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See detailThe Date of Plutarch's De Tranquillitate Animi
Demulder, Bram ULiege

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailDe linguae latinae usu, Actes du 13e Colloque international de Linguistique latine, Bruxelles et Liège, 4-9 avril 2005
Longrée, Dominique ULiege; Lenoble, Muriel

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailQue sont les matrimoines ? Projet d'exposition
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLe fin fond des choses
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment ... [more ▼]

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment d’avoir perdu leur temps, pas grand chose ! La réalité est que la vie offre à qui le désire une invraisemblable et infinie succession d’opportunités de découvrir, d’apprendre, et de progresser dans sa compréhension de ce qu’il est, et dans celle du monde singulier dans lequel il vit. La clé de toute vérité est dans la recherche systématique du lieu de convergence de ses contraires. C’est par ce que j’ai la certitude de ne pas être que je finis par savoir précisément qui je suis ! Il en va de même pour toutes les choses qui nous entourent. C’est pourquoi je trouve étrange que l’homme choisisse librement d’être le « fils de celui qui n’est pas » (le néant, le chaos) plutôt que le « fils de Celui qui est » (l’Eternel, l’Immanent). En cette période d’hystérie collective et d’éclipse du sens, il est essentiel d’énoncer certaines vérités scientifiques et historiques, précises et indiscutables, qui permettent d’atteindre Le fin fond des choses. « To be, or not to be, that is the question. » (William Shakespeare) [less ▲]

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See detailPour solde de tout compte
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition ... [more ▼]

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition entre les nations atteint, enfin, sa limite. La conquête de l’espace est à portée de main. Notre niveau de civilisation amène à s’interroger sur sa préservation et son transfert. L’homme est cocréateur de la réalité et gardien de la vie. L’apparente fragilité de l’existence traduit sa robustesse. Le hasard et la nécessité ne peuvent, sous quelque condition que ce soit, expliquer une telle vérité, une telle histoire, une telle succession intelligible d’acteurs, de choses, d’événements et de faits. Un principe ne peut être la cause de sa négation ! Finalement, il n’est pas désagréable d’approcher du terme de sa vie en se disant qu’on n’a pas trop triché, pas trop menti, pas trop volé. Vivre, c’est apprendre et partager. On ne possède réellement que ce qu’on donne. Rien ne paraît plus urgent aujourd’hui que d’affirmer ses valeurs par la négation de celles qui leur sont contraires. Les quelques pages qui suivent n’ont d’autre objet. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ? That is the question !
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est ... [more ▼]

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est plus vrai encore qu’un problème précisément défini cesse d’en être un. De surcroît, quand on a éliminé tout ce qui est impossible, ce qui reste, si improbable soit-il, est inévitablement la solution (Arthur Conan Doyle). Ainsi, une crise d’hystérie collective, telle que La Grande Panique de 2020, trouve naturellement son terme lorsque le substrat – concepts, modèles, théories – sur lequel elle repose, s’épuise. Ces objets intellectuels ne sont en fait que des croyances, des « actes de foi », dont il est toujours difficile de se débarrasser. « It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it… » (Upton Sinclair). Le Principe de Réalité nous invite à admettre l'existence d'une réalité supérieure, déstabilisatrice, non conforme à son idéalisation. Ainsi, le XXIème siècle pourrait marquer le début d’une ère nouvelle, centrée sur le retrait éthique et la transcendance. Intelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ? That is the question ! « If you don't understand that, you're in the wrong business. » (Joe Biden) [less ▲]

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See detailWarming-up recurrent neural networks to maximize reachable multi-stability greatly improves learning
Vecoven, Nicolas ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Drion, Guillaume ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on ... [more ▼]

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on benchmarks where long-term memory is required remains an arduous task. In this work, we propose a general way to initialize any recurrent network connectivity through a process called “warmup” to improve its capability to learn arbitrarily long time dependencies. This initialization process is designed to maximize network reachable multi-stability, i.e. the number of attractors within the network that can be reached through relevant input trajectories. Warming-up is performed before training, using stochastic gradient descent on a specifically designed loss. We show that warming-up greatly improves recurrent neural network performance on long-term memory benchmarks for multiple recurrent cell types, but can sometimes impede precision. We therefore introduce a parallel recurrent network structure with partial warm-up that is shown to greatly improve learning on long time-series while maintaining high levels of precision. This approach provides a general framework for improving learning abilities of any recurrent cell type when long-term memory is required. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from Belgium
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Bignandi, Sousso ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics ... [more ▼]

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics, remains much debated. In this paper, we use an exclusive comprehensive database on Belgian firms. We show that the lognormal distribution is a better approximation of the empirical FSD than the power law distribution. This result holds true at the aggregate, sectoral and regional levels. [less ▲]

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See detailM4Depth: A motion-based approach for monocular depth estimation on video sequences
Fonder, Michaël ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of ... [more ▼]

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of estimating depth from on-board mounted cameras is made complex on drones because of the lack of constrains on motion during flights. In this paper, we present a method to estimate the distance of objects seen by an on-board mounted camera by using its RGB video stream and drone motion information. Our method is built upon a pyramidal convolutional neural network architecture and uses time recurrence in pair with geometric constraints imposed by motion to produce pixel-wise depth maps. In our architecture, each level of the pyramid is designed to produce its own depth estimate based on past observations and information provided by the previous level in the pyramid. We introduce a spatial reprojection layer to maintain the spatio-temporal consistency of the data between the levels. We analyse the performance of our approach on Mid-Air, a public drone dataset featuring synthetic drone trajectories recorded in a wide variety of unstructured outdoor environments. Our experiments show that our network outperforms state-of-the-art depth estimation methods and that the use of motion information is the main contributing factor for this improvement. The code of our method is publicly available on GitHub; see https://github.com/michael-fonder/M4Depth [less ▲]

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See detailFlash-back sur l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Supérieur obtenue par des mathématiciens à l'Université de Liège
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de Doctorat Spécial, désignés en abrégé par les acronymes AES et DS respectivement. Dans cet article, nous présentons succinctement ces deux épreuves, esquissons une étude historique générale sur ces diplômes, et plus spécialement sur celui de l’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège. Nous dressons ensuite la liste de diplômés AES ou DS en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège de 1931 à 2004 (ce qui correspond à la période pendant laquelle l’AES existait officiellement en Belgique), puis nous nous attardons plus spécialement sur un cas particulier, à savoir celui de l’auteur de ces lignes: nous retraçons la chronique des trois épreuves, ce qui nous permet de rappeler le règlement alors en application (en 1984-985). Nous terminons ce travail par cinq annexes composées de documents et de photos d'époque. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vérité sur le « Made in Belgium » de l’e-commerce alimentaire
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailInvest Smarter... All my Tweets on the Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most ... [more ▼]

