspect of the enormous repertoire of human behaviors is embedded in a sequential context, but brain mechanisms underlying the adjustment of two fundamental dimensions defining a motor ... [more ▼]

Virtually every aspect of the enormous repertoire of human behaviors is embedded in a sequential context, but brain mechanisms underlying the adjustment of two fundamental dimensions defining a motor sequence (order of a series of movements and intervals separating them) as a function of a given goal are poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that, at the neuronal level, these tasks can only be distinguished by differences in functional interactions between associative areas of common activation, which included bilateral subcortico-parieto-frontal regions, and two subcortical structures. Activity in these shared associative areas was preferentially coupled with that in right putamen during manipulation of timing and with that in right posterior cerebellum during manipulation of serial order. This finding is important because it provides evidence for an efficient organization of the brain during cognitive control of motor sequences and supports a recently proposed principle according to which the role of brain regions involved in different behavioral tasks without differential alterations in their measured activity depends on changes in their interactions with other connected areas as a function of the tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailProspective issues for error detection
Blavier, Adelaïde ULiege; Rouy, Emmanuelle ULiege; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULiege et al

in Ergonomics (2005), 48(7), 758-781

Error detection has not received much attention from the scientists since human error has been shown as the main cause of accident in complex systems. However, reducing the consequences of error depends ... [more ▼]

Error detection has not received much attention from the scientists since human error has been shown as the main cause of accident in complex systems. However, reducing the consequences of error depends largely on error detection. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the existing scientific knowledge on error detection, mostly based on studies conducted in laboratory or self reporting and to complete it through the analysis of a corpus of cases collected in a complex system: anaesthesia, in order to better describe how this knowledge can be used to improve our understanding of error detection modes. We used an anaesthesia accident reporting system we developed and organized at two Belgium University Hospitals to collect information about the error detection patterns. Results show that detection of errors principally occurred through standard check. We found significant relationships between the type of error, the type of error detection pattern, and the training level of the anaesthetist who committed the error. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of a dozen non-CO2 greenhouse gases above central Europe since the mid-1980s
Zander, Rodolphe ULiege; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULiege; Demoulin, Philippe ULiege et al

in Environmental Sciences (2005), 2(2-3), 295-303

High-resolution infrared solar observations have been conducted consistently since the mid-1980s at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, by the GIRPAS-ULg team (Groupe ... [more ▼]

High-resolution infrared solar observations have been conducted consistently since the mid-1980s at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, by the GIRPAS-ULg team (Groupe Infra-Rouge de Physique Atmosphrique et Solaire-University of Lige), and by colleagues from the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and from the Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels. These observations were performed with state-of-the-art Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, revealing specific absorption features of over 20 atmospheric gases in the middle-infrared. Related spectrometric analyses have allowed the derivation of their burdens, seasonal and inter-annual variability, as well as their long-term evolution. In addition to updates of long-term changes for CCl2F2, CHClF2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, C2H6 and C2H2 already dealt with at previous Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG) symposia, this paper further reports temporal evolutions observed during the past two decades for a series of other source gases, namely OCS, HCN, CCl3F and CCl4, which also have direct or indirect effects on the radiation balance of the troposphere and on the stratospheric ozone layer. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation du système Optojump en tant qu’outil d’évaluation de la force-vitesse (puissance) des membres inférieurs
Lehance, Cédric ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Bury, Thierry ULiege

in Science & Sports (2005), 20(3), 131-135

Purpose. - The aim of this study was to examine Optojump system efficiency to analyse lower limbs explosive strength. Methods and results. - Twenty untrained subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups ... [more ▼]

Purpose. - The aim of this study was to examine Optojump system efficiency to analyse lower limbs explosive strength. Methods and results. - Twenty untrained subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: either an experimental group (N = 10) or a control group (N = 10). They performed vertical jumps using different techniques and sprints. Reproducibility of jumps and sprint, evaluated by Optojump system, was appreciated after correlation analysis. The experimental group took part in a plyometric training for six weeks. Jumps and sprints showed an excellent reproducibility (mean coefficiant of variation = 3.6%). Plyometric training increased (P < 0.001) counter movement jump (+ 19.6%), counter movement jump free arms (+14%) and drop jump (+27.9%) performances. Conclusion. - This study demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the Optojump system to analyse lower limbs explosive strength. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. Tous droits reserves. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-thermal radio emission from O-type stars. I. HD168112
Blomme, Ronny; Van Loo, S.; De Becker, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 436(3), 1033-1040

We present a radio lightcurve of the O5.5 III(f(+)) star HD 168112, based on archive data from the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The fluxes show considerable ... [more ▼]

We present a radio lightcurve of the O5.5 III(f(+)) star HD 168112, based on archive data from the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The fluxes show considerable variability and a negative spectral index, thereby confirming that HD 168112 is a non-thermal radio emitter. The non-thermal radio emission is believed to be due to synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons that have been Fermi accelerated in shocks. For HD 168112, it is not known whether these shocks are due to a wind-wind collision in a binary system or to the intrinsic instability of the stellar wind driving mechanism. Assuming HD 168112 to be a single star, our synchrotron model shows that the velocity jump of the shocks should be very high, or there should be a very large number of shocks in the wind. Neither of these is compatible with time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations of O star winds. If, on the other hand, we assume that HD 168112 is a binary, the high velocity jump is easily explained by ascribing it to the wind-wind collision. By further assuming the star to be an eccentric binary, we can explain the observed radio variability by the colliding-wind region moving in and out of the region where free-free absorption is important. The radio data presented here show that the binary has a period of between one and two years. By combining the radio data with X-ray data, we find that the most likely period is similar to 1.4 yr. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic analysis of polymorphisms in biologically relevant candidate genes in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms
Ogata, Toru; Shibamura, Hidenori; Tromp, Gerard et al

in Journal of Vascular Surgery (2005), 41(6), 1036-1042

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by histologic signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells ... [more ▼]

