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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Date of Plutarch's De Tranquillitate Animi
Demulder, Bram ULiege

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailDe linguae latinae usu, Actes du 13e Colloque international de Linguistique latine, Bruxelles et Liège, 4-9 avril 2005
Longrée, Dominique ULiege; Lenoble, Muriel

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailQue sont les matrimoines ? Projet d'exposition
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (4 ULiège)
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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Poesia come ossigeno.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Scritti su Leopardi
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailFlash-back sur l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Supérieur en mathématiques à l'Université de Liège
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de Doctorat Spécial, désignés en abrégé par les acronymes AES et DS respectivement. Dans cet article, nous présentons succinctement ces deux épreuves, esquissons une étude historique générale sur ces diplômes, et plus spécialement sur celui de l’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège. Nous dressons ensuite la liste de tous les diplômés AES ou DS en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège de 1931 à 2004 (ce qui correspond à la période pendant laquelle l’AES existait officiellement en Belgique), puis nous nous attardons plus spécialement sur un cas particulier, à savoir celui de l’auteur de ces lignes: nous retraçons la chronique des trois épreuves, ce qui nous permet de rappeler le règlement alors en application (en 1984-985). Nous terminons ce travail par cinq annexes composées de documents et de photos d'époque. [less ▲]

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See detailL'érable sycomore: une espèce d'érables toxique
Genoux, Nelly; Votion, Dominique ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles ... [more ▼]

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles respiratoires, posturaux et le myocarde, à l’issue souvent mortelle : la myopathie atypique. L’intoxication est saisonnière, avec deux principales périodes à risque au pâturage : la levée des plantules au printemps et la chute des fruits (samares) à l’automne. Comment limiter les risques sans systématiquement abattre les érables ? [less ▲]

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See detailCamera Calibration and Player Localization in SoccerNet-v2 and Investigation of their Representations for Action Spotting
Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Magera, Floriane ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by ... [more ▼]

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by effective deep learning techniques developed in the field of computer vision. In this work, we focus on the topic of camera calibration and on its current limitations for the scientific community. More precisely, we tackle the absence of a large-scale calibration dataset and of a public calibration network trained on such a dataset. Specifically, we distill a powerful commercial calibration tool in a recent neural network architecture on the large-scale SoccerNet dataset, composed of untrimmed broadcast videos of 500 soccer games. We further release our distilled network, and leverage it to provide 3 ways of representing the calibration results along with player localization. Finally, we exploit those representations within the current best architecture for the action spotting task of SoccerNet-v2, and achieve new state-of-the-art performances. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vérité sur le « Made in Belgium » de l’e-commerce alimentaire
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDe la Commune de Paris à l’Europe de la Communauté : bribes pour un imaginaire
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la ... [more ▼]

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la Catalogne d'aujourd'hui, Luciano Curreri trace un chemin qui révèle toute l'actualité des concepts mis en avant par la Commune à l'occasion de son 150e anniversaire. [less ▲]

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See detailInvest Smarter... All my Tweets on the Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most ... [more ▼]

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most of them appear in my Twitter archive. My initial goal was to share my observations, analyses, and conclusions as to the evolution of the world and the behavior of the markets over a period of several years – which happened to correspond with the Presidency of Donald J. Trump. Also, I wanted to organize and illustrate the key heuristics that I learned, often painfully, as a modest investor. Needless to say that I never expected to experience a full-scale pandemic, and its accompanying episode of mass hysteria. A very real, and global, Black Swan! My main conclusion today is that our world hasn’t changed that much over time. It’s almost like it was stuck in a “steady state”, or some kind of “eternal present”. Human beings continue to “lie, cheat and steal”… (US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo). De La Bruyère (1645-1696) was perfectly right in his “Characters”, and the observations of Erasmus (1467-1536) in “Praise of Folly” are more relevant than ever: “Let us not speak of the evil which man does to man: he ruins him, imprisons him, dishonors him, tortures him, sets traps for him, betrays him; to enumerate everything, with outrages, lawsuits, swindles, would be to count the grains of sand.” So, I think that any investor could still succeed and prosper in today’s digital markets while following the advice of Henry Clews (1836-1923) in “Fifty Years in Wall Street”. As to me…, without a doubt, I am no Warren Buffett :-)! Feel free to disagree with what you will read in the following pages, and don’t hesitate to develop your own theory of investing as you allocate capital and observe results – a painful and solitary exercise. Success is at that price! Fortunately, based on what I achieved during these hectic years, it shouldn’t be hard for you to do better... “Bon vent”… in the fog of the markets! [less ▲]

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See detailGYM-ANM: Reinforcement learning environments for active network management tasks in electricity distribution systems
Henry, Robin; Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Active network management (ANM) of electricity distribution networks include many complex stochastic sequential optimization problems. These problems need to be solved for integrating renewable energies ... [more ▼]

Active network management (ANM) of electricity distribution networks include many complex stochastic sequential optimization problems. These problems need to be solved for integrating renewable energies and distributed storage into future electrical grids. In this work, we introduce Gym-ANM, a framework for designing reinforcement learning (RL) environments that model ANM tasks in electricity distribution networks. These environments provide new playgrounds for RL research in the management of electricity networks that do not require an extensive knowledge of the underlying dynamics of such systems. Along with this work, we are releasing an implementation of an introductory toy-environment, ANM6-Easy, designed to emphasize common challenges in ANM. We also show that state-of-the-art RL algorithms can already achieve good performance on ANM6-Easy when compared against a model predictive control (MPC) approach. Finally, we provide guidelines to create new Gym-ANM environments differing in terms of (a) the distribution network topology and parameters, (b) the observation space, (c) the modelling of the stochastic processes present in the system, and (d) a set of hyperparameters influencing the reward signal. Gym-ANM can be downloaded at https://github.com/robinhenry/gym-anm. [less ▲]

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See detailHanan v. Germany: applying the ECHR to United Nations international military operation without affecting States’ willingness and ability to engage in such operations?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new ... [more ▼]

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new insights to its already complex case law regarding the extraterritorial applicability of the European Convention on Human Rights (the ‘Convention’). In the case Hanan v. Germany (application no. 4871/16), the Strasbourg-based Court confirmed the application of the Convention to German prosecution authorities in the context of an extraterritorial military operation within the framework of a mandate given by a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. This is therefore a particularly sensitive case, dealing both with the limits of the scope of the Convention and the effect it may have on military and geopolitical issues. [less ▲]

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See detailChunking by social relationship in working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task [less ▲]

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See detailDistance de collaboration
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en ... [more ▼]

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en quelque sorte le degré de collaboration entre des mathématiciens-chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Global Parameters for Flow-based Neural Posterior Estimation
Rodrigues, Pedro; Moreau, Thomas; Louppe, Gilles ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e ... [more ▼]

