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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Date of Plutarch's De Tranquillitate Animi
Demulder, Bram ULiege

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailDe linguae latinae usu, Actes du 13e Colloque international de Linguistique latine, Bruxelles et Liège, 4-9 avril 2005
Longrée, Dominique ULiege; Lenoble, Muriel

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailQue sont les matrimoines ? Projet d'exposition
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailPer un Dante dappertutto e fuori posto, encore que...
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLe fin fond des choses
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment ... [more ▼]

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment d’avoir perdu leur temps, pas grand chose ! La réalité est que la vie offre à qui le désire une invraisemblable et infinie succession d’opportunités de découvrir, d’apprendre, et de progresser dans sa compréhension de ce qu’il est, et dans celle du monde singulier dans lequel il vit. La clé de toute vérité est dans la recherche systématique du lieu de convergence de ses contraires. C’est par ce que j’ai la certitude de ne pas être que je finis par savoir précisément qui je suis ! Il en va de même pour toutes les choses qui nous entourent. C’est pourquoi je trouve étrange que l’homme choisisse d’être le « fils de celui qui n’est pas » (le néant, le chaos) plutôt que le « fils de Celui qui est » (l’Eternel, l’Immanent). En cette période d’hystérie collective et d’éclipse du sens, il est essentiel d’énoncer certaines vérités scientifiques et historiques, précises et indiscutables, qui permettent d’atteindre Le fin fond des choses. « To be, or not to be, that is the question. » (William Shakespeare) [less ▲]

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See detailPour solde de tout compte
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition ... [more ▼]

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition entre les nations atteint, enfin, sa limite. La conquête de l’espace est à portée de main. Notre niveau de civilisation amène à s’interroger sur sa préservation et son transfert. L’homme est cocréateur de la réalité et gardien de la vie. L’apparente fragilité de l’existence traduit sa robustesse. Le hasard et la nécessité ne peuvent, sous quelque condition que ce soit, expliquer une telle vérité, une telle histoire, une telle succession intelligible d’acteurs, de choses, d’événements et de faits. Un principe ne peut être la cause de sa négation ! Finalement, il n’est pas désagréable d’approcher du terme de sa vie en se disant qu’on n’a pas trop triché, pas trop menti, pas trop volé. Vivre, c’est apprendre et partager. On ne possède réellement que ce qu’on donne. Rien ne paraît plus urgent aujourd’hui que d’affirmer ses valeurs par la négation de celles qui leur sont contraires. Les quelques pages qui suivent n’ont d’autre objet. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sources orales, un apport précieux pour l'histoire des polices
Teicher, Elie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailTruncated Marginal Neural Ratio Estimation
Kurt Miller, Benjamin; Cole, Alex; Forré, Patrick et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Parametric stochastic simulators are ubiquitous in science, often featuring high-dimensional input parameters and/or an intractable likelihood. Performing Bayesian parameter inference in this context can ... [more ▼]

Parametric stochastic simulators are ubiquitous in science, often featuring high-dimensional input parameters and/or an intractable likelihood. Performing Bayesian parameter inference in this context can be challenging. We present a neural simulator-based inference algorithm which simultaneously offers simulation efficiency and fast empirical posterior testability, which is unique among modern algorithms. Our approach is simulation efficient by simultaneously estimating low-dimensional marginal posteriors instead of the joint posterior and by proposing simulations targeted to an observation of interest via a prior suitably truncated by an indicator function. Furthermore, by estimating a locally amortized posterior our algorithm enables efficient empirical tests of the robustness of the inference results. Such tests are important for sanity-checking inference in real-world applications, which do not feature a known ground truth. We perform experiments on a marginalized version of the simulation-based inference benchmark and two complex and narrow posteriors, highlighting the simulator efficiency of our algorithm as well as the quality of the estimated marginal posteriors. Implementation on GitHub. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ?
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est ... [more ▼]

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est plus vrai encore qu’un problème précisément défini cesse d’en être un. De surcroît, quand on a éliminé tout ce qui est impossible, ce qui reste, si improbable soit-il, est inévitablement la solution (Arthur Conan Doyle). Ainsi, une crise d’hystérie collective, telle que La Grande Panique de 2020, trouve naturellement son terme lorsque le substrat – concepts, modèles, théories – sur lequel elle repose, s’épuise. Ces objets intellectuels ne sont en fait que des croyances, des « actes de foi », dont il est toujours difficile de se débarrasser. « It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it… » (Upton Sinclair). Le Principe de Réalité nous invite à admettre l'existence d'une réalité supérieure, déstabilisatrice, non conforme à son idéalisation. Ainsi, le XXIème siècle pourrait marquer le début d’une ère nouvelle, centrée sur le retrait éthique et la transcendance. Intelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ? « If you don't understand that, you're in the wrong business. » (Joe Biden) [less ▲]