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by histologic signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the process of extracellular matrix remodeling by performing a genetic association study with polymorphisms in the genes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and structural extracellular matrix molecules in AAA. Our hypothesis was that genetic variations in one or more of these genes contribute to greater or lesser activity of these gene products, and thereby contribute to susceptibility for developing AAAs. Methods: DNA samples from 812 unrelated white subject (AAA, n = 387; controls, n = 425) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in 13 different candidate genes: MMP1(nt-1607), MMP2(nt-955), MMP3(nt-1612), MMP9(nt-1562), MMP10(nt+180), MMP12(nt-82), MMP13(nt-77), TIMP1(nt+434), TIMP1(rs;2070584), TIMP2(rs2009196), TIMP3(nt-1296), TGFBI(nt-509), ELN(nt+422), and COL3A1(nt+581). Odds ratios and P values adjusted for gender and country of origin using logistic regression and stratified by family history of AAA were calculated to test for association between genotype and disease status. Haplotype analysis was carried out for the two TIMP1 polymorphisms; in male subjects. Results: Analyses with one polymorphism per test without interactions showed an association with the two TIMP1 gene polymorphisms (nt+434, P =.0047; rs2070584, P =.015) in male subjects without a family history of AAA. The association remained significant when analyzing TIMP1 haplotypes (x(2) p =.014 and empirical P =.009). In addition, we found a significant interaction between the polymorphism and gender for MMP10 (P=.037) in cases without a family history of AAA, as well as between the polymorphism and country of origin for ELN (P =.0169) and TIMP3 (P =.0023) in cases with a family history of AAA. Conclusions: These findings suggest that genetic variations in TIMP1, TIMP3, MMP10, and ELN genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of AAAs. Further work is needed to confirm the findings in an independent set of samples and to study the functional role of these variants in AAA. It is noteworthy that contrary to a previous study, we did not find an association between the MMP9 (nt-1562) polymorphism and AAA, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Clinical Relevance: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are an important cardiovascular disease, but the genetic and environmental risk factors, which contribute to individual's risk to develop an aneurysm, are poorly understood. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that genes involved in these events could harbor changes that make individuals more susceptible to developing aneurysms. This study identified significant genetic associations between DNA sequence changes in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1), TIMP3, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) and elastin (ELN) genes, and AAA. The results will require confirmation using an independent set of samples. After replication it is possible that these sequence changes in combination with other risk factors could be used in the future to identify individuals who are at increased risk for developing an AAA. [less ▲]

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See detailLe QUEEN MARY 2, le plus grand paquebot au monde
René-Pierre Saint-M'Leux, René-Pierre; Marchal, Jean ULiege; Hage, André ULiege et al

in Journal des Ingénieurs (Le) (2005), n°95

Le Queen Mary 2 est un paquebot qui détient de nombreux records. C’est le plus grand, le plus haut mais aussi le plus cher bateau pour passagers que l’humanité n’ait jamais construit. En effet, les ... [more ▼]

Le Queen Mary 2 est un paquebot qui détient de nombreux records. C’est le plus grand, le plus haut mais aussi le plus cher bateau pour passagers que l’humanité n’ait jamais construit. En effet, les chiffres qui le caractérisent sont éloquents. Le navire fait 345 m de long, 45 m de large, 62 m de haut, possède 13 ponts, pèse 65 000 tonnes et peut accueillir à son bord plus de 4400 passagers. Il peut naviguer à plus de 29 noeuds (45 km/h), tout en gardant une manoeuvrabilité remarquable. Le Queen Mary 2 est une véritable ville flottante. Il dispose de restaurants, d’une discothèque, d’une salle des douanes, de boutiques et même d’une piste d’athlétisme. Le coût de sa construction s’est élevé à plus de 538 millions €. Il n’a fallu que deux années pour le construire. Plus de 800 entreprises et 20 000 ouvriers se sont mobilisés aux chantiers de St- Nazaire pour lui donner le jour. Il y a plusieurs étapes dans la construction d’un navire. Le chantier commence par la réception, le découpage et l’assemblage des tôles nécessaires à la formation de la structure de la coque. Ces tôles sont ensuite soudées pour constituer des ensembles appelés panneaux. A ce stade, on commence à installer une partie des réseaux électriques et des conduits divers. L’étape suivante est la construction puis l’assemblage des blocs qui sont soudés les uns aux autres jusqu’à former des parties entières du navire. La dernière étape est celle de l’armement, plus communément appelé l’habillage. Elle intervient quand le navire a acquis sa silhouette définitive. C’est la phase où l’on apporte au bateau tous les équipements nécessaires à son utilisation. C’est à ce stade qu’est intervenue une société liégeoise, Disteel Cold [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission of an undiagnosed sarcoma to recipients of kidney and liver grafts procured in a non-heart beating donor
Detry, Olivier ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege; de Leval, Laurence ULiege et al

in Liver Transplantation (2005), 11(6), 696-699

Transmission of an undiagnosed cancer with solid organ transplantation is a rare but dreadful event. In this paper the authors report the transmission of an undiagnosed sarcoma to recipients of kidney and ... [more ▼]