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e., when distinct sets of parameters yield identical observations. This arises in many practical situations, such as when inferring the distance and power of a radio source (is the source close and weak or far and strong?) or when estimating the amplifier gain and underlying brain activity of an electrophysiological experiment. In this work, we present a method for cracking such indeterminacy by exploiting additional information conveyed by an auxiliary set of observations sharing global parameters. Our method extends recent developments in simulation-based inference(SBI) based on normalizing flows to Bayesian hierarchical models. We validate quantitatively our proposal on a motivating example amenable to analytical solutions, and then apply it to invert a well known non-linear model from computational neuroscience. [less ▲]

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See detailJournalism students in internship and deontology in French-speaking Belgium
Krywicki, Boris ULiege; Tixier, Florian; Fierens, Marie et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailRemote renewable hubs for carbon-neutral synthetic fuel production
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Detienne, Ghislain et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper studies the economics of carbon-neutral synthetic fuel production from renewable electricity in remote areas where high-quality renewable resources are abundant. To this end, a graph-based ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the economics of carbon-neutral synthetic fuel production from renewable electricity in remote areas where high-quality renewable resources are abundant. To this end, a graph-based optimisation modelling framework directly applicable to the strategic planning of remote renewable energy supply chains is proposed. More precisely, a graph abstraction of planning problems is introduced, wherein nodes can be viewed as optimisation subproblems with their own parameters, variables, constraints and local objective, and typically represent a subsystem such as a technology, a plant or a process. Edges, on the other hand, express the connectivity between subsystems. The framework is leveraged to study the economics of carbon-neutral synthetic methane production from solar and wind energy in North Africa and its delivery to Northwestern European markets. The full supply chain is modelled in an integrated fashion, which makes it possible to accurately capture the interaction between various technologies on hourly time scales. Results suggest that the cost of synthetic methane production and delivery would be slightly under 200€/MWh and 150€/MWh by 2030 for a system supplying 100 TWh (higher heating value) annually that relies on solar photovoltaic plants alone and a combination of solar photovoltaic and wind power plants, respectively, assuming a uniform weighted average cost of capital of 7%. The cost difference between these system configurations mostly stems from higher investments in technologies providing flexibility required to balance the system in the solar-driven configuration. Synthetic methane costs would drop to roughly 124€/MWh and 87€/MWh, respectively, if financing costs were zero and only technology costs were taken into account. Prospects for cost reductions are also discussed, and options that would enable such reductions are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic sequences: from rational bases to trees
Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic ... [more ▼]

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic sequences built on a numeration system with a regular numeration language, we consider these built on languages associated with trees having periodic labeled signatures and, in particular, rational base numeration systems. We obtain two main characterizations of these sequences. The first one is concerned with r-block substitutions where r morphisms are applied periodically. In particular, we provide examples of such sequences that are not morphic. The second characterization involves the factors, or subtrees of finite height, of the tree associated with the numeration system and decorated by the terms of the sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical behavior of alternate base expansions
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Dajani, Karma

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a ... [more ▼]

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a particular case of Cantor bases. As in the real base case, these new transformations, denoted Tβ and Lβ respectively, can be iterated in order to generate the digits of the greedy and lazy β-expansions of real numbers. The aim of this paper is to describe the dynamical behaviors of Tβ and Lβ. We first prove the existence of a unique absolutely continuous (with respect to an extended Lebesgue measure, called the p-Lebesgue measure) Tβ-invariant measure. We then show that this unique measure is in fact equivalent to the p-Lebesgue measure and that the corresponding dynamical system is ergodic and has entropy 1/p log(βp−1 · · · β0). We then express the density of this p measure and compute the frequencies of letters in the greedy β-expansions. We obtain the dynamical properties of Lβ by showing that the lazy dynamical system is isomorphic to the greedy one. We also provide an isomorphism with a suitable extension of the β- shift. Finally, we show that the β-expansions can be seen as (βp−1 · · · β0 )-representations over general digit sets and we compare both frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailFoucault auditeur: les études de philosophie et de psychologie à Paris, 1946-1953.
Dassonneville, Gautier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken ... [more ▼]

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken during the years of study in Paris where Foucault obtained his degrees in philosophy and psychology, at the end of a double course of study carried out between 1946 and 1953, at the ENS and the Sorbonne. Placed side by side, these documents reveal the portrait of a Foucault who, between the ages of twenty and twenty-seven, trained with some of the new masters of the University at the Liberation, took part in the age-old and prestigious game of the Agrégation in philosophy and enrolled among the very first students of the new psychology course at the University of Paris. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version) [less ▲]

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See detailTémoignages d'universitaires liégeois en liaison avec la guerre de la mathématique moderne
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième siècle, et la "Guerre de la Mathématique Moderne" au vingtième siècle. Ces deux épisodes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses études historiques. Dans ce travail, nous allons nous intéresser exclusivement à la "guerre de la mathématique moderne" qui s'est déroulée dans les années 1960 et 1970 à propos d'une réforme radicale préconisant d'introduire les concepts d'ensembles et de structures mathématiques dans le secondaire (et même dans le primaire et en maternelle). Cette étude est focalisée sur l'action de mathématiciens de l'Université de Liège autour de cette réforme, ce qui est apparemment l'objet de peu de travaux historiques. Et pourtant, cette querelle fut ``ardente''. Nous en apportons des témoignages datant de l'époque concernée. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment using chalybs, according to Johannes Hartmann and Eberhard Gockel: A remedy against diseases of the liver and the spleen in 17th century Germany
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has ... [more ▼]