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See detailVittorio Frigerio : Nous nous reverrons aux barricades
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Io (2021) di Massimo Parizzi.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailHandlungsbedarfe für die Raumentwicklung der Großregion aus Sicht der Forschung
Caesar, Beate; Pallagst, Karina; Belkacem, Rachid et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas ... [more ▼]

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas relevant to the Greater Region (demography and migration, transport, employment and economic development, energy landscapes, cross-border governance) and formulates options for action for planning practice and political decision-makers. In addition, it addresses the exchange of knowledge between re-search and politics. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution spatiale de l’emploi et des modes de transport des travailleurs actifs au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg – Analyse des données de l’enquête Luxmobil 2017
Lambotte, Jean-Marc ULiege; Marbehant, Sylvain ULiege; Rouchet, Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and ... [more ▼]

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and cross-border workers within the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. This analysis highlights the significant disparities regarding these distributions, the predominant car dependency and the required conditions to achieve a high modal share of public transport. Confronted with the challenging European objective of decarbonisation by the year 2050 and considering the national and supra-regional strategic documents, in order to coordinate urban development with the public transport offer, a voluntarist cross-border ‘transit-oriented development’ policy appears to be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detaile-Note
Dumoulin, André ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining ... [more ▼]

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining which factors should be taken into account in order to justify, weigh up or invalidate a belligerent vision of this country, but also understanding the meaning of the words ‘challenges’, ‘adversary’, ‘risk’ and ‘enemy’. And, in the end, it is about always seeking to identify the elements that constitute the creation of an external enemy, whether real or imagined. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep generative modeling for probabilistic forecasting in power systems
Dumas, Jonathan ULiege; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; lanaspeze, damien et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Greater direct electrification of end-use sectors with a higher share of renewables is one of the pillars to power a carbon-neutral society by 2050. This study uses a recent deep learning technique, the ... [more ▼]

Greater direct electrification of end-use sectors with a higher share of renewables is one of the pillars to power a carbon-neutral society by 2050. This study uses a recent deep learning technique, the normalizing flows, to produce accurate probabilistic forecasts that are crucial for decision-makers to face the new challenges in power systems applications. Through comprehensive empirical evaluations using the open data of the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2014, we demonstrate that our methodology is competitive with other state-of-the-art deep learning generative models: generative adversarial networks and variational autoencoders. The models producing weather-based wind, solar power, and load scenarios are properly compared both in terms of forecast value, by considering the case study of an energy retailer, and quality using several complementary metrics. [less ▲]

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See detailWarming-up recurrent neural networks to maximize reachable multi-stability greatly improves learning
Vecoven, Nicolas ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Drion, Guillaume ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on ... [more ▼]

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on benchmarks where long-term memory is required remains an arduous task. In this work, we propose a general way to initialize any recurrent network connectivity through a process called “warmup” to improve its capability to learn arbitrarily long time dependencies. This initialization process is designed to maximize network reachable multi-stability, i.e. the number of attractors within the network that can be reached through relevant input trajectories. Warming-up is performed before training, using stochastic gradient descent on a specifically designed loss. We show that warming-up greatly improves recurrent neural network performance on long-term memory benchmarks for multiple recurrent cell types, but can sometimes impede precision. We therefore introduce a parallel recurrent network structure with partial warm-up that is shown to greatly improve learning on long time-series while maintaining high levels of precision. This approach provides a general framework for improving learning abilities of any recurrent cell type when long-term memory is required. [less ▲]

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See detailSong of Walt Whitman, Song of Hope?
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American ... [more ▼]

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American experience. In this collection, Whitman takes the voice of a democratic poet on and “prepares us for the perception of a single, universal truth and for our subsequent transformation into the kind of people we need to be” (Brink 2013, xv). Whitman was always close to US pop culture and its (anti)heroes. The nineteenth-century American poet is at the heart of America’s culture, which is shown by, for example, John Keating and his rebellious schoolboys chanting Whitman’s eponymous line of “O Captain! My Captain!” in Peter Weir’s Dead Poets Society (1989) and the many references to Whitman’s work in Breaking Bad (2008-2013) (Bolonik 2013). To the question “Who is the quintessential American?,” Elisabeth Panttaja Brinke, writer, editor and educator who taught literature at Harvard University, Tufts University and Boston College, argues it is “Whitman” (2013, xxii), mainly because of the poet’s representations of both democracy and nature. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslating Witchbroom
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Surveying various aspects of Scott's novel I paid special attention to as a translator: creole features, the rhythm and music that prevades this Carnival novel, sound effects.