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most of them appear in my Twitter archive. My initial goal was to share my observations, analyses, and conclusions as to the evolution of the world and the behavior of the markets over a period of several years – which happened to correspond with the Presidency of Donald J. Trump. Also, I wanted to organize and illustrate the key heuristics that I learned, often painfully, as a modest investor. Needless to say that I never expected to experience a full-scale pandemic, and its accompanying episode of mass hysteria. A very real, and global, Black Swan! My main conclusion today is that our world hasn’t changed that much over time. It’s almost like it was stuck in a “steady state”, or some kind of “eternal present”. Human beings continue to “lie, cheat and steal”… (US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo). De La Bruyère (1645-1696) was perfectly right in his “Characters”, and the observations of Erasmus (1467-1536) in “Praise of Folly” are more relevant than ever: “Let us not speak of the evil which man does to man: he ruins him, imprisons him, dishonors him, tortures him, sets traps for him, betrays him; to enumerate everything, with outrages, lawsuits, swindles, would be to count the grains of sand.” So, I think that any investor could still succeed and prosper in today’s digital markets while following the advice of Henry Clews (1836-1923) in “Fifty Years in Wall Street”. As to me…, without a doubt, I am no Warren Buffett :-)! Feel free to disagree with what you will read in the following pages, and don’t hesitate to develop your own theory of investing as you allocate capital and observe results – a painful and solitary exercise. Success is at that price! Fortunately, based on what I achieved during these hectic years, it shouldn’t be hard for you to do better... “Bon vent”… in the fog of the markets! [less ▲]

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See detailA Probabilistic Forecast-Driven Strategy for a Risk-Aware Participation in the Capacity Firming Market
Dumas, Jonathan ULiege; Cointe, Colin; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected renewable generation plant coupled with a battery energy storage device in the capacity firming market, designed to promote renewable power ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected renewable generation plant coupled with a battery energy storage device in the capacity firming market, designed to promote renewable power generation facilities in small non- interconnected grids, such as Overseas France islands. A recently developed new deep learning model named normalizing flows is used to generate quantile forecasts of renewable generation. Normalizing flows are an increasingly active and promising area of machine learning research. They provide a general mechanism for defining expressive probability distributions, only requiring the specification of a base distribution and a series of bijective transformations. Then, a probabilistic forecast-driven strategy is designed, modeled as a min-max-min robust optimization problem with recourse, and solved using a Benders decomposition. The convergence is improved by building an initial set of cuts derived from domain knowledge. Robust optimization models the generation randomness using an uncertainty set which includes the worst-case generation scenario, and protects this scenario under the minimal increment of costs. This approach improves the results over a deterministic approach with nominal point forecasts by finding a trade-off between conservative and risk-seeking policies. Finally, a dynamic risk-averse parameters selection strategy based on the quantile forecasts distribution provides an additional gain. The case study uses the photovoltaic generation monitored on site at the University of Liège (ULiège), Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailLa double carrière menée par les étudiants sportifs. Dans quelle mesure les domaines scolaire et sportif sont-ils liés ?
Bonni, Jérémy ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou ... [more ▼]

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou la performance sportive. Les relations pouvant exister entre ces deux domaines sont plus rarement étudiées. Dans cette recherche, nous avons questionné 56 judokas de haut niveau de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (Belgique) ayant été inscrits dans un établissement secondaire avant 2016. Les thèmes abordés portaient principalement sur la mesure de variables motivationnelles (domaines scolaire et sportif) visant à vérifier un modèle proposé. À partir d’analyses statistiques descriptives et corrélationnelles, nous avons pu mettre en évidence l’interrelation étroite entre les deux domaines et, plus particulièrement, identifier des variables corrélées positivement aux performances réalisées dans chacun d’eux. [less ▲]

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See detailDistance de collaboration
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en ... [more ▼]

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en quelque sorte le degré de collaboration entre des mathématiciens-chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailTémoignages d'universitaires liégeois en liaison avec la guerre de la mathématique moderne
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième siècle, et la "Guerre de la Mathématique Moderne" au vingtième siècle. Ces deux épisodes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses études historiques. Dans ce travail, nous allons nous intéresser exclusivement à la "guerre de la mathématique moderne" qui s'est déroulée dans les années 1960 et 1970 à propos d'une réforme radicale préconisant d'introduire les concepts d'ensembles et de structures mathématiques dans le secondaire (et même dans le primaire et en maternelle). Cette étude est focalisée sur l'action de mathématiciens de l'Université de Liège autour de cette réforme, ce qui est apparemment l'objet de peu de travaux historiques. Et pourtant, cette querelle fut ``ardente''. Nous en apportons des témoignages datant de l'époque concernée. [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of consciousness in anesthesia
Montupil, Javier ULiege; Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailOptimization tool for the strategic outline and sizing of district heating networks using a geographic information system
Resimont, Thibaut ULiege; Louveaux, Quentin ULiege; Dewallef, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The implementation of district heating networks into cities is a main topic in European Union policy plannings looking for sustainable solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and improve global energy ... [more ▼]

The implementation of district heating networks into cities is a main topic in European Union policy plannings looking for sustainable solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and improve global energy efficiency of heating systems. Compared to decentralized heating production units, district heating networks provide higher energy efficiencies due to larger units’ sizes. However, their development into cities is generally limited by high initial investment costs and a long return on investment period. Therefore, policymakers and investors are reserved about new district heating networks projects because of the risks associated with the profitability of the project. The development of optimization methods intended to draft efficient systems using heating consumption profiles into a prescribed geographic area are useful in this purpose. A Multi-Period Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal outline and design of a district heating network based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) is described in this paper. The optimal outline aims to determine the location of the heating sources and the pipes into the network while the optimal design aims to size the pipes and the heating sources. This model can be used as a decision tool based on the maximization of the net cash flow (NCF) generated by the system from user-defined economic and physical parameters. This methodology aims to be applicable for a large range of problem sizes from small-scale to large-scale case studies while guarantying numerical robustness. The features of this model are thus implemented with the aim to solve a large-scale case study including nearly 2,000 streets to connect to a potential heating network. As a first step, the model is applied to a scaled down case study based on the initial one with 3 available heating sources and a neighbourhood of 16 streets with various heating demands to illustrate the main features of the optimization model. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogen maser magnetron cavity with low frequency-temperature coefficient
Van Der Beken, Emeline ULiege; Léonard, Daniel; Bastin, Thierry ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this Letter we show how a proper dimensioning of a magnetron cavity and its inner bulb allows one to design a hydrogen maser atomic clock with an arbitrary low frequency-temperature coefficient (FTC ... [more ▼]

In this Letter we show how a proper dimensioning of a magnetron cavity and its inner bulb allows one to design a hydrogen maser atomic clock with an arbitrary low frequency-temperature coefficient (FTC) for its cavity. The control of this parameter is of primary importance for the overall stability of the atomic clock. To this aim, a model based on finite element method (FEM) has been developed to simulate thermal expansion of hydrogen maser cavities and evaluate the FTC. The model has been confronted with direct experimental data and very good agreement is observed. A key geometrical parameter is identified that allows for a strong tuning of the FTC, so as to set it down to values a priori as close as desired to 0, with limitations only dictated by the machining tolerances of the mechanical elements of the hydrogen maser cavity. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing the Impact of Offshore Wind Siting Strategies on the Design of the European Power System
Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Berger, Mathias ULiege; Dubois, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper provides a detailed account of the impact of different offshore wind siting strategies on the design of the European power system. To this end, a two-stage method is proposed. In the first ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a detailed account of the impact of different offshore wind siting strategies on the design of the European power system. To this end, a two-stage method is proposed. In the first stage, a highly-granular siting problem identifies a suitable set of sites where offshore wind plants could be deployed according to a pre-specified criterion. Two siting schemes are analysed and compared within a realistic case study. These schemes essentially select a pre-specified number of sites so as to maximise their aggregate power output and their spatiotemporal complementarity, respectively. In addition, two variants of these siting schemes are provided, wherein the number of sites to be selected is specified on a country-by-country basis rather than Europe-wide. In the second stage, the subset of previously identified sites is passed to a capacity expansion planning framework that sizes the power generation, transmission and storage assets that should be deployed and operated in order to satisfy pre-specified electricity demand levels at minimum cost. Results show that the complementarity-based siting criterion leads to system designs which are up to 5% cheaper than the ones relying the power output-based criterion when offshore wind plants are deployed with no consideration for country-based deployment targets. On the contrary, the power output-based scheme leads to system designs which are consistently 2% cheaper than the ones leveraging the complementarity-based siting strategy when such constraints are enforced. The robustness of the results is supported by a sensitivity analysis on offshore wind capital expenditure and inter-annual weather variability, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the drain discharge
Schmitz, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailGraph-Based Optimization Modeling Language: A Tutorial
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Bolland, Adrien ULiege; Miftari, Bardhyl ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured mixed-integer linear programs typically found in ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured mixed-integer linear programs typically found in applications ranging from energy system planning to supply chain management. More precisely, the language is particularly well-suited for representing problems involving the optimization of discrete-time dynamical systems over a finite time horizon and possessing a block decomposable structure that can be encoded by a sparse connected hypergraph. The language combines elements of both algebraic and object-oriented modeling languages in order to facilitate problem encoding and post-processing. This document discusses the abstract problem class that can be represented using the modeling language, details its grammar and provides two relevant examples of applications. The first example deals with the deployment of a microgrid system, while the second example focuses on the design and analysis of remote carbon-neutral fuel supply chains. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality performance gaps, minimal electricity losses, and economic development in East Africa
Nsabimana, René ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Walheer, Barnabé ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Le papier mesure les performances en termes de minimisation des pertes d'électricité. En utilisant un modèle DEA window analysis, le papier utilise les données de six pays sur une période de 10 ans, de ... [more ▼]