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has written, ‘the road to the laboratory of chemical medicine in Marburg began in Kassel, at the court of the university’s protector, the Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572-1632)’. Having studied at Wittenberg, Hartmann was appointed as a mathematician in Kassel and was chosen to fill the chair of mathematics when the incumbent died. He received a medical degree in 1606 and ‘began a brief correspondence with the French Paracelsian, Joseph Duchesne (Quercetanus) (c. 1544-1609), who had visited Kassel in 1604’. Moritz had become captivated by the study of occult philosophy, especially in relation to alchemy, and was well on his way to amassing an extensive collection of alchemical, Cabbalistic, and Paracelsian manuscripts, and to fashioning a court circle of alchemical and medical adepts. Thus, ‘in 1608, he enthusiastically received a suggestion from Hartmann for founding a collegium chymicum at Marburg’ and he ‘chose to invest Hartmann with a new university role and a new title – Professor publicus chymiatriae’. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitique commerciale extérieure : quel rôle pour les assemblées parlementaires ? Le cas des États-Unis et de l’Union Européenne
Bricart, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les États-Unis ont à ce titre joué un rôle de premier plan dans ces initiatives et dans leurs proliférations. Face à l’impact grandissant de la globalisation sur le quotidien des citoyens, les assemblées législatives tendent à s’impliquer progressivement dans ces processus diplomatiques et à gagner en importance et en visibilité dans leur fonction vis-à-vis de ces accords. Si bien qu’aujourd’hui, toute personne s’intéressant de près ou de loin à l’étude des accords commerciaux ne peut plus ignorer le rôle qu’y jouent les parlements des États impliqués dans ces processus. Les négociations du Partenariat Transatlantique de Commerce et d’Investissement (TTIP), de l’Accord Économique et Commercial Global (CETA) et de l’Accord de Partenariat Transpacifique (TPP) représentent ainsi de bons indicateurs du rôle, des atouts et des limites que les interventions d’un parlement dans un processus de négociation peuvent rencontrer en fonction du contexte politique ou institutionnel et de l’appui de l’opinion publique. Le Parlement européen et le Congrès américain constituent respectivement des assemblées législatives relativement puissantes, représentant un nombre de citoyens conséquent et ayant d’importantes prérogatives constitutionnelles ou institutionnelles en matière commerciale, mais évoluant dans des cadres significativement différents. Via leurs outils institutionnels et à travers des pressions formelles et informelles de la part de ces deux pouvoirs législatifs, les exécutifs se retrouvent souvent contraints de prendre en compte certaines revendications des parlementaires faisant voix aux revendications d’une partie de la société civile. À défaut, le risque de voir une négociation échouer faute de ratification de l’accord par le pouvoir législatif est important. Néanmoins, l’influence du pouvoir législatif n’est pas la même pour chaque négociation et le contexte de celle-ci va dès lors jouer un rôle important pour en déterminer l’amplitude et la visibilité d’une assemblée dans ces différents processus. [less ▲]

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See detailGraph-Based Optimization Modeling Language: A Tutorial
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Bolland, Adrien ULiege; Miftari, Bardhyl et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured linear programs typically found in applications ranging ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured linear programs typically found in applications ranging from energy system planning to supply chain management. More precisely, the language is particularly well-suited for representing problems involving the optimization of discrete-time dynamical systems over a finite time horizon and possessing a block decomposable structure that can be encoded by a sparse connected graph. The language combines elements from both algebraic and object-oriented modeling languages in order to facilitate problem encoding and post-processing. This document discusses the abstract problem class that can be represented using the modeling language, details its grammar and provides two relevant examples of applications. The first example deals with the deployment of a microgrid system, while the second example focuses on the design and analysis of remote carbon-neutral fuel supply chains. [less ▲]

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See detailshamo: A tool for electromagnetic modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of the head
Grignard, Martin ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Phillips, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and ... [more ▼]

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and, even though the geometry of the tissues can be extracted from magnetic resonance images (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), their physical properties such as the electrical conductivity are hard to measure with non intrusive techniques. In this paper, we propose a tool to assess the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as compute a parametric electroencephalography (EEG) forward solution and current distribution for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of consciousness in anesthesia
Montupil, Javier ULiege; Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLes trois « C » du succès pour une exposition d’art et d’histoire. L’expérience liégeoise
George, Philippe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Les expositions d'art et d'histoire à Liège

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See detailLa rivière ‘Khauraha’, médiatrice entre non-humains et villageois (Népal)
Vouiller, Nolwen ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l ... [more ▼]

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l'importance de la rivière dans les interactions entre humains et non-humains. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tessères onomastiques de Deir el-Médina : recherche en cours dans les collections de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire
Pietri, Renaud ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Short presentation of a work in progress on the 'name stones' from Deir el-Medina now kept in the IFAO's archives.

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See detailSe rétablir des excès de table selon Oribase, médecin grec de l’empereur Julien (milieu du IVe siècle)
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Recommandations thérapeutiques du médecin grec Oribase de Pergame pour se rétablir des excès de table et de boisson.

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See detailCRÉER DES SAÉ - Guide de soutien à la création de situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (SAÉ) en contexte d’APC1,2
Georges, François ULiege; Poumay, Marianne ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la ... [more ▼]

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la tâche authentique, ce qu’elle est et son intérêt. La seconde (en p. 6) est destinée à l’équipe enseignante désireuse d’entrer directement en action.Elle l’accompagne pas à pas dans la conception d’une SAÉ. La troisième (en p. 14) est une grille destinée à évaluer la qualité d’une SAÉ. L’outil s’adresse auxenseignants chevronnés qui souhaitent s’assurer que leur SAÉ rencontre les critères d’une tâche authentique susceptible de soutenir le développement de compétences. [less ▲]

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See detailScientists for Future empfiehlt eine repräsentative Klima-Bürger:innenversammlung im Jahr 2021 (Version 1.0)
Hagedorn, Gregor; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailUn modèle relatif à la TSUS (Transition Secondaire-Université en Statistique)
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets ... [more ▼]

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets (ou pôles) sont relatifs aux savoirs en jeu (c'est-à-dire au savoir savant, au savoir à enseigner, au savoir enseigné et au savoir appris), tandis que les arcs traduisent l'influence directe d'un pôle sur un autre. Les degrés des divers sommets peuvent fournir intuitivement un indicateur relatif à l'importance des différents pôles dans le processus d'enseignement. [less ▲]

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See detailSpin-orbit-assisted electron pairing in 1D waveguides
Damanet, François ULiege; Mansfield, Elliott; Briggeman, Megan et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D ... [more ▼]

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D electron channels written on the $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ interface, we analyse how the presence of different forms of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can enhance electron pairing in 1D waveguides. We first show how the intrinsic Rashba SOC felt by electrons at interfaces such as $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ can be reduced when they are confined in 1D. Then, we discuss how SOC can be engineered, and show using a mean-field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model that SOC can generate and enhance spin-singlet and triplet electron pairing. Our results are consistent with two recent sets of experiments [Briggeman et al., arXiv:1912.07164; Sci. Adv. 6, eaba6337 (2020)] that are believed to engineer the forms of SOC investigated in this work, which suggests that metal-oxide heterostructures constitute attractive platforms to control the collective spin of electron bound states. However, our findings could also be applied to other experimental platforms involving spinful fermions with attractive interactions, such as cold atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailLes citoyens et leur patrimoine local en Wallonie
Pepe, Lauriano ULiege; Schmitz, Serge ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur patrimoine. Ce document interroge le rôle actuel du patrimoine local et sa place dans les préoccupations citoyennes en présentant les résultats d'une enquête menée auprès de 1088 Wallons. [less ▲]

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See detailRegular sequences and synchronized sequences in abstract numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this ... [more ▼]