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See detailRadiation pressure on a multi-level atom: an exact analytical approach
Podlecki, Lionel ULiege; Martin, John ULiege; Bastin, Thierry ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a standardized and exact analytical formalism for computing in the semiclassical regime the radiationforce experienced by a two-level atom interacting with an arbitrary number of plane waves with arbitrary intensities, frequencies, phases, and directions [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 127-132 (2018)]. Here, we extend this treatment to the multi-level atom case, where degeneracy of the atomic levels is considered and polarization of light enters into play. [less ▲]

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See detailLAGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Napoleone in venti parole
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailThe Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from Belgium
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Bignandi, Sousso ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics ... [more ▼]

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics, remains much debated. In this paper, we use an exclusive comprehensive database on Belgian firms. We show that the lognormal distribution is a better approximation of the empirical FSD than the power law distribution. This result holds true at the aggregate, sectoral and regional levels. [less ▲]

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See detailM4Depth: A motion-based approach for monocular depth estimation on video sequences
Fonder, Michaël ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of ... [more ▼]

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of estimating depth from on-board mounted cameras is made complex on drones because of the lack of constrains on motion during flights. In this paper, we present a method to estimate the distance of objects seen by an on-board mounted camera by using its RGB video stream and drone motion information. Our method is built upon a pyramidal convolutional neural network architecture and uses time recurrence in pair with geometric constraints imposed by motion to produce pixel-wise depth maps. In our architecture, each level of the pyramid is designed to produce its own depth estimate based on past observations and information provided by the previous level in the pyramid. We introduce a spatial reprojection layer to maintain the spatio-temporal consistency of the data between the levels. We analyse the performance of our approach on Mid-Air, a public drone dataset featuring synthetic drone trajectories recorded in a wide variety of unstructured outdoor environments. Our experiments show that our network outperforms state-of-the-art depth estimation methods and that the use of motion information is the main contributing factor for this improvement. The code of our method is publicly available on GitHub; see https://github.com/michael-fonder/M4Depth [less ▲]

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Poesia come ossigeno.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Scritti su Leopardi
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailFlash-back sur l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Supérieur obtenue par des mathématiciens à l'Université de Liège
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de Doctorat Spécial, désignés en abrégé par les acronymes AES et DS respectivement. Dans cet article, nous présentons succinctement ces deux épreuves, esquissons une étude historique générale sur ces diplômes, et plus spécialement sur celui de l’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège. Nous dressons ensuite la liste de diplômés AES ou DS en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège de 1931 à 2004 (ce qui correspond à la période pendant laquelle l’AES existait officiellement en Belgique), puis nous nous attardons plus spécialement sur un cas particulier, à savoir celui de l’auteur de ces lignes: nous retraçons la chronique des trois épreuves, ce qui nous permet de rappeler le règlement alors en application (en 1984-985). Nous terminons ce travail par cinq annexes composées de documents et de photos d'époque. [less ▲]

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See detailL'érable sycomore: une espèce d'érables toxique
Genoux, Nelly; Votion, Dominique ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles ... [more ▼]

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles respiratoires, posturaux et le myocarde, à l’issue souvent mortelle : la myopathie atypique. L’intoxication est saisonnière, avec deux principales périodes à risque au pâturage : la levée des plantules au printemps et la chute des fruits (samares) à l’automne. Comment limiter les risques sans systématiquement abattre les érables ? [less ▲]

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See detailInterdiction de la mendicité : une atteinte au droit à la vie privée selon Strasbourg
Franssen, Mathilde ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié ... [more ▼]

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié de manière inoffensive. Quelle est la portée de cet arrêt ? Qu’implique-t-il pour la Belgique ? [less ▲]

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See detailCamera Calibration and Player Localization in SoccerNet-v2 and Investigation of their Representations for Action Spotting
Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Magera, Floriane ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by ... [more ▼]