Le papier mesure les performances en termes de minimisation des pertes d'électricité. En utilisant un modèle DEA window analysis, le papier utilise les données de six pays sur une période de 10 ans, de 2008 à 2017. L'analyse statistique montre que les pertes d'électricité dans les pays considérés varient entre 20 et 30%. Cela réduit de façon considérable les performances des compagnies d'électricité. La modélisation utilisée montre que l'écart en termes de minimisation des pertes est relativement favorable pour deux pays, l'Ouganda et le Kenya. Il est défavorable pour le Burundi, la Tanzanie, l'Ethiopie et le Rwanda. Tous les pays ont intérêt à continuer à mettre en oeuvre des mesures visant la réduction des pertes d'électricité [less ▲]

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See detailCRÉER DES SAÉ - Guide de soutien à la création de situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (SAÉ) en contexte d’APC1,2
Georges, François ULiege; Poumay, Marianne ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la ... [more ▼]

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la tâche authentique, ce qu’elle est et son intérêt. La seconde (en p. 6) est destinée à l’équipe enseignante désireuse d’entrer directement en action.Elle l’accompagne pas à pas dans la conception d’une SAÉ. La troisième (en p. 14) est une grille destinée à évaluer la qualité d’une SAÉ. L’outil s’adresse auxenseignants chevronnés qui souhaitent s’assurer que leur SAÉ rencontre les critères d’une tâche authentique susceptible de soutenir le développement de compétences. [less ▲]

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See detailUn modèle relatif à la TSUS (Transition Secondaire-Université en Statistique)
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets ... [more ▼]

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets (ou pôles) sont relatifs aux savoirs en jeu (c'est-à-dire au savoir savant, au savoir à enseigner, au savoir enseigné et au savoir appris), tandis que les arcs traduisent l'influence directe d'un pôle sur un autre. Les degrés des divers sommets peuvent fournir intuitivement un indicateur relatif à l'importance des différents pôles dans le processus d'enseignement. [less ▲]

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See detailLes citoyens et leur patrimoine local en Wallonie
Pepe, Lauriano ULiege; Schmitz, Serge ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur patrimoine. Ce document interroge le rôle actuel du patrimoine local et sa place dans les préoccupations citoyennes en présentant les résultats d'une enquête menée auprès de 1088 Wallons. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustry 4.0: An empirical analysis of its adoption in Wallonia
Paseyro Mayol, Joaquin ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Neysen, Nicolas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular technologies (Predictive Maintenance, Smart Production and Advanced Planning) in the Belgian region of Wallonia. In line with the claims of related qualitative studies, our findings suggest that smaller firms, which have a more restricted access to financial resources, are less prone to adopt these technologies. Our results are compatible with the notion that more digitally mature firms are more prone to be adopters. Moreover, we do not find evidence supporting the claim that more profitable firms are more likely to be adopters. Finally, we present indicative evidence regarding the efficacy of the regional governmental program which aimed to increase the diffusion of Industry 4.0. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional status of inmates in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo
De Coninck, Gérard; Okenge Ngongo, Leon; Ilunga Ilunga, Félicien et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional ... [more ▼]

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of inmates jailed in a prison of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-month period in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, DRC. Three hundred inmates were selected according to the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Severe malnutrition was defined according to Buzby index and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The inmates were aged between 18 and 70 years and primarily males (88.7%). Of them, 24% were suffering from severe malnutrition and 62% of moderate malnutrition as based on the NRI. At the time of study, 88% of inmates were incarcerated for more than 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with severe malnutrition were incarceration of more than 6 months (OR=5.1; 95% CI [1.5-17.4]), origin of food (prison vs. family or NGO) (OR=4.7; 95% CI [1.6-13.8]) but also presence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus and/or intestinal infections (OR=2.6; 95% CI [1.4-4.7]). Conclusions: The nutritional situation in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi is precarious. There is urgent need to supply enough nutrient-rich food to improve health of inmates. [less ▲]

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See detailThe norito-granitic zone of Puntervoll-Lia (Rogaland anorthosite province, S. Norway): evolution of a genetic model
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The norito-granitic zone is a thin septum of highly deformed banded rocks squeezed between two anorthosite massifs, the Egersund-Ogna (EGOG) and the Håland massifs. The dominant lithologies are a norito ... [more ▼]

The norito-granitic zone is a thin septum of highly deformed banded rocks squeezed between two anorthosite massifs, the Egersund-Ogna (EGOG) and the Håland massifs. The dominant lithologies are a norito-anorthosite association gradationally passing into a norito-granitic association. A first genetic model was proposed in which a norite intruded in the foliated margin of the EGOG anorthosite was migmatitized and metasomatically transformed into an anorthosite. This model was not confirmed by later studies and finally the norito-anorthosite association was considered as a particular facies of the anorthosite margin. New studies of the Glypstad septum between EGOG and the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion reveal that the norito-granitic association results from the deformation of a magma in which anatectic melts were mingled with a high-alumina basalt, parental to the EGOG anorthosite. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of model formulation on the critical morphological acceleration factor: an analytical study
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been used for over two decades to speed-up long term morphodynamic simulations. However, the Morfac values are usually set heuristically and hardly any ... [more ▼]