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this definition does not allow us to generalize all of the many characterizations of b-regular sequences. In this paper, we present an alternative definition of S-kernel, and hence an alternative definition of S-regular sequences, which enables us to use recognizable formal series in order to generalize most (if not all) known characterizations of b-regular sequences to abstract numeration systems. We then give two characterizations of S-automatic sequences as particular S-regular sequences. Next, we present a general method to obtain various families of S-regular sequences by enumerating S-recognizable properties of S-automatic sequences. As an example of the many possible applications of this method, we show that, provided that addition is S-recognizable, the factor complexity of an S-automatic sequence defines an S-regular sequence. In the last part of the paper, we study S-synchronized sequences. Along the way, we prove that the formal series obtained as the composition of a synchronized relation and a recognizable series is recognizable. As a consequence, the composition of an S-synchronized sequence and a S-regular sequence is shown to be S-regular. All our results are presented in an arbitrary dimension d and for an arbitrary semiring K. [less ▲]

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See detailSoccerNet-v2: A Dataset and Benchmarks for Holistic Understanding of Broadcast Soccer Videos
Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Giancola, Silvio et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose ... [more ▼]

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose SoccerNet-v2, a novel large-scale corpus of manual annotations for the SoccerNet video dataset, along with open challenges to encourage more research in soccer understanding and broadcast production. Specifically, we release around 300k annotations within SoccerNet's 500 untrimmed broadcast soccer videos. We extend current tasks in the realm of soccer to include action spotting, camera shot segmentation with boundary detection, and we define a novel replay grounding task. For each task, we provide and discuss benchmark results, reproducible with our open-source adapted implementations of the most relevant works in the field. SoccerNet-v2 is presented to the broader research community to help push computer vision closer to automatic solutions for more general video understanding and production purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailOpto-electronic properties and solar cell efficiency modelling of Cu2ZnXS4 (X=Sn,Ge,Si) kesterites
Ratz, Thomas ULiege; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege; Brammertz, Guy et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic ... [more ▼]

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic and optical properties of kesterite compounds. Direct bandgaps are reported with values of 1.32, 1.89 and 3.06 eV respectively for CZTS, CZGS and CZSS. In addition, absorption coefficient values of the order of 10^4 cm^{−1} are obtained, indicating the applicability of these materials as absorber layer for solar cell applications. In the second part of this study, ab initio results (absorption coefficient, refractive index and reflectivity) are used as input data to model the electrical power conversion efficiency of kesterite-based solar cell. In that perspective, we used an improved version of the Shockley-Queisser theoretical model including non-radiative recombination via an external parameter defined as the internal quantum efficiency. Based on predicted optimal absorber layer thicknesses, the variation of the solar cell maximal efficiency is studied as a function of the non-radiative recombination rate. Maximal efficiencies of 25.88 %, 19.94 % and 3.11 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 for vanishing non-radiative recombination rate. Using a realistic internal quantum efficiency which provides 𝑉OC values comparable to experimental measurements, solar cell efficiencies of 15.88, 14.98 and 2.66 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 (for an optimal thickness of 1.15 𝜇m). With this methodology we confirm the suitability of Cu2ZnSnS4 in single junction solar cells, with a possible efficiency improvement of 10% enabled through the reduction of the non-radiative recombination rate. In addition, Cu2ZnGeS4 appears to be an interesting candidate as top cell absorber layer for tandem approaches whereas Cu2ZnSiS4 might be interesting for transparent photovoltaic windows. [less ▲]

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See detailCan AI Replace the FTC?
Massarotto, Giovanna; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULiège)
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See detailLes contours de la nouvelle taxe sur les comptes-titres
Nollet, Aymeric ULiege; Philippe, Denis-Emmanuel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailTowards constraining warm dark matter with stellar streams through neural simulation-based inference
Hermans, Joeri ULiege; Banik, Nilanjan; Weniger, Christophe et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to ... [more ▼]

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to constrain the mass of the dark matter particle. However, the likelihood of a stellar density with respect to the stream and subhaloes parameters involves solving an intractable inverse problem which rests on the integration of all possible forward realisations implicitly defined by the simulation model. In order to infer the subhalo abundance, previous analyses have relied on Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) together with domain-motivated but handcrafted summary statistics. Here, we introduce a likelihood-free Bayesian inference pipeline based on Amortised Approximate Likelihood Ratios (AALR), which automatically learns a mapping between the data and the simulator parameters and obviates the need to handcraft a possibly insufficient summary statistic. We apply the method to the simplified case where stellar streams are only perturbed by dark matter subhaloes, thus neglecting baryonic substructures, and describe several diagnostics that demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method and the statistical quality of the learned estimator. [less ▲]

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See detailLa preuve par l'image. "En Vie ?" : une inscription urbaine
Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des ... [more ▼]

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des Chercheur·e·s, réunissant des images commentées issues de travaux de recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailLutte contre la furiose du bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
See detailModels of Law and Regulation for AI
De Cooman, Jérôme ULiege; Petit, Nicolas

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk ... [more ▼]

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk regulation model. All four models currently inform, individually or jointly, integrally or partially, consciously or unconsciously, law and regulatory reform towards AI. We describe each model’s strengths and weaknesses, discuss whether technological evolution deserves to be accompanied by existing or new laws, and propose a fifth model based on externalities with a moral twist. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustry 4.0: An empirical analysis of its adoption in Wallonia
Paseyro Mayol, Joaquin ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Neysen, Nicolas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular technologies (Predictive Maintenance, Smart Production and Advanced Planning) in the Belgian region of Wallonia. In line with the claims of related qualitative studies, our findings suggest that smaller firms, which have a more restricted access to financial resources, are less prone to adopt these technologies. Our results are compatible with the notion that more digitally mature firms are more prone to be adopters. Moreover, we do not find evidence supporting the claim that more profitable firms are more likely to be adopters. Finally, we present indicative evidence regarding the efficacy of the regional governmental program which aimed to increase the diffusion of Industry 4.0. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Firm Size Distribution in Belgium
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Bignandi, Sousso ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics ... [more ▼]

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics, remains much debated. In this paper, we use an exclusive comprehensive database on Belgian firms. We show that the lognormal distribution is a better approximation of the empirical FSD than the power law distribution. This result holds true at the aggregate, sectoral and regional levels. [less ▲]

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See detailThe political economic of financing climate policy : evidence from the solar PV subsidy programs
De Groote, Olivier; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Verboven, Frank

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar ... [more ▼]

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar PVs in the three regions of Belgium to ask the question of how voters responded to these programs. We provide evidence that voters did not reward the incumbent government that was responsible for the program, as predicted by the ‘buying-votes’ hypothesis. Instead, we find that voters punish the incumbent government because of the increasing awareness of the high financing costs. These did not only affectt he non-adopting electricity consumers who did not benefit from the programs, but also the adopting prosumers, who saw unannounced new costs such as the introduction of prosumer fees to get access to the grid. [less ▲]

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See detailCeramica comune da mensa e da dispensa di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULiège)
See detailCeramica da cucina di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULiège)
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See detailI want to be an Open Scientist! Research evaluation and incentives to boost Open Science and research careers
Tanlongo, Federica; O’Neill, Gareth; Kurapati, Shalini et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache ... [more ▼]