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by effective deep learning techniques developed in the field of computer vision. In this work, we focus on the topic of camera calibration and on its current limitations for the scientific community. More precisely, we tackle the absence of a large-scale calibration dataset and of a public calibration network trained on such a dataset. Specifically, we distill a powerful commercial calibration tool in a recent neural network architecture on the large-scale SoccerNet dataset, composed of untrimmed broadcast videos of 500 soccer games. We further release our distilled network, and leverage it to provide 3 ways of representing the calibration results along with player localization. Finally, we exploit those representations within the current best architecture for the action spotting task of SoccerNet-v2, and achieve new state-of-the-art performances. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vérité sur le « Made in Belgium » de l’e-commerce alimentaire
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDe la Commune de Paris à l’Europe de la Communauté : bribes pour un imaginaire
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la ... [more ▼]

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la Catalogne d'aujourd'hui, Luciano Curreri trace un chemin qui révèle toute l'actualité des concepts mis en avant par la Commune à l'occasion de son 150e anniversaire. [less ▲]

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See detailInvest Smarter... All my Tweets on the Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most ... [more ▼]

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most of them appear in my Twitter archive. My initial goal was to share my observations, analyses, and conclusions as to the evolution of the world and the behavior of the markets over a period of several years – which happened to correspond with the Presidency of Donald J. Trump. Also, I wanted to organize and illustrate the key heuristics that I learned, often painfully, as a modest investor. Needless to say that I never expected to experience a full-scale pandemic, and its accompanying episode of mass hysteria. A very real, and global, Black Swan! My main conclusion today is that our world hasn’t changed that much over time. It’s almost like it was stuck in a “steady state”, or some kind of “eternal present”. Human beings continue to “lie, cheat and steal”… (US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo). De La Bruyère (1645-1696) was perfectly right in his “Characters”, and the observations of Erasmus (1467-1536) in “Praise of Folly” are more relevant than ever: “Let us not speak of the evil which man does to man: he ruins him, imprisons him, dishonors him, tortures him, sets traps for him, betrays him; to enumerate everything, with outrages, lawsuits, swindles, would be to count the grains of sand.” So, I think that any investor could still succeed and prosper in today’s digital markets while following the advice of Henry Clews (1836-1923) in “Fifty Years in Wall Street”. As to me…, without a doubt, I am no Warren Buffett :-)! Feel free to disagree with what you will read in the following pages, and don’t hesitate to develop your own theory of investing as you allocate capital and observe results – a painful and solitary exercise. Success is at that price! Fortunately, based on what I achieved during these hectic years, it shouldn’t be hard for you to do better... “Bon vent”… in the fog of the markets! [less ▲]

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See detailA Probabilistic Forecast-Driven Strategy for a Risk-Aware Participation in the Capacity Firming Market
Dumas, Jonathan ULiege; Cointe, Colin; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected renewable generation plant coupled with a battery energy storage device in the capacity firming market, designed to promote renewable power ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected renewable generation plant coupled with a battery energy storage device in the capacity firming market, designed to promote renewable power generation facilities in small non- interconnected grids, such as Overseas France islands. A recently developed new deep learning model named normalizing flows is used to generate quantile forecasts of renewable generation. Normalizing flows are an increasingly active and promising area of machine learning research. They provide a general mechanism for defining expressive probability distributions, only requiring the specification of a base distribution and a series of bijective transformations. Then, a probabilistic forecast-driven strategy is designed, modeled as a min-max-min robust optimization problem with recourse, and solved using a Benders decomposition. The convergence is improved by building an initial set of cuts derived from domain knowledge. Robust optimization models the generation randomness using an uncertainty set which includes the worst-case generation scenario, and protects this scenario under the minimal increment of costs. This approach improves the results over a deterministic approach with nominal point forecasts by finding a trade-off between conservative and risk-seeking policies. Finally, a dynamic risk-averse parameters selection strategy based on the quantile forecasts distribution provides an additional gain. The case study uses the photovoltaic generation monitored on site at the University of Liège (ULiège), Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween Self-Reliance and Responsibility: Rereading the Emersonian Sublime in an Age of Crisis
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to ... [more ▼]

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to develop a genuine sense of broader responsibility toward nonhumans and humans alike. In the light of the global ecological crisis and pandemic, the Emersonian Sublime urges us not to repeat our “failures and follies” but to deeply reflect upon their severe consequences, to learn from them, and to turn them into “justice” for all. Reconsidering our actions and lifestyle also compels us to redefine our relationship with what we have so far viewed as beautiful or sublime. The “nonconformist” individual is not exactly a social outcast, or one who renounces any interactions with other beings. Emersonian nonconformism highlights the urgency to stop blindly embracing everything that our society has thrown at us and to constantly question the legitimacy and utility of both our and others’ actions. After all, the “transparent eye-ball” metaphor itself might also be an invitation to start unveiling the appearances that were designed to conceal and protect injustices, and to begin to find problems where we had always seen solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa double carrière menée par les étudiants sportifs. Dans quelle mesure les domaines scolaire et sportif sont-ils liés ?
Bonni, Jérémy ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou ... [more ▼]