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been used for over two decades to speed-up long term morphodynamic simulations. However, the Morfac values are usually set heuristically and hardly any study investigated theoretically the critical Morfac value leading to a predefined level of accuracy. In this research, we evaluated theoretically the critical Morfac value from the analysis of the amplitude and phase errors induced by the use of Morfac. While the few existing studies focused only on relatively low Froude numbers and a single mathematical formulation of the morphodynamic model, we consider here a significantly wider range of Froude numbers, including supercritical flow, and we compare four different model formulations. We show that the model formulation leading to the highest critical Morfac values for subcritical flow is not the same as for supercritical flow. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalogies entre deux querelles relatives à l'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Depuis la création du royaume de Belgique, l’enseignement de base des mathématiques a connu dans ce pays deux importantes querelles : la guerre entre infinicoles et infinifuges au début du 19e siècle et ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création du royaume de Belgique, l’enseignement de base des mathématiques a connu dans ce pays deux importantes querelles : la guerre entre infinicoles et infinifuges au début du 19e siècle et la guerre des mathématiques modernes durant la seconde moitié du 20e siècle. Ces deux épisodes historiques présentent des analogies qui vont être analysées dans cet article. Sont en présence deux clans avec des visions différentes sur la nécessité ou non de renouveler le savoir à enseigner, de modifier l’approche didactique, d’accorder de l’importance à l’aspect utilitaire de la discipline. Au surplus, dans les deux cas, le camp des conservateurs et des adeptes d’un enseignement simple et axé sur les applications était emmené avec ardeur par un liégeois, professeur à l’Université de Liège ; on pourrait y voir une manifestation de l’« esprit liégeois ». [less ▲]

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See detailRéactivation de l’idée d’une « Taxe GAFA » dans le contexte (post-)CORONA
Nollet, Aymeric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailEre « après COVID-19 » : les publicités promeuvent des voitures toujours plus polluantes.
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailBank risk-taking and Competition: Does efficiency matter? Evidence from African Banking Industry
Matabaro, Borauzima Luc ULiege; Muller, Aline ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We contribute to the existing literature on the nexus between competition and risk taking in the banking industry by emphasizing the role of efficiency. We test a modified Martinez-Miera and Repullo (2010 ... [more ▼]

We contribute to the existing literature on the nexus between competition and risk taking in the banking industry by emphasizing the role of efficiency. We test a modified Martinez-Miera and Repullo (2010)’s model which uses a single factor Vasiceck specification to analyze default’s probability for a set of loans. Our results confirm that efficiency plays a non-monotonic role in the competition-risk relationship. On top of confirming the U-shape relationship between competition and risk-taking, our reveal that banks with high and low efficiency take more risk than those with average efficiency ones. We also find that size, diversification index, macroeconomic, institutional play a key role in competition-risking-taking process in African banking industry. Besides, African Cross-border banks display less riskiness and may accordingly enhance financial stability. These results are stable across different robustness checks including alternative measures of competition and specifications and consequently serve for regulatory policies especially for providing very stringent regulatory frameworks to mitigate the implications of competition in terms of financial stability. [less ▲]

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See detailRédiger le référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie - Guide d'accompagnement à la rédaction du référentiel de compétences du B.U.T. en contexte d'APC
Georges, François ULiege; Poumay, Marianne ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Ce guide vise à donner des éléments méthodologiques pour la conception et l’écriture du référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie et des parcours le structurant. En Approche Par ... [more ▼]

Ce guide vise à donner des éléments méthodologiques pour la conception et l’écriture du référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie et des parcours le structurant. En Approche Par Compétence (APC), le référentiel de compétences constitue la colonne vertébrale de la formation. Il aide à prendre les décisions tant de structuration du programme que de mise en œuvre de celui-ci. Il permet aussi une communication transparente avec les étudiants et les partenaires socio-professionnels quant aux visées et attendus du programme. Pour aboutir à un référentiel de compétences qui oriente le programme de formation et guide sa mise en oeuvre, le guide appelle à préciser cinq éléments pour chacune des compétences, qui constituent cinq étapes de rédaction du référentiel (compétences, composantes essentielles, familles de situations, niveaux et approrentissages critiques). Il illustre chacune des étapes par quelques exemples de formulation issus de référentiels existants. [less ▲]

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See detailDes infinicoles liégeois
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

L’histoire de l’analyse mathématique est à la fois longue et riche, puisque cette théorie n’a cessé de se développer depuis l’Antiquité en empruntant essentiellement deux voies différentes selon que le ... [more ▼]

L’histoire de l’analyse mathématique est à la fois longue et riche, puisque cette théorie n’a cessé de se développer depuis l’Antiquité en empruntant essentiellement deux voies différentes selon que le concept d’infiniment petit est utilisé ou au contraire proscrit. Les mathématiciens qui exploitent des infiniment petits sont appelés « infinicoles » ; cet adjectif est formé du mot « infini » suivi du suffixe « cole » venant du verbe latin « colere » dont une traduction en français peut être « cultiver ». Ceux qui rejettent les infinitésimaux sont nommés des « infinifuges », car le suffixe « fuge » provient du substantif latin « fuga » signifiant « fuite », de sorte que les infinifuges évitent ou fuient les infiniment. Notre travail est consacré à certains infinicoles qui ne rejettent pas une conception actuelle de l’infini. Plus précisément, nous nous intéressons aux infinicoles qui ont fait appel, dans certains de leurs écrits, à des infiniment petits au sens des pionniers de l’analyse classique, c’est-à-dire aux infinicoles qui n’utilisent pas la théorie weierstrassienne des limites, mais qui recourent plutôt à ce que l’on appelle aujourd’hui l’analyse non standard. Parmi ceux-ci, nous retenons uniquement des liégeois, c’est-à-dire des mathématiciens qui ont habité dans la province de Liège pendant au moins une partie de leur carrière professionnelle. Ils ont tous travaillé, à un moment de leur carrière, à l’Université de Liège (sauf le plus ancien d’entre eux parce que l’Université n’existait pas encore de son temps). Ainsi, neuf mathématiciens sont succinctement présentés. Une liste exhaustive de leur production dans ce domaine figure dans une bibliographie détaillée. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sagesse des marchés
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Soyons précis ! Ne pas croire dans le SARS-CoV-2 – comme seul facteur explicatif de la réalité à laquelle nous sommes confrontés –, n’implique pas d’en nier l’existence ; de ne pas respecter la douleur de ... [more ▼]

Soyons précis ! Ne pas croire dans le SARS-CoV-2 – comme seul facteur explicatif de la réalité à laquelle nous sommes confrontés –, n’implique pas d’en nier l’existence ; de ne pas respecter la douleur de celles et ceux qu’il touche ; de manquer de respect pour le courage et la générosité exemplaires des personnels impliqués ; ou d’en contester les inévitables et sévères conséquences sur le fonctionnement de la société. Tout au contraire, cette posture intellectuelle entraîne la nécessité d’en analyser, scrupuleusement et scientifiquement, toutes les dimensions et implications. La diversité, la complexité et la réflexivité de ces dernières invitent à la patience et à la plus grande circonspection. C’est à ce niveau que les marchés financiers offrent une plateforme technologique et un laboratoire expérimental exceptionnels d’observation, d’analyse et de prévision. Leur sagesse actuelle est un appel à la raison, au comportement responsable, à la vigilance civique, et au retour progressif, mais résolu, à la vie sociale ! [less ▲]

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See detailVers ma réussite en Bac 1 : Positionnement, pistes d'évaluation et de régulation d'un dispositif propédeutique transversal en blended learning
Dupont, Bruno ULiege; Cocinas Garcia, Amélie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Ce travail en cours détaille le passage d'un dispositif du présentiel au blended learning d'un dispositif propédeutique de soutien à la réussite en Bac 1 à la Haute École de la Ville de Liège. Sont ... [more ▼]

Ce travail en cours détaille le passage d'un dispositif du présentiel au blended learning d'un dispositif propédeutique de soutien à la réussite en Bac 1 à la Haute École de la Ville de Liège. Sont détaillées le développement du projet, son état actuel, ainsi que ses perspectives de régulation et d'évaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailOral Chloroquine treatment for COVID-19 infection. Available data from literature & field practices on April 20, 2020 (ver 1.8)
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Publications addressing the treatment of COVID-19 by Hydroxychloroquine available on April 20, 2020. gathered sinc March 13, 2020. This compilation does not constitute a recommendation to use the HCQ in ... [more ▼]