Transmission of an undiagnosed cancer with solid organ transplantation is a rare but dreadful event. In this paper the authors report the transmission of an undiagnosed sarcoma to recipients of kidney and liver grafts procured in a Maastricht category 3 non-heart beating donor. To the authors' knowledge this case is the first report of such a transmission with a liver graft procured in a non-heart beating donor. The cancer transferal was diagnosed I year after transplantation in the recipients of the liver and of one kidney. The liver recipient died from multiple organ failure after a failed attempt of tumor resection. The kidney recipient underwent immunosuppression withdrawal and transplantectomy. Non-heart beating donors should not be particularly at risk for undiagnosed cancer transmission if the procurement is performed according to the same rules of careful inspection of the abdominal and thoracic organs. After diagnosis of donor cancer transmission, kidney recipients should have the graft removed, and immunosuppression should be interrupted. The management of liver graft recipients is very difficult in this setting, and long-term survival was very rarely reported. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle place pour le cinéma à l'école?
Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULiege

in Puzzle (2005), 18

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See detailCurrent status of brain imaging in sleep medicine
Maquet, Pierre ULiege

in Sleep Medicine Reviews (2005), 9(3), 155-156

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See detailBelgian consensus on metabolic problems associated with atypical antipsychotics
De Nayer, A.; De Hert, M.; Scheen, André ULiege et al

in International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice (2005), 9(2), 130-137

A workshop was convened by a panel of psychiatrists, diabetologists and pharmacists from major Belgian hospitals to review the latest information relating to the risks with second-generation ... [more ▼]

A workshop was convened by a panel of psychiatrists, diabetologists and pharmacists from major Belgian hospitals to review the latest information relating to the risks with second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) for the development of metabolic disorders, especially impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The panelists sought to formulate recommendations for practising psychiatrists when initiating and maintaining therapy with SGA, and for the switch of SGA or initiation of further treatment if metabolic complications occur. In addition, recommendations for counselling of the patient and for the cooperation between the psychiatrist and the general physician or diabetologist, respectively, were provided. [less ▲]

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See detailSentiments identitaires : le coeur des Wallons balance
Deflandre, Dimitri; Heselmans, Frédéric ULiege; Italiano, Patrick ULiege et al

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2005), 40

L'article fait la synthèse d'une série d'enquêtes menées sur les sentiments d'appartenance des Wallons. Toutes les enquêtes pointent dans la même direction : ces sentiments d'appartenance sont ... [more ▼]

L'article fait la synthèse d'une série d'enquêtes menées sur les sentiments d'appartenance des Wallons. Toutes les enquêtes pointent dans la même direction : ces sentiments d'appartenance sont complémentaires et non exclusifs. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of timbers from tropical countries and comparison of experimental charring rates with various models
Njankouo, Jacques Michel; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Construction & Building Materials (2005), 19(5), 376-386

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction ... [more ▼]

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction materials and products without taking into consideration the problem of their fire behaviour, and more particularly of their fire resistance. In the case of timber elements, this characteristic is mainly influenced by the charring rate of the external layers of the element. On the other hand this parameter is influenced by the density of the material. Limited information is available on the charring rate of tropical hardwood species. Therefore experimental investigations have been conducted at the University of Liege to study this characteristic. Seven tropical and three timber species from temperate countries have been examined. Two types of test have been used, one on small specimens, the other on a construction element made of one single material. In the first type, 20 specimens have been manufactured by gluing several laminates together. The specimens were instrumented with four thermocouples inserted at various depths in four different laminates. In the second type, a non-loaded wall made of 12 glued-laminated spruce beam profiles was instrumented with thermocouples embedded at different depths in the panel for the evaluation of the charring rate. Experimental charring rates have been compared with the results derived from Eurocode EC5-1.2 recommendation [ENV 1995-1-2. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-2: General rules - Structural fire design. European prestandard; 1994], Australian standard AS 1720.4 relation [AS 1720.4. Timber structures Part 4: fire resistance of structural timber members. North Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia; 1990] and White's model [Charring rates of different wood species. PhD dissertation. Madison University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1988; White RH, Erik V, Nordheim EV. Charring rate of wood for ASTM El 19 exposure. Fire Technol 1992-28(1)]. This comparison shows that the results obtained from these three models are not entirely satisfactory for tropical hardwood species. Therefore a new model has been proposed. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enregistrement d'un nom de domaine ".eu"
Munoz, Rodolphe ULiege

in Journal des Tribunaux Droit Européen (2005), 120

L’ICANN (Internet Corporation Assigned Numbers and Numbering) a autorisé son directeur général à signer un accord visant à permettre officiellement la création du nom de domaine « .eu » . Cette décision ... [more ▼]

L’ICANN (Internet Corporation Assigned Numbers and Numbering) a autorisé son directeur général à signer un accord visant à permettre officiellement la création du nom de domaine « .eu » . Cette décision est l’aboutissement de plus de cinq ans de travail, de négociations et de réflexions de la part de la Communauté. En effet, il aura fallu mettre en place le système de gestion de ce futur nom de domaine en créant chacun de ses éléments, tout en obtenant l’accord des Etats membres et de l’ICANN. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of large numbers of Langerhans' cells with intraepithelial migration ability in vitro
Hubert, Pascale ULiege; Bousarghin, Latifa; Greimers, Roland ULiege et al

in Experimental Dermatology (2005), 14(6), 469-477

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See detailThe effect of heat stress on freeze-drying and conservation of Lactococcus
Ziadi, M.; Touhami, Y.; Achour, M. et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2005), 24(2), 141-145

The production of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian fermented milk (Lben): Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis (SLT6) was investigated in fed-batch process. The final biomass ... [more ▼]