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou la performance sportive. Les relations pouvant exister entre ces deux domaines sont plus rarement étudiées. Dans cette recherche, nous avons questionné 56 judokas de haut niveau de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (Belgique) ayant été inscrits dans un établissement secondaire avant 2016. Les thèmes abordés portaient principalement sur la mesure de variables motivationnelles (domaines scolaire et sportif) visant à vérifier un modèle proposé. À partir d’analyses statistiques descriptives et corrélationnelles, nous avons pu mettre en évidence l’interrelation étroite entre les deux domaines et, plus particulièrement, identifier des variables corrélées positivement aux performances réalisées dans chacun d’eux. [less ▲]

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See detailHanan v. Germany: applying the ECHR to United Nations international military operation without affecting States’ willingness and ability to engage in such operations?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new ... [more ▼]

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new insights to its already complex case law regarding the extraterritorial applicability of the European Convention on Human Rights (the ‘Convention’). In the case Hanan v. Germany (application no. 4871/16), the Strasbourg-based Court confirmed the application of the Convention to German prosecution authorities in the context of an extraterritorial military operation within the framework of a mandate given by a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. This is therefore a particularly sensitive case, dealing both with the limits of the scope of the Convention and the effect it may have on military and geopolitical issues. [less ▲]

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See detailChunking by social relationship in working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task [less ▲]

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See detailDistance de collaboration
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en ... [more ▼]

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en quelque sorte le degré de collaboration entre des mathématiciens-chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Global Parameters for Flow-based Neural Posterior Estimation
Rodrigues, Pedro; Moreau, Thomas; Louppe, Gilles ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e ... [more ▼]

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e., when distinct sets of parameters yield identical observations. This arises in many practical situations, such as when inferring the distance and power of a radio source (is the source close and weak or far and strong?) or when estimating the amplifier gain and underlying brain activity of an electrophysiological experiment. In this work, we present a method for cracking such indeterminacy by exploiting additional information conveyed by an auxiliary set of observations sharing global parameters. Our method extends recent developments in simulation-based inference(SBI) based on normalizing flows to Bayesian hierarchical models. We validate quantitatively our proposal on a motivating example amenable to analytical solutions, and then apply it to invert a well known non-linear model from computational neuroscience. [less ▲]

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See detailJournalism students in internship and deontology in French-speaking Belgium
Krywicki, Boris ULiege; Tixier, Florian; Fierens, Marie et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAutomatic sequences: from rational bases to trees
Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic ... [more ▼]

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic sequences built on a numeration system with a regular numeration language, we consider these built on languages associated with trees having periodic labeled signatures and, in particular, rational base numeration systems. We obtain two main characterizations of these sequences. The first one is concerned with r-block substitutions where r morphisms are applied periodically. In particular, we provide examples of such sequences that are not morphic. The second characterization involves the factors, or subtrees of finite height, of the tree associated with the numeration system and decorated by the terms of the sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical behavior of alternate base expansions
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Dajani, Karma

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a ... [more ▼]

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a particular case of Cantor bases. As in the real base case, these new transformations, denoted Tβ and Lβ respectively, can be iterated in order to generate the digits of the greedy and lazy β-expansions of real numbers. The aim of this paper is to describe the dynamical behaviors of Tβ and Lβ. We first prove the existence of a unique absolutely continuous (with respect to an extended Lebesgue measure, called the p-Lebesgue measure) Tβ-invariant measure. We then show that this unique measure is in fact equivalent to the p-Lebesgue measure and that the corresponding dynamical system is ergodic and has entropy 1/p log(βp−1 · · · β0). We then express the density of this p measure and compute the frequencies of letters in the greedy β-expansions. We obtain the dynamical properties of Lβ by showing that the lazy dynamical system is isomorphic to the greedy one. We also provide an isomorphism with a suitable extension of the β- shift. Finally, we show that the β-expansions can be seen as (βp−1 · · · β0 )-representations over general digit sets and we compare both frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailFoucault auditeur: les études de philosophie et de psychologie à Paris, 1946-1953.
Dassonneville, Gautier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken ... [more ▼]