Publications addressing the treatment of COVID-19 by Hydroxychloroquine available on April 20, 2020. gathered sinc March 13, 2020. This compilation does not constitute a recommendation to use the HCQ in the treatment of Covid-19 [less ▲]

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See detailModèles mathématiques et confinement
Rigo, Michel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

En cette période de confinement dû à la crise sanitaire provoquée par le SARS-CoV-2 mieux connu comme Coronavirus, le virus responsable du COVID-19, je voulais comprendre les modèles utilisés par les ... [more ▼]

En cette période de confinement dû à la crise sanitaire provoquée par le SARS-CoV-2 mieux connu comme Coronavirus, le virus responsable du COVID-19, je voulais comprendre les modèles utilisés par les virologues et épidémiologistes du monde entier. Par la même occasion, je m'en vais vous expliquer ces courbes que l'on trouve à longueur de journée dans les média et que l'on souhaite "aplatir". Habitué à la vulgarisation mathématique, je ne suis pourtant pas un spécialiste des mathématiques appliquées et de la modélisation. Il ne nécessite a priori que très peu de connaissances mathématiques : un peu de bon sens et la manipulation des proportions. Il devrait être accessible dès la 4e année de l'enseignement secondaire. [less ▲]

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See detailA Real-Time Receding-Horizon Transmission Voltages Control using Sensitivity Matrix and Bias
Glavic, Mevludin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this paper, a simplified multi-step recedinghorizon controller is introduced to control the violations in transmission voltages and stop developing long-term voltage instabilities. The system model is ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a simplified multi-step recedinghorizon controller is introduced to control the violations in transmission voltages and stop developing long-term voltage instabilities. The system model is derived from the context of quadratic dynamic matrix control and is represented as a set of linear constraints derived from sensitivity analysis and bias terms acting as modelling error corrector. Resulting multi-step optimization is highly structured convex quadratic programming problem for which reliable standard codes are available. The goal of proposed controller is to achieve high performances with simplified system model relying on reliable optimization solver. The Nordic32 test system is used for evaluating the performance of proposed controller and its comparison with existing closely related approaches focusing on minimization of expensive controls (load shedding). [less ▲]

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See detailSalon de l’auto 2020 : des voitures « toujours plus durables et plus propres ». Vraiment ?
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailMentors’ Motives and Mentoring Functions Associated with Mentoring of Social and Commercial New Ventures
Yusubova, Ayna ULiege; Xhauflair, Virginie ULiege; Pichault, François ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Although mentoring services have been advanced as an important mechanism of incubator and accelerator programs for overcoming the resource constraints of commercial and social new ventures, it has ... [more ▼]

Although mentoring services have been advanced as an important mechanism of incubator and accelerator programs for overcoming the resource constraints of commercial and social new ventures, it has traditionally focused on the entrepreneur's perspective and neglected the mentor's perspective, particularly the examination of mentors' motivations and behavior. The present study employed a qualitative research strategy for examining mentoring from the perspective of the mentor. A total of 18 mentors from accelerator and incubator programs located in Belgium participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experience as a mentor. Given the distinctive and similar dimensions of social and commercial new ventures, this study reveals a more comprehensive view of various mentor motives related to the provision of functions, identifying similarities and distinctions between both types of new ventures mentoring motivations and functional differences of these types of motivation. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailProfiling novel high-conductivity 2D semiconductors
Sohier, Thibault ULiege; Gibertini, Marco; Marzari, Nicola

E-print/Working paper (2020)

When complex mechanisms are involved, pinpointing high-performance materials within large databases is a major challenge in materials discovery. We focus here on phonon-limited conductivities, and study ... [more ▼]

When complex mechanisms are involved, pinpointing high-performance materials within large databases is a major challenge in materials discovery. We focus here on phonon-limited conductivities, and study 2D semiconductors doped by field effects. Using state-of-the-art density-functional perturbation theory and Boltzmann transport equation, we discuss 11 monolayers with outstanding transport properties. These materials are selected from a computational database of exfoliable materials providing monolayers that are dynamically stable and that do not have more than 6 atoms per unit cell. We first analyze electron-phonon scattering in two well-known systems: electron-doped InSe and hole-doped phosphorene. Both are single-valley systems with weak electron-phonon interactions, but they represent two distinct pathways to fast transport: a steep and deep isotropic valley for the former and strongly anisotropic electron-phonon physics for the latter. We identify similar features in the database and compute the conductivities of the relevant monolayers. This process yields several high-conductivity materials, some of them only very recently emerging in the literature (GaSe, Bi$_2$SeTe$_2$, Bi$_2$Se$_3$, Sb$_2$SeTe$_2$), others never discussed in this context (AlLiTe$_2$, BiClTe, ClGaTe, AuI). Comparing these 11 monolayers in detail, we discuss how the strength and angular dependency of the electron-phonon scattering drives key differences in the transport performance of materials despite similar valley structure. We also discuss the high conductivity of hole-doped WSe$_2$, and how this case study shows the limitations of a selection process that would be based on band properties alone. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining optimization and simulation for microgrid sizing
Dakir, Selmane ULiege; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The sizing of a microgrid is a crucial process to ensure safe, efficient and economical operations. It must consider a variety of technologies and the whole life of the project. Hence degradation and ... [more ▼]

The sizing of a microgrid is a crucial process to ensure safe, efficient and economical operations. It must consider a variety of technologies and the whole life of the project. Hence degradation and reinvestment must be accounted for. However, the control algorithm also influences the sizing result, especially if the microgrid is grid-tied, which offers several revenue streams and presents additional constraints such as time-varying connection limits. All this leads to a sizing problem that is large and non-convex. This paper presents a flexible approach to approximate the solution of this problem. The latter is decomposed in three nested sub-problems: the control and simulation of a microgrid for a given configuration and initial state; the evaluation of a configuration and control policy on a sample of representative days; the optimization of the configuration. Case studies highlight the importance of accounting for the control policy and device evolution along their lifetime. [less ▲]

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See detailYAAI: Yet another age inequality
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailPrivate Equity and Employee Welfare
Lambert, Marie ULiege; Moreno Miranda, Nicolas ULiege; Phalippou, Ludovic

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The analysis of one million written reviews and ve million quantitative ratings shows that employees dislike ownership changes, and more so when their company goes under private equity ownership. With ... [more ▼]

The analysis of one million written reviews and ve million quantitative ratings shows that employees dislike ownership changes, and more so when their company goes under private equity ownership. With private equity, there are less complaints about ine ciencies and more complaints about management attitude towards other employees, which exacerbates a pre-existing welfare gap with management. While some generalist sponsors are associated with rating improvements, several sponsors specializing in Tech-Buyouts have negative ratings across their companies; showing heterogeneity of management practices across sponsors. [less ▲]

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See detailCompletion/Drop out and Time to Degree in the PhD track: A Conceptual Literature Review
Aerts, Stéphanie ULiege; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULiege; Klenkenberg, Sophie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding the attrition among PhD candidates and modelling the mean or median time to degree according to certain factors have been at the center of the research interest in higher education for a ... [more ▼]