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache? When someone will evaluate my research, will the fact that my data complies with all the Open Science best practices matter? Or am I just losing time I should rather spend publishing on whatever journal I can lay hands on? And where am I supposed to learn how to be fair and open anyway? The right answer to these questions is crucial to the career choices and expectations of many students and young researchers, yes, but it is also the point which can make the difference between succeeding or failing in establishing Open Science (and ultimately Good Science). To be able to shift the research evaluation system in Europe in order to produce quality and reliable data, to set up a working incentive system for individual researchers and organisations is one of the keys to a widespread uptake of Open Science and FAIR practices. And being so crucial a point, we believe that researchers, Research Infrastructures, scientific organisations should have a say in this. That’s why we proposed an interactive session where good ideas, innovative pilots, proposed policies from all across Europe were presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailConversation japonaise sur les bienfaits de la sémiotique
Badir, Sémir ULiege; Leone, Massimo

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailNutritional status of inmates in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo
De Coninck, Gérard; Okenge Ngongo, Leon; Ilunga Ilunga, Félicien et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional ... [more ▼]

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of inmates jailed in a prison of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-month period in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, DRC. Three hundred inmates were selected according to the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Severe malnutrition was defined according to Buzby index and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The inmates were aged between 18 and 70 years and primarily males (88.7%). Of them, 24% were suffering from severe malnutrition and 62% of moderate malnutrition as based on the NRI. At the time of study, 88% of inmates were incarcerated for more than 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with severe malnutrition were incarceration of more than 6 months (OR=5.1; 95% CI [1.5-17.4]), origin of food (prison vs. family or NGO) (OR=4.7; 95% CI [1.6-13.8]) but also presence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus and/or intestinal infections (OR=2.6; 95% CI [1.4-4.7]). Conclusions: The nutritional situation in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi is precarious. There is urgent need to supply enough nutrient-rich food to improve health of inmates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 ULiège)
See detailLa terre sigillée africaine - productions C, C/E et E
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 ULiège)
See detailLa céramique à vernis noir
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULiège)
See detailLa terre sigillée africaine - productions A, A/D et D
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULiège)
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See detailAllocation of locally generated electricity in renewable energy communities
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege; Vermeulen, Eric et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper introduces a methodology to perform an ex-post allocation of locally generated electricity among the members of a renewable energy community. Such an ex-post allocation takes place in a ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a methodology to perform an ex-post allocation of locally generated electricity among the members of a renewable energy community. Such an ex-post allocation takes place in a settlement phase where the financial exchanges of the community are based on the production and consumption profiles of each member. The proposed methodology consists of an optimisation framework which (i) minimises the sum of individual electricity costs of the community members, and (ii) can enforce minimum self-sufficiency rates –proportion of electricity consumption covered by local production– on each member, enhancing the economic gains of some of them. The latter capability aims to ensure that members receive enough incentives to participate in the renewable energy community. This framework is designed so as to provide a practical approach that is ready to use by community managers, which is compliant with current legislation on renewable energy communities. It computes a set of optimal repartition keys, which represent the percentage of total local production given to each member – one key per metering period per member. These keys are computed based on an initial set of keys provided in the simulation, which are typically contractual i.e., agreed upon between the member and the manager the renewable energy community. This methodology is tested in a broad range of scenarios, illustrating its ability to optimise the operational costs of a renewable energy community. [less ▲]

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See detailThe norito-granitic zone of Puntervoll-Lia (Rogaland anorthosite province, S. Norway): evolution of a genetic model
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The norito-granitic zone is a thin septum of highly deformed banded rocks squeezed between two anorthosite massifs, the Egersund-Ogna (EGOG) and the Håland massifs. The dominant lithologies are a norito ... [more ▼]

The norito-granitic zone is a thin septum of highly deformed banded rocks squeezed between two anorthosite massifs, the Egersund-Ogna (EGOG) and the Håland massifs. The dominant lithologies are a norito-anorthosite association gradationally passing into a norito-granitic association. A first genetic model was proposed in which a norite intruded in the foliated margin of the EGOG anorthosite was migmatitized and metasomatically transformed into an anorthosite. This model was not confirmed by later studies and finally the norito-anorthosite association was considered as a particular facies of the anorthosite margin. New studies of the Glypstad septum between EGOG and the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion reveal that the norito-granitic association results from the deformation of a magma in which anatectic melts were mingled with a high-alumina basalt, parental to the EGOG anorthosite. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of model formulation on the critical morphological acceleration factor: an analytical study
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been used for over two decades to speed-up long term morphodynamic simulations. However, the Morfac values are usually set heuristically and hardly any ... [more ▼]

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been used for over two decades to speed-up long term morphodynamic simulations. However, the Morfac values are usually set heuristically and hardly any study investigated theoretically the critical Morfac value leading to a predefined level of accuracy. In this research, we evaluated theoretically the critical Morfac value from the analysis of the amplitude and phase errors induced by the use of Morfac. While the few existing studies focused only on relatively low Froude numbers and a single mathematical formulation of the morphodynamic model, we consider here a significantly wider range of Froude numbers, including supercritical flow, and we compare four different model formulations. We show that the model formulation leading to the highest critical Morfac values for subcritical flow is not the same as for supercritical flow. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalogies entre deux querelles relatives à l'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Depuis la création du royaume de Belgique, l’enseignement de base des mathématiques a connu dans ce pays deux importantes querelles : la guerre entre infinicoles et infinifuges au début du 19e siècle et ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création du royaume de Belgique, l’enseignement de base des mathématiques a connu dans ce pays deux importantes querelles : la guerre entre infinicoles et infinifuges au début du 19e siècle et la guerre des mathématiques modernes durant la seconde moitié du 20e siècle. Ces deux épisodes historiques présentent des analogies qui vont être analysées dans cet article. Sont en présence deux clans avec des visions différentes sur la nécessité ou non de renouveler le savoir à enseigner, de modifier l’approche didactique, d’accorder de l’importance à l’aspect utilitaire de la discipline. Au surplus, dans les deux cas, le camp des conservateurs et des adeptes d’un enseignement simple et axé sur les applications était emmené avec ardeur par un liégeois, professeur à l’Université de Liège ; on pourrait y voir une manifestation de l’« esprit liégeois ». [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailLes migrations environnementales : un nouvel objet d’enseignement
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

À partir d'idées reçues sur les migrants climatiques et environnementaux, l'autrice examine la difficulté à nommer et à quantifier ce phénomène avant de faire le point sur l'état actuel des connaissances ... [more ▼]

À partir d'idées reçues sur les migrants climatiques et environnementaux, l'autrice examine la difficulté à nommer et à quantifier ce phénomène avant de faire le point sur l'état actuel des connaissances. Elle montre ensuite comment cette question peut s'insérer dans les programmes de géographie de l'enseignement secondaire. Une place particulière est accordée aux documents, aux outils et aux démarches possibles. [less ▲]