The production of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian fermented milk (Lben): Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis (SLT6) was investigated in fed-batch process. The final biomass production was 2.2710(11) cfu/ml. The effect of heat stress, after fermentation, on the survival rate after freeze-drying and during storage was studied. The survival rate after freeze-drying of SLT6 subject of a thermal treatment was 38.8% whereas it was only 21.9% for unprocessed SLT6. The accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) method was used to study the effect of heat stress on conservation of Lactococcus. The bacterium was stored at four different temperatures of 4, 15, 25 and 37 degrees C. Lactococcus cell kinetic behaviour suggested a first order reaction, and the effect of storage temperature was quantified by determination of the half-life period and the activation energy. The beneficial effect of heat stress is clearly associated with a half-life period of 86 days for SLT6T and only 48 days four SLT6NT stored at 4 degrees C. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpire : le pouvoir immanent
Brausch, Géraldine ULiege; Italiano, Patrick ULiege; Jacquemain, Marc ULiege et al

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2005)

This paper shows how "Empire" from Negri and Hardt is a good exemplification of the "immanentist" turn in the theory of power and domination : to take the words of the authors, power is not "something ... [more ▼]

This paper shows how "Empire" from Negri and Hardt is a good exemplification of the "immanentist" turn in the theory of power and domination : to take the words of the authors, power is not "something above our heads, but something we make". Recovering one of the claims of Foucaut but probably with a rather different intention, this book is a great advance toward a more plausible theory of domination but is far from helping to find solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailPain control by vagus nerve stimulation: from animal to man ... and back
Multon, Sylvie ULiege; Schoenen, Jean ULiege

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(2), 62-67

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents ... [more ▼]

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents inhibits spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission. However results are partly contradictory, showing that the VNS effects depend on the stimulation parameters. Clinical data have been collected from VNS-implanted epileptic patients in whom pain thresolds were measured and the VNS effect on co-existing headaches was assessed. In addition, in 2 pilot studies of a few patients, VNS was used to treat resistant chronic headaches and migraines. Taken together these clinical studies tend to confirm the analgesic effect of VNS and to suggest its potential utility in chronic headache patients. In order to better define the nature of neuronal and behavioural changes induced by VNS with devices used in humans and to determine the most adequate stimulation stimulation protocols, we have used a commercially available stimulator (NCP-Cyberonics(R)) for prolonged VNS in rats. Our results show a clear antinociceptive effect of VNS in models of acute or inflammatory pain with different stimulation protocols including the one used in epileptic patients. Using immunocytochemical methods, we find that activity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus neurons could underlie at least part of the VNS-induced analgesia. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contexte d'édification du Sart Tilman
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULiege

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2005), (n°54-55), 18-23

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See detailPreoperative hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) immediately followed by surgery. A prospective phase II trial
Coucke, Philippe ULiege; Notter; Stamm et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2005)

Background and purpose We aim to report on local control in a phase II trial on preoperative hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule (HART) in locally advanced resectable rectal cancer ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose We aim to report on local control in a phase II trial on preoperative hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule (HART) in locally advanced resectable rectal cancer (LARC). This fractionation schedule was designed to keep the overall treatment time (OTT) as short as possible. Patients and methods This is a prospective trial on patients with UICC stages II and III rectal cancer. The patients were submitted to a total dose of 41.6 Gy, delivered in 2.5 weeks at 1.6 Gy per fraction twice a day with a 6-h interfraction interval. Surgery was performed within 1 week after the end of irradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in a subset of patients. Results Two hundred and seventy nine patients were entered and 250 are fully assessable, with a median follow-up of 39 months. The 5-years actuarial local control (LC) rate is 91.7%. The overall survival (OS) is 59.6%. The freedom from disease relapse (FDR) is 71.5%. Downstaging was observed in 38% of the tumors. Conclusion The actuarial LC at 5 years is 91.7%, although we are dealing with stages II–III LARC, mainly located in the lower rectum (median distance=5 cm). The pattern of failure is dominated by distant metastases and treatment intensification will obviously require a systemic approach. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen Linking et OpenURL
Mottet, Philippe ULiege

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2005), 59(2), 35-47

Les notions d’Open Linking, d’OpenURL, de sensibilité au contexte ou de copie appropriée sont largement répandues désormais dans le monde de l’information scientifique, même si on ne sait pas toujours ... [more ▼]

Les notions d’Open Linking, d’OpenURL, de sensibilité au contexte ou de copie appropriée sont largement répandues désormais dans le monde de l’information scientifique, même si on ne sait pas toujours précisément ce qui se cache sous cette terminologie un peu mystérieuse. Un système d’Open Linking permet, sur Internet et dans un cadre documentaire, de relier entre elles toutes les informations relatives à un sujet particulier grâce à des adresses URL/URI qui portent le nom d’OpenURL. Ces liens OpenURL sont créés dynamiquement à la suite de re-cherches bibliographiques et permettent de rebondir vers d’autres ressources électroniques proposant des in-formations complémentaires liées à la référence de départ et dont l’accès est autorisé pour l’utilisateur. La norme ANSI/NISO Z39.88 définit la syntaxe des liens OpenURL ainsi que les métadonnées, identifiants et protocoles d’échange de communication qui peuvent y être incorporés. [less ▲]

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See detailAdhesion of repair systems to concrete: influence of interfacial topography and transport phenomena
Courard, Luc ULiege

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2005), 57(5), 273-282

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated ... [more ▼]