Understanding the attrition among PhD candidates and modelling the mean or median time to degree according to certain factors have been at the center of the research interest in higher education for a long time. This paper presents a conceptual literature review divided into two parts. First, the multitude of factors used to explain the doctoral outcome is presented and results concerning their impact are summarized. We also propose explanations for potentially controversial findings and advice on the proper use of these factors. Then, an overview of the most common statistical techniques employed is displayed. The authors argue that some techniques are more adapted than others to deal with such data and the issues of interest and they give recommendations about the most appropriate techniques. They also highlight some of the key points that are essential to consider in order to conduct an adequate statistical analysis when dealing with PhD data. An overall conclusion is that there is much variability in the factors and their definitions, the same comment holding for the techniques. This explains why studies end up with different (sometimes controversial) results. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscending the transcendental: Towards a constructive critical sociology
Frère, Bruno ULiege; Jaster, Dan

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This article calls for a rethinking of critical sociology. The popular Bourdieusian paradigm effectively highlighted how domination persists, but its negative foundation removes the voices of actors by ... [more ▼]

This article calls for a rethinking of critical sociology. The popular Bourdieusian paradigm effectively highlighted how domination persists, but its negative foundation removes the voices of actors by privileging sociological knowledge as capable of identifying transcendental categories of thought. Latourian critical theory arose in opposition to this privileging, but underplayed the roles of domination and power dynamics, and thus critique. We propose a perspective that evades the transcendental perspective which relies on pure negation but allows critique; a more positive critical sociology. This alternative perspective is founded on processualist, phenomenological, pragmatic, and utopian perspectives, which levels the distinction between social scientists and social actors. Focusing on process, not privileged knowledge of transcendental truths, emphasizes actors’ own critical capacities: critical scholars do not dominate, but help actors build better worlds based on their own perspectives and pasts. Thus, critical sociology does not negate actors, reducing them to unconscious reifiers, but recognizes that people utilize their pasts to challenge power structures and create better futures based on their imaginations.   [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifier des Activités Génératrices de Revenus
Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailAgency costs of dry powder
Lambert, Marie ULiege; Scivoletto, Alexandre ULiege; Tykvova, Tereza

E-print/Working paper (2020)

About $2tn has been raised but have not yet been invested in private equity funds. This amount of non-invested capital or “dry powder” has raised numerous concerns regarding potential pressure to invest ... [more ▼]

About $2tn has been raised but have not yet been invested in private equity funds. This amount of non-invested capital or “dry powder” has raised numerous concerns regarding potential pressure to invest in low-quality companies for these funds with adverse consequence on fund performance. We model the total fee revenue (management fee and carried interest) collected by a private equity sponsor as a function of committed capital, net invested capital as well as the risk and return of the fund investments. We show that higher deal expected returns and higher management fees as associated with a stronger pressure on dry powder. On the other hand, an increase in the carried interest or the existence of a valuable option to delay investment to benefit from better opportunities reduce this pressure. We run an empirical analysis using 12,779 leveraged buyout deals from the US over the period 1980 – 2019 that supports our predictions from the theoretical model. Moreover, dry powder pressure is associated with investment distortions. It leads to inflated deal prices, lower returns and lower leverage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Seasons of the True Size Anomaly
Fays, Boris ULiege; Hübner, Georges ULiege; Lambert, Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailReappraisal of the Concept of New Brutalism in Contemporary Architecture
Van Rooyen, Xavier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In the 1960s, the New Brualism movement witnessed two opposing conceptions that can give rise to "Smithsons’ Brutalism and Banham’s Brutalism" The first one had the ambition to propose an "art of ... [more ▼]

In the 1960s, the New Brualism movement witnessed two opposing conceptions that can give rise to "Smithsons’ Brutalism and Banham’s Brutalism" The first one had the ambition to propose an "art of inhabitation" . This art of inhabitation also involves the use of "as found" materials. For the Smithsons, "as found was a new seeing of the ordinary, an openness as to how prosaic "things" could re-energise our inventive activity” . For the Smithsons, "Until now, brutalism has only been the subject of stylistic discussion, whereas its essence is ethical." In 1966, Reyner Banham published the first historiography associated with the New Brutalism movement. In this book, entitled The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic? . Banham attempts to list and illustrate a series of projects that he considers representative of a "brutalist style". The English critic focuses instead on the aesthetic stakes of New Brutalism. Nevertheless, both visions put forward the use of as found materials. In the field of contemporary architecture, we can perceive the aesthetic/ethical duality in the theories of the reuse of "as found" materials. Our article aims to characterize the two approaches of New Brutalism and to understand how these conceptions are reappraised in the field of contemporary architecture. More precisely, we will investigate the question of the reuse of materials through case studies, which, in a period of "climatic urgency", decreed by the European Parliament in particular, re-actualizes the ethical ambition of New Brutalism. [less ▲]

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See detailSiting Renewable Power Generation Assets with Combinatorial Optimization
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Dubois, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper studies the problem of siting renewable power generation assets using large amounts of climatological data while accounting for their spatiotemporal complementarity. The problem is cast as a ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the problem of siting renewable power generation assets using large amounts of climatological data while accounting for their spatiotemporal complementarity. The problem is cast as a combinatorial optimisation problem selecting a pre-specified number of sites so as to minimise the number of simultaneous low electricity production events that they experience. Model properties are closely analysed and a formal connection with submodular optimisation and coverage problems is established. Both deterministic and randomised algorithms are discussed, including greedy, local search and relaxation-based heuristics as well as combinations of these algorithms. Although these algorithms were designed with the renewable asset siting application in mind, they can be readily applied to a broad class of coverage problems. The usefulness of the model and methods is illustrated by a realistic case study inspired by the problem of siting onshore wind power plants in Europe, resulting in large-scale instances featuring over ten thousand candidate locations and ten years of hourly-sampled meteorological data. The proposed solution methods are benchmarked in order to evaluate their performance and several of them are found to consistently outperform a state-of-the-art mixed-integer programming solver at a fraction of the computational cost. The physical nature of solutions provided by the model is also analysed. Finally, the predictive performance of the model is assessed and it is shown to successfully identify deployment patterns that perform well on unseen climatological data from historical data. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the origin of jotunite
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailEmissions de CO2 liées à la navigation aérienne à Liège Airport
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailPaper Formats of the Mamluk Period: The Contribution of Mamluk Chancery Paper
Bauden, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailColumn generation algorithms for the wafer-to-wafer integration problem
Dokka, Trivikram; Crama, Yves ULiege; Duvillié, Guillerme et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We consider the wafer-to-wafer integration problem that arises in the manufacturing of integrated circuits. We propose an exact, state-of-the-art branch-and-price optimization algorithm for this problem ... [more ▼]

We consider the wafer-to-wafer integration problem that arises in the manufacturing of integrated circuits. We propose an exact, state-of-the-art branch-and-price optimization algorithm for this problem, and we derive a price-and-branch heuristic from this algorithm. We have implemented these two algorithms, as well as a simple sequential heuristic algorithms, and we have conducted extensive experiments to test their performance. The results allow us to establish the range of the size of the instances that can be solved to optimality by our branch-and-price algorithm. We also identify ranges of the different instance parameters for which the two heuristics perform relatively well. [less ▲]