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken during the years of study in Paris where Foucault obtained his degrees in philosophy and psychology, at the end of a double course of study carried out between 1946 and 1953, at the ENS and the Sorbonne. Placed side by side, these documents reveal the portrait of a Foucault who, between the ages of twenty and twenty-seven, trained with some of the new masters of the University at the Liberation, took part in the age-old and prestigious game of the Agrégation in philosophy and enrolled among the very first students of the new psychology course at the University of Paris. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version) [less ▲]

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See detailTémoignages d'universitaires liégeois en liaison avec la guerre de la mathématique moderne
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième siècle, et la "Guerre de la Mathématique Moderne" au vingtième siècle. Ces deux épisodes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses études historiques. Dans ce travail, nous allons nous intéresser exclusivement à la "guerre de la mathématique moderne" qui s'est déroulée dans les années 1960 et 1970 à propos d'une réforme radicale préconisant d'introduire les concepts d'ensembles et de structures mathématiques dans le secondaire (et même dans le primaire et en maternelle). Cette étude est focalisée sur l'action de mathématiciens de l'Université de Liège autour de cette réforme, ce qui est apparemment l'objet de peu de travaux historiques. Et pourtant, cette querelle fut ``ardente''. Nous en apportons des témoignages datant de l'époque concernée. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment using chalybs, according to Johannes Hartmann and Eberhard Gockel: A remedy against diseases of the liver and the spleen in 17th century Germany
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has ... [more ▼]

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has written, ‘the road to the laboratory of chemical medicine in Marburg began in Kassel, at the court of the university’s protector, the Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572-1632)’. Having studied at Wittenberg, Hartmann was appointed as a mathematician in Kassel and was chosen to fill the chair of mathematics when the incumbent died. He received a medical degree in 1606 and ‘began a brief correspondence with the French Paracelsian, Joseph Duchesne (Quercetanus) (c. 1544-1609), who had visited Kassel in 1604’. Moritz had become captivated by the study of occult philosophy, especially in relation to alchemy, and was well on his way to amassing an extensive collection of alchemical, Cabbalistic, and Paracelsian manuscripts, and to fashioning a court circle of alchemical and medical adepts. Thus, ‘in 1608, he enthusiastically received a suggestion from Hartmann for founding a collegium chymicum at Marburg’ and he ‘chose to invest Hartmann with a new university role and a new title – Professor publicus chymiatriae’. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitique commerciale extérieure : quel rôle pour les assemblées parlementaires ? Le cas des États-Unis et de l’Union Européenne
Bricart, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les États-Unis ont à ce titre joué un rôle de premier plan dans ces initiatives et dans leurs proliférations. Face à l’impact grandissant de la globalisation sur le quotidien des citoyens, les assemblées législatives tendent à s’impliquer progressivement dans ces processus diplomatiques et à gagner en importance et en visibilité dans leur fonction vis-à-vis de ces accords. Si bien qu’aujourd’hui, toute personne s’intéressant de près ou de loin à l’étude des accords commerciaux ne peut plus ignorer le rôle qu’y jouent les parlements des États impliqués dans ces processus. Les négociations du Partenariat Transatlantique de Commerce et d’Investissement (TTIP), de l’Accord Économique et Commercial Global (CETA) et de l’Accord de Partenariat Transpacifique (TPP) représentent ainsi de bons indicateurs du rôle, des atouts et des limites que les interventions d’un parlement dans un processus de négociation peuvent rencontrer en fonction du contexte politique ou institutionnel et de l’appui de l’opinion publique. Le Parlement européen et le Congrès américain constituent respectivement des assemblées législatives relativement puissantes, représentant un nombre de citoyens conséquent et ayant d’importantes prérogatives constitutionnelles ou institutionnelles en matière commerciale, mais évoluant dans des cadres significativement différents. Via leurs outils institutionnels et à travers des pressions formelles et informelles de la part de ces deux pouvoirs législatifs, les exécutifs se retrouvent souvent contraints de prendre en compte certaines revendications des parlementaires faisant voix aux revendications d’une partie de la société civile. À défaut, le risque de voir une négociation échouer faute de ratification de l’accord par le pouvoir législatif est important. Néanmoins, l’influence du pouvoir législatif n’est pas la même pour chaque négociation et le contexte de celle-ci va dès lors jouer un rôle important pour en déterminer l’amplitude et la visibilité d’une assemblée dans ces différents processus. [less ▲]

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See detailshamo: A tool for electromagnetic modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of the head
Grignard, Martin ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Phillips, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and ... [more ▼]