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated surface wet. The adhesion strength for the different combinations was measured by direct tensile tests. Multivariate statistical analysis led to the identification of a major effect of surface saturation on the results. Knowledge of the interfacial behaviour was obtained by the discrimination of the effects of partial interaction between slurry and aggregates and slurry and cement mortar respectively. It clearly showed that a third factor has to be taken into account in the explanation of adhesion, namely the interfacial transition zone between cement paste and aggregates, due to its porosity and anchoring effect. This effect was quantified by topographical observation and image analysis. Penetration of cement slurry was also confirmed by observation with binocular and fluorescent microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailAccessibilité et mobilité au Sart-Tilman
Hanocq, Philippe ULiege

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2005), 54-55

The author takes stock of a thorny issue : the accessibility of the University estate and the mobility caused by its activities; Difficulty of access seems to result less from the actual off-centre ... [more ▼]

The author takes stock of a thorny issue : the accessibility of the University estate and the mobility caused by its activities; Difficulty of access seems to result less from the actual off-centre position of the estate than from the spatial dispersion of the commuters, making it difficult to organise an effective public transport service. He looks into the choice of public transport network connection points, the integration of new parking units on the site and the search for measures furthering the use of public transport. These measures include stepping up parking controls, encouraging carpooling or even the development of cycling-pedestrian links. [less ▲]

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See detailLe patrimoine architectural
Micha, Edith ULiege

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2005), 54-55

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See detailHet landschap aan de overkant
Delhalle, Nancy ULiege

in Etcetera (2005), (97),

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See detailDesign of composite sway building frames for global instability
Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Maquoi, René ULiege

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2005), 131(6), 641-653

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called ENV version, the scope is limited to "nonsway buildings" with efficient bracing systems. Therefore, it gives mainly ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called ENV version, the scope is limited to "nonsway buildings" with efficient bracing systems. Therefore, it gives mainly rules to analyze and to check structural elements like beams, columns, slabs, and joints. However, in the last years, the construction of taller buildings and larger industrial halls without wind bracing systems is susceptible to make global instability a relevant failure mode, which is not covered by Eurocode 4. For 3 years, in the framework of a European research project funded by the European Community for Steel and Coal, in which the Univ. of Liege was deeply involved, intensive experimental, numerical, and theoretical investigations have been carried out. The latter aimed at improving the knowledge in the field of sway composite frames and at developing appropriate design rules. The rotational behavior of the beam-to-column composite joints is one of the key aspects of the problem to which special attention has been paid. This paper presents the numerical and analytical studies carried out at Liege Univ., as part of above European project, with the objective to investigate the behavior of sway composite structures under static loading. Particular phenomena put into sight through different analyses are illustrated herein. The actual response of the beam-to-column composite joints may be easily integrated into the described design and analysis procedures; this specific aspect is therefore not addressed in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclodextrin-mediated drug release from liposomes dispersed within a bioadhesive gel
Piel, Géraldine ULiege; Boulmedarat, Laila; Bochot, Amelie et al

in Pharmaceutical Research (2005), 22(6), 962-971

Purpose. The aim of the present study was to design a new mucosal drug delivery system composed of liposomes dispersed within a bioadhesive hydrogel containing methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Me beta CD) for ... [more ▼]

Purpose. The aim of the present study was to design a new mucosal drug delivery system composed of liposomes dispersed within a bioadhesive hydrogel containing methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Me beta CD) for controlled drug release. Methods. A hydrophilic model molecule, inulin, was encapsulated within positively charged and PEGylated liposomes and its release was measured in the presence of Me beta CD after vesicle dispersion within the bioadhesive Carbopol(R) 974P gel. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) was used to follow liposome morphological changes when dispersed within the hydrogel. Liposome- Me beta CD interactions were investigated by turbidity monitoring during continuous addition of Me beta CD to liposomes and by FFEM. Results. Inulin diffusion within the gel was influenced by Carbopol(R) 974P concentration since no gel erosion occurred. When dispersed within the gel, positively charged liposomes displayed a higher stability than PEG-ylated vesicles. In the presence of Me beta CD, higher amounts of free inulin were released from liposomes, especially in Carbopol(R)-free system. Me beta CD appeared to diffuse towards lipid vesicles and permeabilized their bilayer allowing inulin leakage. Indeed, freeze-fracture experiments and liposome turbidity monitoring have shown that Me beta CD behaved as a detergent behavior, resulting in lipid vesicle solubilization. Conclusion. Me beta CD is able to mediate, within a bioadhesive hydrogel, the release of a liposome-encapsulated molecule allowing further application of this delivery system for mucosal administration. [less ▲]

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See detailDélocalisation d’un stage de formation en technologie et en gestion du transport fluvial et fluvio-maritime adapté aux PME et aux entreprises publiques d’Amérique du Sud
Marchal, Jean ULiege

in Echosud (2005), 7

Il s’agit d’assurer un transfert de connaissances, permettant la maîtrise du développement technico-économique du transport fluvial et fluvio-maritime (y compris leur intégration dans des chaînes ... [more ▼]