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See detailPaper documents from Iṣṭabl ʿAntar: Assessment of the findings and data analysis
Bauden, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailPilgrimage Certificates from the Mamluk Period: New Data
Bauden, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailReconstruction of low-voltage networks with limited observability
Marulli, Daniele ULiege; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege; Sutera, Antonio ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This work addresses the problem of reconstructing an electrical model for low voltage networks when no information about topology and line parameters is available. Obtaining an accurate electrical model ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the problem of reconstructing an electrical model for low voltage networks when no information about topology and line parameters is available. Obtaining an accurate electrical model for such networks is essential to establish efficient and ad hoc management strategies. The identification process is carried out analysing voltage and current time-series measurements provided by meters installed at various locations, assuming that only a subset of the nodes can be metered. The proposed method involves an iterative algorithm that provides an estimation of the topology and branch impedances while detecting the location of unmetered nodes, one node per iteration. Simulations performed on a test network shows that the algorithm produces accurate estimation of topology and line impedances when unmetered nodes are located reasonably far from each other. [less ▲]

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See detailTroeltsch et les religions : le luthérianisme, le calvinisme et le catholicisme
Kuty, Olgierd ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailLes professions et la Révolution organisationnelle (du XVIème au XVIIIème siècle)
Kuty, Olgierd ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailLe concept de « Manières » dans l’œuvre de Montesquieu
Kuty, Olgierd ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailMontesquieu et sa théorie de la structure sociale
Kuty, Olgierd ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailData-driven Parameterized Policies for Microgrid Control
Boukas, Ioannis ULiege; El Mekki, Sélim ULiege; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

If we account for data uncertainty, centralized microgrid control can be decomposed in four tasks: estimating the parameters of the microgrid devices, forecasting the consumption and the renewable ... [more ▼]

If we account for data uncertainty, centralized microgrid control can be decomposed in four tasks: estimating the parameters of the microgrid devices, forecasting the consumption and the renewable production, operational planning to anticipate weather effects and human activities, and real-time control to adapt planned decision to the reality of the moment. As the devices of a microgrid deteriorate over their lifetime and microgrids are by definition small systems, it is of paramount importance to automate the meta-parameterization of these stages to maximize the microgrid efficiency and decrease its maintenance costs. This paper studies how reinforcement learning can be used to address this problem. As reinforcement learning makes use of microgrid operation data (or of simulated data before the microgrid is actually operated) to learn an operation policy, it inherently merges the four stages above, and can in theory adapt to some types of changes without having to perform manual tuning. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes training boost the job finding rate of the unemployed ? Timing-of-events based evidence from Belgium
Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULiege; Tarantchenko, Ekaterina

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the training programs offered to the unemployed in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. More precisely, we are interested in the two following questions ... [more ▼]

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the training programs offered to the unemployed in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. More precisely, we are interested in the two following questions : (a) does training increase the job finding rate of the unemployed after the completion of their training ? (b) if so, is this increase big enough to compensate the so-called lock-in effect of their training ? To answer these questions, we rely on the Abbring and van den Berg (2003) timing-of-events approach and a very large administrative dataset. We find that training has an overall strong and persistent effect on the job finding rate of the unemployed after the completion of their training, but that this effect is heterogeneous, varying according to the characteristics of training and trainees. Further, we find that this effect on the job finding rate is globally large enough to compensate the lock-in effect of the training, but again with significant heterogeneity. [less ▲]

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See detailInterest rate differentials and the dynamic asymmetry of exchange rates
Hambuckers, Julien ULiege; Ulm, Maren

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In this paper, we revisit the predictive content of interest rates for daily exchange rate returns, taking into account dependencies of higher orders. In particular, we allow for time-varying asymmetries ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we revisit the predictive content of interest rates for daily exchange rate returns, taking into account dependencies of higher orders. In particular, we allow for time-varying asymmetries in the distribution of exchange rates. Then, we study the USD/EUR currency pair over the period 1999-2019. We find a dynamic asymmetry component to be significant and driven by interest rate differentials, but also by general uncertainty and past unexpected shocks. In line with recent currency crash theories, our study suggests that the high yield currency is more likely to appreciate, but is exposed to a higher likelihood of currency crashes. To assess the economic significance of our results, we introduce a directional forecasting approach derived from our model. We show that a trading rule based on these forecasts provides better in-sample and out-of-sample economic performance compared to benchmark models. [less ▲]

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See detailLa longue et fascinante épopée de la vaccination
Geenen, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Vaccination is still today the greatest victory of medicine against most of infectious diseases, and this triumph was acquired only after a long history that started hundred of years ago. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

Vaccination is still today the greatest victory of medicine against most of infectious diseases, and this triumph was acquired only after a long history that started hundred of years ago. Nevertheless, irrational anti-vaccination movements emerged worldwide during recent years and are now one of the ten major threats against public healthcare according to a recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO). More than ever, it is essential to inform with honesty and integrity our citizens about the safety and efficiency of current available vaccines. [less ▲]

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See detailData requirements for computational modelling at the network level
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailAuthentic ecology as an advanced stage of technological civilization
de Salle, Corentin; Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailTemplates for the k-binomial complexity of the Tribonacci word
Lejeune, Marie ULiege; Rigo, Michel ULiege; Rosenfeld, Matthieu ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Consider the k-binomial equivalence: two finite words are equivalent if they share the same subwords of length at most k with the same multiplicities. With this relation, the k-binomial complexity of an ... [more ▼]

Consider the k-binomial equivalence: two finite words are equivalent if they share the same subwords of length at most k with the same multiplicities. With this relation, the k-binomial complexity of an infinite word x maps the integer n to the number of pairwise non-equivalent factors of length n occurring in x. In this paper based on the notion of template introduced by Currie et al., we show that, for all k > 1, the k-binomial complexity of the Tribonacci word coincides with its usual factor complexity p(n)=2n+1. A similar result was already known for Sturmian words but the proof relies on completely different techniques that seemingly could not be applied for Tribonacci. [less ▲]

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See detailVoiture électrique : 697.612 km pour devenir verte ! Vrai ou faux ?
Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailElectric car: 697,612 km to become green! True or false?
Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailDebating the Measure: Steve Reich’s Sociological Imagination.
Orianne, Jean-François ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This article intends to identify the contributions of Steve Reich's music to sociology. His music presents three main characteristics: it is made out of empirical material collected on the field; it is a ... [more ▼]

This article intends to identify the contributions of Steve Reich's music to sociology. His music presents three main characteristics: it is made out of empirical material collected on the field; it is a theory of processes; it is a political and cultural act. Steve Reich's music affects sociology on these three points: it reminds the social scientist of the nature of his craft and his commitment to the social world, questions his methods and practices; it even sheds light on some of his familiar concepts (in particular that of ‘process’). The author proposes to extract from Steve Reich’s compositional work some elements that could prove useful for sociology as a profession. [less ▲]

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See detailLevallois et Gravettien
Otte, Marcel ULiege; Noiret, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein ... [more ▼]

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein du Gravettien touchent autant les processus de symbolisation dans l’art et les sépultures. Elles affectent différents substrats eurasiatiques, plutôt septentrionaux, comme mis en réserve dès les Néandertaliens. [less ▲]

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See detailRecourse in Kidney Exchange Programs
Bartier, Valentin; Smeulders, Bart ULiege; Crama, Yves ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The problem to decide which patient-donor pairs in a kidney exchange program should undergo a cross-match test is modelled as a two-stage stochastic optimization problem. We give an integer programming ... [more ▼]

The problem to decide which patient-donor pairs in a kidney exchange program should undergo a cross-match test is modelled as a two-stage stochastic optimization problem. We give an integer programming formulation of this so-called selection problem, and describe a solution method based on Benders decomposition. We extensively test various solution methods, and observe that the solutions, when compared to solutions found by recourse models, lead to an improvement in the expected number of transplants. We also investigate the computational efficiency of our approach as a function of different parameters, such as maximum cycle length and the presence of altruists. [less ▲]