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See detailRéactivation de l’idée d’une « Taxe GAFA » dans le contexte (post-)CORONA
Nollet, Aymeric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailCOVID-19 and ethnic-oriented shopping
El Boujjoufi, Mohamed ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed; Benkorichi, Oualid et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) impacted daily life for residents of the majority of countries worldwide. In this this research note, we explore how the pandemic is changing religious-oriented shopping ... [more ▼]

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) impacted daily life for residents of the majority of countries worldwide. In this this research note, we explore how the pandemic is changing religious-oriented shopping with a focus on Muslim shopping. While supermarkets provided online shopping and home delivery services, Islamic store, as small business, could not opt for such services in Belgium and many other countries. Therefore, we designed and conducted a consumer survey with a special target of Muslim shoppers between April 27 and May 6 2020 in all Belgium regions. We found that despite stay-at-home directives that is effective since early March 2020, Muslims are still leaving their homes to buy Islamic groceries “Halal”. Most importantly, the daily pattern of shopping has significantly been changed, which helped in reducing the density of shoppers in the stores [less ▲]

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See detailEre « après COVID-19 » : les publicités promeuvent des voitures toujours plus polluantes.
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailBank risk-taking and Competition: Does efficiency matter? Evidence from African Banking Industry
Matabaro, Borauzima Luc ULiege; Muller, Aline ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We contribute to the existing literature on the nexus between competition and risk taking in the banking industry by emphasizing the role of efficiency. We test a modified Martinez-Miera and Repullo (2010 ... [more ▼]

We contribute to the existing literature on the nexus between competition and risk taking in the banking industry by emphasizing the role of efficiency. We test a modified Martinez-Miera and Repullo (2010)’s model which uses a single factor Vasiceck specification to analyze default’s probability for a set of loans. Our results confirm that efficiency plays a non-monotonic role in the competition-risk relationship. On top of confirming the U-shape relationship between competition and risk-taking, our reveal that banks with high and low efficiency take more risk than those with average efficiency ones. We also find that size, diversification index, macroeconomic, institutional play a key role in competition-risking-taking process in African banking industry. Besides, African Cross-border banks display less riskiness and may accordingly enhance financial stability. These results are stable across different robustness checks including alternative measures of competition and specifications and consequently serve for regulatory policies especially for providing very stringent regulatory frameworks to mitigate the implications of competition in terms of financial stability. [less ▲]

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See detailLa lutte contre les maladies nouvelles dans le monde gréco-romain
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Review of methods used to combat epidemics in the Graeco-Roman world.

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See detailFermeture des frontières nationales : récits en territoire transfrontalier
Caesar, Beate; Dorkel, Nicolas; Marbehant, Sylvain ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailEntretien avec Côme Martin-Karl : « peut-on écrire après Duras ? »
Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detail新型コロナウィルス時代の情熱とは
Badir, Sémir ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailA bio-inspired bistable recurrent cell allows for long-lasting memory
Vecoven, Nicolas ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Drion, Guillaume ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) provide state-of-the-art performances in a wide variety of tasks that require memory. These performances can often be achieved thanks to gated recurrent cells such as ... [more ▼]

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) provide state-of-the-art performances in a wide variety of tasks that require memory. These performances can often be achieved thanks to gated recurrent cells such as gated recurrent units (GRU) and long short-term memory (LSTM). Standard gated cells share a layer internal state to store information at the network level, and long term memory is shaped by network-wide recurrent connection weights. Biological neurons on the other hand are capable of holding information at the cellular level for an arbitrary long amount of time through a process called bistability. Through bistability, cells can stabilize to different stable states depending on their own past state and inputs, which permits the durable storing of past information in neuron state. In this work, we take inspiration from biological neuron bistability to embed RNNs with long-lasting memory at the cellular level. This leads to the introduction of a new bistable biologically-inspired recurrent cell that is shown to strongly improves RNN performance on time-series which require very long memory, despite using only cellular connections (all recurrent connections are from neurons to themselves, i.e. a neuron state is not influenced by the state of other neurons). Furthermore, equipping this cell with recurrent neuromodulation permits to link them to standard GRU cells, taking a step towards the biological plausibility of GRU. [less ▲]

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See detailRédiger le référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie - Guide d'accompagnement à la rédaction du référentiel de compétences du B.U.T. en contexte d'APC
Georges, François ULiege; Poumay, Marianne ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Ce guide vise à donner des éléments méthodologiques pour la conception et l’écriture du référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie et des parcours le structurant. En Approche Par ... [more ▼]

Ce guide vise à donner des éléments méthodologiques pour la conception et l’écriture du référentiel de compétences du Bachelor Universitaire de Technologie et des parcours le structurant. En Approche Par Compétence (APC), le référentiel de compétences constitue la colonne vertébrale de la formation. Il aide à prendre les décisions tant de structuration du programme que de mise en œuvre de celui-ci. Il permet aussi une communication transparente avec les étudiants et les partenaires socio-professionnels quant aux visées et attendus du programme. Pour aboutir à un référentiel de compétences qui oriente le programme de formation et guide sa mise en oeuvre, le guide appelle à préciser cinq éléments pour chacune des compétences, qui constituent cinq étapes de rédaction du référentiel (compétences, composantes essentielles, familles de situations, niveaux et approrentissages critiques). Il illustre chacune des étapes par quelques exemples de formulation issus de référentiels existants. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning optimal environments using projected stochastic gradient ascent
Bolland, Adrien ULiege; Boukas, Ioannis ULiege; Cornet, François ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this work, we propose a new methodology for jointly sizing a dynamical system and designing its control law. First, the problem is formalized by considering parametrized reinforcement learning ... [more ▼]

In this work, we propose a new methodology for jointly sizing a dynamical system and designing its control law. First, the problem is formalized by considering parametrized reinforcement learning environments and parametrized policies. The objective of the optimization problem is to jointly find a control policy and an environment over the joint hypothesis space of parameters such that the sum of rewards gathered by the policy in this environment is maximal. The optimization problem is then addressed by generalizing the direct policy search algorithms to an algorithm we call Direct Environment Search with (projected stochastic) Gradient Ascent (DESGA). We illustrate the performance of DESGA on two benchmarks. First, we consider a parametrized space of Mass-Spring-Damper (MSD) environments and control policies. Then, we use our algorithm for optimizing the size of the components and the operation of a small-scale autonomous energy system, i.e. a solar off-grid microgrid, composed of photovoltaic panels, batteries, etc. On both benchmarks, we compare the results of the execution of DESGA with a theoretical upper-bound on the expected return. Furthermore, the performance of DESGA is compared to an alternative algorithm. The latter performs a grid discretization of the environment's hypothesis space and applies the REINFORCE algorithm to identify pairs of environments and policies resulting in a high expected return. The choice of this algorithm is also discussed and motivated. On both benchmarks, we show that DESGA and the alternative algorithm result in a set of parameters for which the expected return is nearly equal to its theoretical upper-bound. Nevertheless, the execution of DESGA is much less computationally costly. [less ▲]