Il s’agit d’assurer un transfert de connaissances, permettant la maîtrise du développement technico-économique du transport fluvial et fluvio-maritime (y compris leur intégration dans des chaînes intermodales de transport) particulièrement adapté aux conditions locales des PVD. La formation a un caractère pluridisciplinaire important puisqu’elle se compose de trois modules d’un mois, de nature technique, logistique, économique et socio-économique. Un stage dans ce domaine répond à un besoin vital de développement socio-économique des PVD avec le souci prioritaire de préserver l'environnement. La formation a donc l’ambition de donner aux acteurs potentiels publics ou privés, situés à différents niveaux de décision sur le plan exécutif et concernés par le domaine du transport fluvial et fluvio-maritime, une vue globale et transversale des problèmes qu'ils pourraient rencontrer dans leur vie professionnelle afin de prendre les bonnes décisions. L’objectif subordonné est de développer un cycle de formation professionnalisante dans le Sud. Il s’agit, par le développement de ce stage, de renforcer l’institution du Sud et de participer ainsi à son rayonnement régional et à la création ou au renforcement de réseaux. Tous les pays d’Amérique du Sud ont décidé en commun qu’un axe prioritaire de leur politique extérieure respective sera de renforcer leur intégration par le transport, l’énergie et les télécommunications. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate photometric light curves of the lensed components of Q2237+0305 derived with an optimal image subtraction technique: Evidence for microlensing in image A
Moreau, O.; Libbrecht, C.; Lee, D. W. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 436(2), 479-492

Using an optimal image subtraction technique, we have derived the V and R light curves of the four lensed QSO components of Q2237+0305 from the monitoring CCD frames obtained by the GLITP collaboration ... [more ▼]

Using an optimal image subtraction technique, we have derived the V and R light curves of the four lensed QSO components of Q2237+0305 from the monitoring CCD frames obtained by the GLITP collaboration with the 2.6m NOT telescope in 1999/2000 (Alcalde et al. 2002). We give here a detailed account of the data reduction and analysis and of the error estimates. In agreement with Wozniak et al. (2000a,b), the good derived photometric accuracy of the GLITP data allows to discuss the possible interpretation of the light curve of component A as due to a microlensing event taking place in the deflecting galaxy. This interpretation is strengthened by the colour dependence of the early rise of the light curve of component A, as it probably corresponds to a caustics crossing by the QSO source. [less ▲]

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See detailBacillus subtilis M4 decreases plant susceptibility towards fungal pathogens by increasing host resistance associated with differential gene expression
Ongena, MARC ULiege; Duby, Franceline ULiege; Jourdan, E. et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2005), 67(5), 692-698

Results presented in this paper describe the ability of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 to reduce disease incidence caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber and tomato ... [more ▼]

Results presented in this paper describe the ability of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 to reduce disease incidence caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber and tomato, respectively. Disease protection in both pathosystems was most probably due to induction of resistance in the host plant since experiments were designed in order to avoid any direct contact between the biocontrol agent and the pathogen. Pre-inoculation with strain M4 thus sensitised both plants to react more efficiently to subsequent pathogen infection. In cucumber, the use of endospores provided a disease control level similar to that obtained with vegetative cells. In contrast, a mixture of lipopeptides from the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families showed no resistance-inducing potential. Interestingly, treatment with strain M4 was also associated with significant changes in gene transcription in the host plant as revealed by cDNA-AFLP analyses. Several AFLP fragments corresponded to genes not expressed in control plants and specifically induced by the Bacillus treatment. In support to the macroscopic protective effect, this differential accumulation of mRNA also illustrates the plant reaction following perception of strain M4, and constitutes one of the very first examples of defence-associated modifications at the transcriptional level elicited by a non-pathogenic bacterium in a host plant. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic activation of copper(II) salts on the reaction of peroxynitrite with propofol in alkaline medium
Kohnen, Stephan ULiege; Halusiak, Emilie ULiege; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULiege et al

in Nitric Oxide (2005), 12(4), 252-260

We report here on the role of copper (II) salts on the acceleration of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) decomposition and ONOO- reaction with the anaesthetic agent propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) in alkaline medium ... [more ▼]

We report here on the role of copper (II) salts on the acceleration of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) decomposition and ONOO- reaction with the anaesthetic agent propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) in alkaline medium. We observed a strong acceleration of the ONOO- decomposition in alkaline medium in the presence of copper (I and II) salts. After 18 h of ONOO- reaction with propofol, we observed nitrosated, nitrated, and oxidized (quinone and diphenylquinone) derivatives of propofol, but in the presence of Cu(II) (20% molar vs ONOO-), the yields of quinone and nitrosopropofol strongly increased. We also observed that the temperature and the atmosphere influenced the effects of Cu(II) on ONOO- reactions with propofol: low temperatures promoted nitrosation and high temperatures promoted oxidation; O-2 atmosphere increased the general reactivity and the yield of nitrated and oxidized products. We highlighted the influence of Cu(II) salts on the radical character of the reaction by direct EPR technique. The exact mechanism of the Cu(II) catalysis remains unexplained, but we suggest the formation of a copper complex with propofol or, more probably, the oxidation of ONOO- into ONOO• by copper ions promoting the formation of quinone and nitrosopropofol according to a previously reported mechanism [M. Cudic, C. Ducrocq, Transformations of 2,6-diisopropylphenol by NO-derived nitrogen oxides, particularly peroxyrutrite, Nitric Oxide 4 (2000) 147-156]. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImage analysis of X-ray microtomograms of soft materials during convective drying: 3D measurements
Léonard, Angélique ULiege; Blacher, Silvia ULiege; Marchot, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Microscopy-Oxford (2005), 218(Pt 3), 247-252

Drying dewatered sludge leads to a complex three-dimensional porous structure. Moreover, this operation is dependent on the way the material is processed. In this study, textural changes of sludge ... [more ▼]

Drying dewatered sludge leads to a complex three-dimensional porous structure. Moreover, this operation is dependent on the way the material is processed. In this study, textural changes of sludge extrudates submitted to convective drying are followed by a 3D image analysis of reconstructed X-ray microtomograms. To achieve this goal, two different wastewater sludges collected in wastewater treatment plant after the thickening step and dewatered in the laboratory are used. It is showed that the evolution of the 3D-crack ratio vs. the residual water content evolves following a hyperbolic law. The 3D opening crack size distribution reveals two different types of pore development, i.e. a continuous pore size evolution for one sludge and the sudden appearance of cracks for the other sludge. [less ▲]