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and, even though the geometry of the tissues can be extracted from magnetic resonance images (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), their physical properties such as the electrical conductivity are hard to measure with non intrusive techniques. In this paper, we propose a tool to assess the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as compute a parametric electroencephalography (EEG) forward solution and current distribution for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of consciousness in anesthesia
Montupil, Javier ULiege; Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDepth of sedation with dexmedetomidine modulates cortical excitability non-linearly
Cardone, Paolo ULiege; Bodart, Olivier; Kirsch, Murielle et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious ... [more ▼]

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious processes and underlying brain dynamics. Among commonly used anaesthetic agents, dexmedetomidine (DEX) effects are not completely known. In this study, we investigated cortical excitability as a function of DEX sedation depth.Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled with electroencephalography was recorded in 20 healthy subjects undergoing DEX sedation in four conditions (baseline, light sedation, deep sedation, recovery). Frontal and parietal cortices were stimulated using a neuronavigation system. Cortical excitability was inferred by slope, amplitude, positive and negative peak latencies of the first component (0-30 ms) of the TMS-evoked potential. Four Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to test the effect of condition and brain region over cortical excitability.Results Dexmedetomidine modulated amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P=0.0001) and positive peak (P=0.042), while the targeted brain region affected amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P\<0.001), and negative peak (P=0.001). The interaction between dexmedetomidine and region had an effect over amplitude (P=0.004), and slope (P=0.009) such that cortical excitability was higher during all conditions where DEX was present as compared to the baseline.Conclusions Cortical excitability changes non-linearly as a function of the depth of DEX sedation, with a paradoxical non dose-dependent increase. The effect is region-specific, being present in the frontal but not in the parietal region. Future research should extend the current results with other anaesthetics to better understand the link between cortical excitability and depth of sedation.Competing Interest StatementVB declares that he has received a research grant from Orion Pharma and honoraria for consultancy from Medtronic for the past 6 years. PC, OB, MK, JS, AV, CM, JS, SW, RS, SL, MM \& OG declare that they have no conflict of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization tool for the strategic outline and sizing of district heating networks using a geographic information system
Resimont, Thibaut ULiege; Louveaux, Quentin ULiege; Dewallef, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The implementation of district heating networks into cities is a main topic in European Union policy plannings looking for sustainable solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and improve global energy ... [more ▼]

The implementation of district heating networks into cities is a main topic in European Union policy plannings looking for sustainable solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and improve global energy efficiency of heating systems. Compared to decentralized heating production units, district heating networks provide higher energy efficiencies due to larger units’ sizes. However, their development into cities is generally limited by high initial investment costs and a long return on investment period. Therefore, policymakers and investors are reserved about new district heating networks projects because of the risks associated with the profitability of the project. The development of optimization methods intended to draft efficient systems using heating consumption profiles into a prescribed geographic area are useful in this purpose. A Multi-Period Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal outline and design of a district heating network based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) is described in this paper. The optimal outline aims to determine the location of the heating sources and the pipes into the network while the optimal design aims to size the pipes and the heating sources. This model can be used as a decision tool based on the maximization of the net cash flow (NCF) generated by the system from user-defined economic and physical parameters. This methodology aims to be applicable for a large range of problem sizes from small-scale to large-scale case studies while guarantying numerical robustness. The features of this model are thus implemented with the aim to solve a large-scale case study including nearly 2,000 streets to connect to a potential heating network. As a first step, the model is applied to a scaled down case study based on the initial one with 3 available heating sources and a neighbourhood of 16 streets with various heating demands to illustrate the main features of the optimization model. [less ▲]

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See detailLes trois « C » du succès pour une exposition d’art et d’histoire. L’expérience liégeoise
George, Philippe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Les expositions d'art et d'histoire à Liège

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See detailLa rivière ‘Khauraha’, médiatrice entre non-humains et villageois (Népal)
Vouiller, Nolwen ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l ... [more ▼]

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l'importance de la rivière dans les interactions entre humains et non-humains. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tessères onomastiques de Deir el-Médina : recherche en cours dans les collections de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire
Pietri, Renaud ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Short presentation of a work in progress on the 'name stones' from Deir el-Medina now kept in the IFAO's archives.