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See detailA phylodynamic workflow to rapidly gain insights into the dispersal history and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages
Dellicour, Simon; Durkin, Keith ULiege; Hong, Samuel et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data ... [more ▼]

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data presents a unique opportunity to gain real-time insights into the pandemic, but also a daunting computational hurdle if analysed with gold-standard phylogeographic methods. We here describe and apply an analytical pipeline that is a compromise between fast and rigorous analytical steps. As a proof of concept, we focus on Belgium, one of the countries with the highest spatial density of sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes. At the global scale, our analyses confirm the importance of external introduction events in establishing transmission chains in the country. At the country scale, our spatially-explicit phylogeographic analyses highlight an impact of the national lockdown of mid-March on the dispersal velocity of viral lineages. Our pipeline has the potential to be quickly applied to other countries or regions, with key benefits in complementing epidemiological analyses in assessing the impact of intervention measures or their progressive easement. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen and How Does Law Effectively Reduce the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A crossborder Study in Burkina Faso and Mali [Policy Brief]
Wouango, Joséphine ULiege; Ostermann, L. Susan; Mwanga, Daniel

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This policy brief summarises key findings from a cross-border study of two neighbouring countries: Burkina Faso, which has a strong FGM/C law, and Mali, which has no specific FGM/C law (Wouango, Ostermann ... [more ▼]

This policy brief summarises key findings from a cross-border study of two neighbouring countries: Burkina Faso, which has a strong FGM/C law, and Mali, which has no specific FGM/C law (Wouango, Ostermann, and Mwanga 2020). The aim of the cross-border study was to explore and compare attitudes and tendencies towards obeying the law and continuing FGM/C practises and to understand the effectiveness of criminal law in combatting FGM/C in both countries. [less ▲]

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See detailDans quelles conditions la loi est-elle efficace pour réduire la pratique des mutilations génitales féminines/excision: Une étude transfrontalière au Burkina Faso et au Mali [Policy Brief]
Wouango, Joséphine ULiege; Ostermann, Susan; Mwanga, Daniel

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Cette note de synthèse résume les principales conclusions d'une étude transfrontalière portant sur deux pays voisins : le Burkina Faso, qui dispose d'une loi forte sur les MGF/E, et le Mali, qui n'a pas ... [more ▼]

Cette note de synthèse résume les principales conclusions d'une étude transfrontalière portant sur deux pays voisins : le Burkina Faso, qui dispose d'une loi forte sur les MGF/E, et le Mali, qui n'a pas de loi spécifique sur les MGF/E (Wouango, Ostermann, et Mwanga 2020). Les objectifs de l'étude transfrontalière étaient d'explorer et de comparer les attitudes et les tendances en matière de respect de la loi et de poursuite de la pratique des MGF/E, et de comprendre l'efficacité du droit pénal dans la lutte contre les MGF/E dans les deux pays. [less ▲]

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See detailDes infinicoles liégeois
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

L’histoire de l’analyse mathématique est à la fois longue et riche, puisque cette théorie n’a cessé de se développer depuis l’Antiquité en empruntant essentiellement deux voies différentes selon que le ... [more ▼]

L’histoire de l’analyse mathématique est à la fois longue et riche, puisque cette théorie n’a cessé de se développer depuis l’Antiquité en empruntant essentiellement deux voies différentes selon que le concept d’infiniment petit est utilisé ou au contraire proscrit. Les mathématiciens qui exploitent des infiniment petits sont appelés « infinicoles » ; cet adjectif est formé du mot « infini » suivi du suffixe « cole » venant du verbe latin « colere » dont une traduction en français peut être « cultiver ». Ceux qui rejettent les infinitésimaux sont nommés des « infinifuges », car le suffixe « fuge » provient du substantif latin « fuga » signifiant « fuite », de sorte que les infinifuges évitent ou fuient les infiniment. Notre travail est consacré à certains infinicoles qui ne rejettent pas une conception actuelle de l’infini. Plus précisément, nous nous intéressons aux infinicoles qui ont fait appel, dans certains de leurs écrits, à des infiniment petits au sens des pionniers de l’analyse classique, c’est-à-dire aux infinicoles qui n’utilisent pas la théorie weierstrassienne des limites, mais qui recourent plutôt à ce que l’on appelle aujourd’hui l’analyse non standard. Parmi ceux-ci, nous retenons uniquement des liégeois, c’est-à-dire des mathématiciens qui ont habité dans la province de Liège pendant au moins une partie de leur carrière professionnelle. Ils ont tous travaillé, à un moment de leur carrière, à l’Université de Liège (sauf le plus ancien d’entre eux parce que l’Université n’existait pas encore de son temps). Ainsi, neuf mathématiciens sont succinctement présentés. Une liste exhaustive de leur production dans ce domaine figure dans une bibliographie détaillée. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sagesse des marchés
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Soyons précis ! Ne pas croire dans le SARS-CoV-2 – comme seul facteur explicatif de la réalité à laquelle nous sommes confrontés –, n’implique pas d’en nier l’existence ; de ne pas respecter la douleur de ... [more ▼]

Soyons précis ! Ne pas croire dans le SARS-CoV-2 – comme seul facteur explicatif de la réalité à laquelle nous sommes confrontés –, n’implique pas d’en nier l’existence ; de ne pas respecter la douleur de celles et ceux qu’il touche ; de manquer de respect pour le courage et la générosité exemplaires des personnels impliqués ; ou d’en contester les inévitables et sévères conséquences sur le fonctionnement de la société. Tout au contraire, cette posture intellectuelle entraîne la nécessité d’en analyser, scrupuleusement et scientifiquement, toutes les dimensions et implications. La diversité, la complexité et la réflexivité de ces dernières invitent à la patience et à la plus grande circonspection. C’est à ce niveau que les marchés financiers offrent une plateforme technologique et un laboratoire expérimental exceptionnels d’observation, d’analyse et de prévision. Leur sagesse actuelle est un appel à la raison, au comportement responsable, à la vigilance civique, et au retour progressif, mais résolu, à la vie sociale ! [less ▲]

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See detailVers ma réussite en Bac 1 : Positionnement, pistes d'évaluation et de régulation d'un dispositif propédeutique transversal en blended learning
Dupont, Bruno ULiege; Cocinas Garcia, Amélie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Ce travail en cours détaille le passage d'un dispositif du présentiel au blended learning d'un dispositif propédeutique de soutien à la réussite en Bac 1 à la Haute École de la Ville de Liège. Sont ... [more ▼]