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See detailReactivity towards singlet oxygen of propofol inside liposomes and neuronal cells
Heyne, Belinda; Brault, Daniel; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects (2005), 1724

Singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species, has been found to be implicated in many cellular events and pathological disorders.Herein, we investigated the reactivity of 1O2 towards the anaesthetic ... [more ▼]

Singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species, has been found to be implicated in many cellular events and pathological disorders.Herein, we investigated the reactivity of 1O2 towards the anaesthetic agent propofol (PPF) encapsulated within DMPC liposomes. By time resolved luminescence, the rate constant of 1O2 quenching by PPF was evaluated, depending on the location of the sensitizer. The nature of the oxidation product, resulting from the reaction of 1O2 with PPF, was determined using absorption and HPLC techniques. Finally, the in vitro protective effect of PPF towards the1O2-induced neuronal cell toxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability. [less ▲]

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See detailA reinforcement learning based discrete supplementary control for power system transient stability enhancement
Glavic, M.; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Wehenkel, Louis ULiege

in Engineering Intelligent Systems for Electrical Engineering and Communications (2005), 13(2 Sp. Iss. SI), 81-88

This paper proposes an application of a Reinforcement Learning (RL) method to the control of a dynamic brake aimed to enhance power system transient stability. The control law of the resistive brake is in ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an application of a Reinforcement Learning (RL) method to the control of a dynamic brake aimed to enhance power system transient stability. The control law of the resistive brake is in the form of switching strategies. In particular, the paper focuses on the application of a model based RL method, known as prioritized sweeping, a method proven to be suitable in applications in which computation is considered to be cheap. The curse of dimensionality problem is resolved by the system state dimensionality reduction based on the One Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) transformation. Results obtained by using a synthetic four-machine power system are given to illustrate the performances of the proposed methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of a high-resolution regional climate simulation over Greenland
Lefebre, Filip; Fettweis, Xavier ULiege; Gallée, Hubert et al

in Climate Dynamics (2005), 25(1), 99-116

A simulation of the 1991 summer has been performed over south Greenland with a coupled atmosphere–snow regional climate model (RCM) forced by the ECMWF re-analysis. The simulation is evaluated with in ... [more ▼]

A simulation of the 1991 summer has been performed over south Greenland with a coupled atmosphere–snow regional climate model (RCM) forced by the ECMWF re-analysis. The simulation is evaluated with in-situ coastal and ice-sheet atmospheric and glaciological observations. Modelled air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed and radiative fluxes are in good agreement with the available observations, although uncertainties in the radiative transfer scheme need further investigation to improve the model’s performance. In the sub-surface snow-ice model, surface albedo is calculated from the simulated snow grain shape and size, snow depth, meltwater accumulation, cloudiness and ice albedo. The use of snow metamorphism processes allows a realistic modelling of the temporal variations in the surface albedo during both melting periods and accumulation events. Concerning the surface albedo, the main finding is that an accurate albedo simulation during the melting season strongly depends on a proper initialization of the surface conditions which mainly result from winter accumulation processes. Furthermore, in a sensitivity experiment with a constant 0.8 albedo over the whole ice sheet, the average amount of melt decreased by more than 60%, which highlights the importance of a correctly simulated surface albedo. The use of this coupled atmosphere–snow RCM offers new perspectives in the study of the Greenland surface mass balance due to the represented feedback between the surface climate and the surface albedo, which is the most sensitive parameter in energy-balance-based ablation calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of a full length psychrophilic cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis revealed by X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering
Violot, S.; Aghajari, N.; Czjzek, M. et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2005), 348(5), 1211-1224

Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis is a psychrophilic Gram-negative bacterium isolated in Antarctica, that lives on organic remains of algae. This bacterium converts the cellulose, highly constitutive of ... [more ▼]

Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis is a psychrophilic Gram-negative bacterium isolated in Antarctica, that lives on organic remains of algae. This bacterium converts the cellulose, highly constitutive of algae, into an immediate nutritive form by biodegrading this biopolymer. To understand the mechanisms of cold adaptation of its enzymatic components, we studied the structural properties of an endoglucanase, Cel5G, by complementary methods, X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering. Using X-ray crystallography, we determined the structure of the catalytic core module of this family 5 endoglucanase, at 1.4 angstrom resolution in its native form and at 1.6 angstrom in the cellobiose-bound form. The catalytic module of Cel5G presents the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel structure typical of clan GH-A of glycoside hydrolase families. The structural comparison of the catalytic core of Cel5G with the mesophilic catalytic core of Cel5A from Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed modifications at the atomic level leading to higher flexibility and thermolability, which might account for the higher activity of Cel5G at low temperatures. Using small angle X-ray scattering we further explored the structure at the entire enzyme level. We analyzed the dimensions, shape, and conformation of Cel5G full length in solution and especially of the linker between the catalytic module and the cellulose-binding module. The results showed that the linker is unstructured, and unusually long and flexible, a peculiarity that distinguishes it from its mesophilic counterpart. Loops formed at the base by disulfide bridges presumably add constraints to stabilize the most extended conformations. These results suggest that the linker plays a major role in cold adaptation of this psychrophilic enzyme, allowing steric optimization of substrate accessibility. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential electrografting and ring opening metathesis polymerization: a strategy for the tailoring of conductive surfaces
Voccia, Samuel; Claes, Michael; Jérôme, Robert ULiege et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2005), 26(10), 779-783