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See detailGuide d'utilisation de Zotero: Fonctionnalités de base de l'outil de gestion bibliographique
Dony, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailOperational risk, uncertainty, and the economy: a smooth transition extreme value approach
Hambuckers, Julien ULiege; Kneib, Thomas

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We study the link between the distribution of extreme operational losses and the economic context, a fundamental task to compute adequate risk measures over time. In particular, we allow for time-varying ... [more ▼]

We study the link between the distribution of extreme operational losses and the economic context, a fundamental task to compute adequate risk measures over time. In particular, we allow for time-varying dependencies due to structural changes, thanks to a newly-introduced smooth transition Generalized Pareto (GP) regression model. In this model, the parameters of the GP distribution are related to explanatory variables through regression functions, which depend themselves on a predictor of structural changes. Relying on this model, we study the dependence of the monthly loss severity distribution at UniCredit, over the period 2005-2014. As indicator of structural changes, we use the VIX, accounting for the general uncertainty on financial markets. We show that both the goodness-of- fit far in the tail and Value-at-Risk estimates of the total loss distribution obtained from such models are superior to a set of alternatives. We also show that in periods of high uncertainty, conditions favorable to a lax monetary policy are synonym of an increased likelihood of extreme losses. Finally, we discover evidence of a self-inhibition mechanism, where a high number of losses in a recent past are indicative of less extreme losses in the future, probably due to improved monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an extended indexical externalism. Looking for empirical data
De Brabanter, Philippe; Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailSemantic externalism(s) and semantic deference
De Brabanter, Philippe; Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We sketch several variants of so-called “semantic externalism”, which we take to be prototypically embodied by Wittgenstein, Kripke and Burge respectively. Then, drawing inspiration from Putnam, we show ... [more ▼]

We sketch several variants of so-called “semantic externalism”, which we take to be prototypically embodied by Wittgenstein, Kripke and Burge respectively. Then, drawing inspiration from Putnam, we show how aspects of these different kinds of semantic externalism can be articulated with each other in the case of natural kind terms, and we suggest that this analysis could be extended to a larger set of words. When that is done, we turn to the core part of the paper, which consists in a thorough discussion of the forms of “semantic deference” that can plausibly be associated with each brand of externalism. We suggest that the debates over the kinds of semantic externalism characteristic of different kinds of words can be clarified by investigating the kind of semantic deference they call for. [less ▲]

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See detailThe golden mountain, the man and the great big elvish warrior. Kripkean and Meinongian readings of definite descriptions in fiction
Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The neat distinction between objects and concepts which prevails in standard extensional logic seems to be challenged by inexistent objects. Yet modal logics and Meinongian logics offer two very different ... [more ▼]

The neat distinction between objects and concepts which prevails in standard extensional logic seems to be challenged by inexistent objects. Yet modal logics and Meinongian logics offer two very different non-extensional ways of dealing with such objects. While the former somehow stick to the object-concept distinction, the latter overcome it in such a way that objects come to get most of the main features which standardly characterise concepts. Now, just like non-fictional discourse requires distinguishing between a de re and a de dicto reading of some linguistic expressions, (naïve reading of) fiction requires distinguishing between a de altero mundo and a de dicto reading of expressions. And this pleads for the preservation of the object-concept distinction even for fiction. This is why modal logics provide a better tool for a general theory of reference that accounts both for fictional and non-fictional discourse even if Meinongian logics give a good account of the logic of intension [less ▲]

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See detailResource Complementarity as Criterion for Siting Renewable Energy Generation Assets
Radu, David-Constantin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailGeneration of Parallel Corpus for Low Resource Language Translation
Trieu, Long Hai; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detail“Mapping and Testing Social Enterprise Models Across the World: Evidence from the “International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) Project”,
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe; Brolis, Olivier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The relevance of an international typology of SE models, as proposed by Defourny and Nyssens (2017) is tested through an Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of a database covering 740 social enterprises in 43 ... [more ▼]

The relevance of an international typology of SE models, as proposed by Defourny and Nyssens (2017) is tested through an Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of a database covering 740 social enterprises in 43 countries from all world regions. Three of the four proposed SE models find a strong empirical support: the "Entrepreneurial Nonprofit", the "Social Cooperative" and the "Social Business" models [less ▲]

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See detailHenry Clews: Twenty-Eight Years in Wall Street
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Word of caution: I am happy to share my summary of one of the best books ever written on how financial markets function and professional investors/speculators behave. Some of the observations and ... [more ▼]

Word of caution: I am happy to share my summary of one of the best books ever written on how financial markets function and professional investors/speculators behave. Some of the observations and inferences made by Henry Clews, more than one hundred years ago, may sometimes appear a bit crude, if not biased – specially to those of us who live on this side of the Atlantic! – but they don’t overshadow his honest desire to observe, understand and share financial markets history as it unfolds. I think that most of his comments and advices are perfectly relevant today in our digitalized investment environment. That’s why, under the influence of some of my past students, I finally decided to share my “personal” summary of this exceptional piece of work. If it leads you to read the 724 pages of the original, I will have done useful work. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet JOS. Compte-rendu de l'enquête menée dans les jardins partagés luxembourgeois
Gérard, Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Les commentateurs concernés par la question des jardins s’accordent aujourd’hui sur un point : après une éclipse qui trouve son point de départ dans les bouleversements que provoque la révolution ... [more ▼]

Les commentateurs concernés par la question des jardins s’accordent aujourd’hui sur un point : après une éclipse qui trouve son point de départ dans les bouleversements que provoque la révolution industrielle, et qui s’aggravent avec l’entreprise de « modernisation » de l’après-guerre (la période dite des « Trente Glorieuses »), un « retour au jardin » s’est amorcé au début des années 1980. Depuis lors, pas un jour sans que la restauration d’un « jardin historique » ne soit programmée, sans qu’un nouveau manuel de jardinage ne soit publié, sans qu’une « fête des plantes » ne soit organisée. On s’en doute : les « jardins partagés », ces jardins « communautaires » qui ont vu le jour dans les villes du vieux continent à la fin des années 1990, participent de ce renouveau. Mais que se joue-t-il à travers ce retour au jardin ? Et en quoi cela concerne-t-il les jardins partagés ? Ce travail, qui rend compte d’une enquête menée au mois de juin 2018 dans les jardins partagés luxembourgeois engagés dans le projet JOS, se confrontera à ces deux questions. [less ▲]

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See detailNotes on security of electricity supply, some practical problems in MV/LV networks and legal aspects of building global grid
Glavic, Mevludin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This documents presents a note on security of electricity supply and several short notes on some technical problems in MV/LV networks and legal aspects related to building global grid. The only aim of the ... [more ▼]

This documents presents a note on security of electricity supply and several short notes on some technical problems in MV/LV networks and legal aspects related to building global grid. The only aim of the document is to provide potentially useful material for those interested in the problems (particularly those at initial stage of their research). Considered problems include: 1. Security of electricity supply, 2. Approaches for optimal placement of DGs and EV’s charging stations, 3. Approaches for corrective measures (load flexibility and generation curtailment) in LV networks, 4. Approaches to infer LV network model from smart meter data, 5. Approaches for phases balancing in LV networks, 6. Approaches for voltage and thermal overload control in active distribution networks, and 7. Legal aspects related to building Global Grid. [less ▲]

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See detailTerminologia multilingue in medicina di famiglia Versione 2.5 italiana
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege; Demurtas, Jacopo; Pesolillo, Gabriella et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailDoes Coriolis force influence the flow in shallow reservoirs?
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)