Ce travail en cours détaille le passage d'un dispositif du présentiel au blended learning d'un dispositif propédeutique de soutien à la réussite en Bac 1 à la Haute École de la Ville de Liège. Sont détaillées le développement du projet, son état actuel, ainsi que ses perspectives de régulation et d'évaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailOral Chloroquine treatment for COVID-19 infection. Available data from literature & field practices on April 20, 2020 (ver 1.8)
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Publications addressing the treatment of COVID-19 by Hydroxychloroquine available on April 20, 2020. gathered sinc March 13, 2020. This compilation does not constitute a recommendation to use the HCQ in ... [more ▼]

Publications addressing the treatment of COVID-19 by Hydroxychloroquine available on April 20, 2020. gathered sinc March 13, 2020. This compilation does not constitute a recommendation to use the HCQ in the treatment of Covid-19 [less ▲]

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See detailModèles mathématiques et confinement
Rigo, Michel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

En cette période de confinement dû à la crise sanitaire provoquée par le SARS-CoV-2 mieux connu comme Coronavirus, le virus responsable du COVID-19, je voulais comprendre les modèles utilisés par les ... [more ▼]

En cette période de confinement dû à la crise sanitaire provoquée par le SARS-CoV-2 mieux connu comme Coronavirus, le virus responsable du COVID-19, je voulais comprendre les modèles utilisés par les virologues et épidémiologistes du monde entier. Par la même occasion, je m'en vais vous expliquer ces courbes que l'on trouve à longueur de journée dans les média et que l'on souhaite "aplatir". Habitué à la vulgarisation mathématique, je ne suis pourtant pas un spécialiste des mathématiques appliquées et de la modélisation. Il ne nécessite a priori que très peu de connaissances mathématiques : un peu de bon sens et la manipulation des proportions. Il devrait être accessible dès la 4e année de l'enseignement secondaire. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluer les effets des différentes mesures de lutte contre le Covid-19, mission impossible?
Paul, Elisabeth ULiege; Ridde, Valéry

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailLong Way to Universal Health Coverage (UHC): Are Policy Dialogue Processes Appropriate to Negotiate Trade-Offs in Africa? The Cases of Benin and Senegal
Paul, Elisabeth ULiege; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULiege; Deville, Céline ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The numerous stakeholders involved in the development of universal health coverage (UHC) policies are likely to have diverging interests about which dimensions to prioritize, hence the importance of ... [more ▼]

The numerous stakeholders involved in the development of universal health coverage (UHC) policies are likely to have diverging interests about which dimensions to prioritize, hence the importance of ensuring an effective and transparent policy dialogue. This paper aims to investigate whether or not UHC policy dialogue processes are functioning well in Benin and Senegal. Based on a literature review, we have identified a number of characteristics guaranteeing the quality of policy dialogue processes, which we have integrated into an analytical grid. The quality criteria identified were classified along four dimensions: stakeholder participation, dialogue/negotiation process, quality of situation analysis and decision criteria, and results from the negotiation process. Based on data collected through documentary review, interviews, an electronic survey and the authors’ own experience, we applied that analytical grid to the cases of Benin and Senegal. In both countries, the policy dialogue processes are largely imperfect in terms of many of the quality criteria identified. Decisions were made under strong political leadership, ensuring government coordination and ownership, and strong emphasis has been put on expanding financial risk protection. Yet, both countries perform poorly in a number of dimensions, especially with regards to conflicts of interest, transparency and accountability. None of them has really institutionalized a UHC policy dialogue process, and the UHC policymaking processes have actually bypassed existing health sector coordination mechanisms. The two countries perform well regarding the quality of situation analysis. A small (in the case of Benin) or broader (in the case of Senegal) governmental coalition managed to impose its views, given insufficient stakeholder participation. Policy networks were particularly influential in Senegal. Overall, there are important gaps that reduce the quality of UHC policy dialogue processes, hence explaining the weaknesses in their results in terms of transparency and accountability. Our analytical framework enables us to identify rooms for improvement with regard to country-led negotiation processes relating to UHC. [less ▲]

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See detailA Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework for Continuous Intraday Market Bidding
Boukas, Ioannis ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Théate, Thibaut ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The large integration of variable energy resources is expected to shift a large part of the energy exchanges closer to real-time, where more accurate forecasts are available. In this context, the short ... [more ▼]

The large integration of variable energy resources is expected to shift a large part of the energy exchanges closer to real-time, where more accurate forecasts are available. In this context, the short-term electricity markets and in particular the intraday market are considered a suitable trading floor for these exchanges to occur. A key component for the successful renewable energy sources integration is the usage of energy storage. In this paper, we propose a novel modelling framework for the strategic participation of energy storage in the European continuous intraday market where exchanges occur through a centralized order book. The goal of the storage device operator is the maximization of the profits received over the entire trading horizon, while taking into account the operational constraints of the unit. The sequential decision-making problem of trading in the intraday market is modelled as a Markov Decision Process. An asynchronous version of the fitted Q iteration algorithm is chosen for solving this problem due to its sample efficiency. The large and variable number of the existing orders in the order book motivates the use of high-level actions and an alternative state representation. Historical data are used for the generation of a large number of artificial trajectories in order to address exploration issues during the learning process. The resulting policy is back-tested and compared against a benchmark strategy that is the current industrial standard. Results indicate that the agent converges to a policy that achieves in average higher total revenues than the benchmark strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Order Relaxation Methods for Co-simulation of Finite Element and Circuit Solvers
Nshimiyimana, Jean de Dieu ULiege; Plumier, Frédéric; Ndagije, Charles et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Coupled problems result in very stiff problems whose char- acteristic parameters differ with several orders in magni- tude. For such complex problems, solving them monolith- ically becomes prohibitive ... [more ▼]

Coupled problems result in very stiff problems whose char- acteristic parameters differ with several orders in magni- tude. For such complex problems, solving them monolith- ically becomes prohibitive. Since nowadays there are op- timized solvers for particular problems, solving uncoupled problems becomes easy since each can be solved indepen- dently with its dedicated optimized tools. Therefore the co-simulation of the sub-problems solvers is encouraged. The design of the transmission coupling conditions between solvers plays a fundamental role. The current paper applies the waveform relaxation methods for co-simulation of the finite element and circuit solvers, investigate the contribu- tion of higher order integration methods and also consid- ers the the theoretical modelling of a boost converter. The method is illustrated on a coupled finite element inductor and a boost converter and focuses on the comparison of the transmission coupling conditions based on the waveform iteration numbers between the two sub-solvers. We demon- strate that for lightly coupled systems the dynamic itera- tions between the sub-solvers depends much on the inter- nal integrators in individual sub-solvers whereas for tightly coupled systems it depends also to the kind of transmission coupling conditions. [less ▲]

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