An electrografting technique has been combined with ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Poly(allyl methacrylate) chains have been chemisorbed onto steel and carbon plates under an appropriate ... [more ▼]

An electrografting technique has been combined with ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Poly(allyl methacrylate) chains have been chemisorbed onto steel and carbon plates under an appropriate cathodic potential in N,N-dimethylformamide. The allyl moieties have been converted into Ru catalysts active in ROMP of norbornene and its derivatives. Initiation of ROMP from the surface is an efficient strategy to prepare strongly adhering coatings of tunable thickness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, depending on the norbornene derivative polymerized at the surface. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Avril 2005
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege; De Longueville, Florence ULiege et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2005), 4(1), 1-5

L’hiver météorologique (décembre 2004 à février 2005) peut être caractérisé de normal, tout comme les mois de mars et avril qui lui ont succédé. La situation des cultures d’hiver est également normale ... [more ▼]

L’hiver météorologique (décembre 2004 à février 2005) peut être caractérisé de normal, tout comme les mois de mars et avril qui lui ont succédé. La situation des cultures d’hiver est également normale, avec des rendements qui s’annoncent généralement supérieurs à ceux de 2003 et de 2004 pour le froment d’hiver. Dans le cas de l’orge d’hiver, les estimations de rendements n’atteignent pas les résultats de 2004 mais dépassent largement les rendements observés en 2003. Il est prématuré d’émettre des prévisions pour les cultures printanières. [less ▲]

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See detailSulphur hexafluoride (SF6): comparison of FTIR-measurements at three sites and determination of its trend in the northern hemisphere
Krieg, Juergen; Notholt, Justus; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULiege et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2005), 92(3), 383-392

Fourier transform infrared spectrometry has been used to retrieve the total column abundances of SF6 at three locations in the northern hemisphere, i.e., the Ny- Angstromlesund site in Spitsbergen/Norway ... [more ▼]

Fourier transform infrared spectrometry has been used to retrieve the total column abundances of SF6 at three locations in the northern hemisphere, i.e., the Ny- Angstromlesund site in Spitsbergen/Norway at 79degreesN, the Jungfraujoch observatory in Switzerland at 47degreesN and the Kitt Peak observatory in Arizona, USA, at 32degreesN. The total column results have been converted to average tropospheric mixing ratios. The mean increases in these mixing ratios have been found to be, equal to 0.31 +/- 0.08 pptv yr(-1) at Ny Angstromlesund, 0.24 +/- 0.01 pptv yr(-1) at the Jungfraujoch and 0.28 +/- 0.09 pptv yr(-1) at Kitt Peak for the common period March 1993 to March 2002, in agreement with corresponding CMDL data (0.21 +/- 0.0002 pptv yr(-1)) at the surface. The limited accuracy of the Ny Angstromlesund and Kitt Peak data results from strong tropospheric water vapour interferences at these lower altitude sites. Observations at all three locations show that SF6 is Still accumulating in the atmosphere. Extrapolations of linear and second-order fits to the Jungfraujoch data predict tropospheric mixing ratios of SF6, respectively equal to 16.4 +/- 0.5 and. 14.7 +/- 0.6 in 2050, and 28.2 +/- 0.9 and 22.2 +/- 10.8 pptv in 2100, significantly, lower than those reported in the literature so far. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All, rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane on Pd-Ag catalysts supported on tailored texture carbon xerogels
Job, Nathalie ULiege; Heinrichs, Benoît ULiege; Ferauche, Fabrice et al

in Catalysis Today (2005), 102

Porous carbon xerogels synthesized in a previous study were investigated as catalysts supports. The support chosen was a micro-mesoporous carbon xerogel obtained from the pyrolysis of a resorcinol ... [more ▼]

Porous carbon xerogels synthesized in a previous study were investigated as catalysts supports. The support chosen was a micro-mesoporous carbon xerogel obtained from the pyrolysis of a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin whose synthesis variables were fixed at suitable values. Palladium and silver were deposited on this tailored texture carbon by co-impregnation using a solution of palladium and silver nitrates in nitric acid and water. Several catalysts were prepared with various Pd and Ag global contents, the latters being measured experimentally. Alloy particles, detected in all bimetallic samples, were studied by a combination of various techniques that enabled us to obtain their size as well as their bulk and surface composition. When present, the fraction of unalloyed silver was also calculated. The characterization data were related to the results of catalytic tests obtained for selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene. Results show that when the Ag content is too high, pure Ag particles are formed and the alloy composition remains constant. As a consequence, the surface composition of the alloy is constant as well and the catalytic tests lead to similar results. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild boars in France using PCR techniques against larval form
Boucher, J. M.; Hanosset, R.; Augot, D. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2005), 129(3-4), 259-266

Recently, new data have been collected on the distribution and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in European countries. Different ungulates species such as pig, goat, sheep, cattle and horse are ... [more ▼]

Recently, new data have been collected on the distribution and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in European countries. Different ungulates species such as pig, goat, sheep, cattle and horse are known to host incomplete development of larval E. multilocularis. We report a case of E. multilocularis portage in two wild boars from a high endemic area in France (Department of Jura). Histological examination was performed and the DNA was isolated from hepatic lesions then amplified by using three PCR methods in two distinct institutes. Molecular characterisation of PCR products revealed 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the specific sequence of the U1 sn RNA gene of E. multilocularis, 99 and 99.9% nucleotide sequence homology with the specific sequence of the cytochrome oxydase gene of Echinococcus genus and 99.9% nucleotide sequence homology with a genomic DNA sequence of Echinococcus genus for the first and the second wild boar, respectively. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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