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See detailThe Scholcomm Chronicles #1. Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access
Dony, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles ... [more ▼]

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles", which will hopefully develop into an ongoing series. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogen maser magnetron cavity with low frequency-temperature coefficient
Van Der Beken, Emeline ULiege; Léonard, Daniel; Bastin, Thierry ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this Letter we show how a proper dimensioning of a magnetron cavity and its inner bulb allows one to design a hydrogen maser atomic clock with an arbitrary low frequency-temperature coefficient (FTC ... [more ▼]

In this Letter we show how a proper dimensioning of a magnetron cavity and its inner bulb allows one to design a hydrogen maser atomic clock with an arbitrary low frequency-temperature coefficient (FTC) for its cavity. The control of this parameter is of primary importance for the overall stability of the atomic clock. To this aim, a model based on finite element method (FEM) has been developed to simulate thermal expansion of hydrogen maser cavities and evaluate the FTC. The model has been confronted with direct experimental data and very good agreement is observed. A key geometrical parameter is identified that allows for a strong tuning of the FTC, so as to set it down to values a priori as close as desired to 0, with limitations only dictated by the machining tolerances of the mechanical elements of the hydrogen maser cavity. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Offshore Wind Siting Strategies on the Design of the European Power System
Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Berger, Mathias ULiege; Dubois, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper provides a detailed account of the impact of different offshore wind siting strategies on the design of the European power system. To this end, a two-stage method is proposed. In the first ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a detailed account of the impact of different offshore wind siting strategies on the design of the European power system. To this end, a two-stage method is proposed. In the first stage, a highly-granular siting problem identifies a suitable set of sites where offshore wind plants could be deployed according to a pre-specified criterion. Two siting schemes are analysed and compared within a realistic case study. These schemes essentially select a pre-specified number of sites so as to maximise their aggregate power output and their spatiotemporal complementarity, respectively. In addition, two variants of these siting schemes are provided, wherein the number of sites to be selected is specified on a country-by-country basis rather than Europe-wide. In the second stage, the subset of previously identified sites is passed to a capacity expansion planning framework that sizes the power generation, transmission and storage assets that should be deployed and operated in order to satisfy pre-specified electricity demand levels at minimum cost. Results show that the complementarity-based siting criterion leads to system designs which are up to 5% cheaper than the ones relying the power output-based criterion when offshore wind plants are deployed with no consideration for country-based deployment targets. On the contrary, the power output-based scheme leads to system designs which are consistently 2% cheaper than the ones leveraging the complementarity-based siting strategy when such constraints are enforced. The robustness of the results is supported by a sensitivity analysis on offshore wind capital expenditure and inter-annual weather variability, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the drain discharge
Schmitz, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDistributional Reinforcement Learning with Unconstrained Monotonic Neural Networks
Théate, Thibaut ULiege; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; Bolland, Adrien ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The distributional reinforcement learning (RL) approach advocates for representing the complete probability distribution of the random return instead of only modelling its expectation. A distributional RL ... [more ▼]

The distributional reinforcement learning (RL) approach advocates for representing the complete probability distribution of the random return instead of only modelling its expectation. A distributional RL algorithm may be characterised by two main components, namely the representation and parameterisation of the distribution and the probability metric defining the loss. This research considers the unconstrained monotonic neural network (UMNN) architecture, a universal approximator of continuous monotonic functions which is particularly well suited for modelling different representations of a distribution (PDF, CDF, quantile function). This property enables the decoupling of the effect of the function approximator class from that of the probability metric. The paper firstly introduces a methodology for learning different representations of the random return distribution. Secondly, a novel distributional RL algorithm named unconstrained monotonic deep Q-network (UMDQN) is presented. Lastly, in light of this new algorithm, an empirical comparison is performed between three probability quasimetrics, namely the Kullback-Leibler divergence, Cramer distance and Wasserstein distance. The results call for a reconsideration of all probability metrics in distributional RL, which contrasts with the dominance of the Wasserstein distance in recent publications. [less ▲]

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See detailGraph-Based Optimization Modeling Language: A Tutorial
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Bolland, Adrien ULiege; Miftari, Bardhyl ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured mixed-integer linear programs typically found in ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the graph-based optimization modeling language (GBOML), which enables the easy implementation of a broad class of structured mixed-integer linear programs typically found in applications ranging from energy system planning to supply chain management. More precisely, the language is particularly well-suited for representing problems involving the optimization of discrete-time dynamical systems over a finite time horizon and possessing a block decomposable structure that can be encoded by a sparse connected hypergraph. The language combines elements of both algebraic and object-oriented modeling languages in order to facilitate problem encoding and post-processing. This document discusses the abstract problem class that can be represented using the modeling language, details its grammar and provides two relevant examples of applications. The first example deals with the deployment of a microgrid system, while the second example focuses on the design and analysis of remote carbon-neutral fuel supply chains. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring statistical validity in group analyses of motion-corrupted MRI data
Lutti, Antoine; Corbin, Nadège; Ashburner, John et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Motion during the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data degrades image quality, hindering our capacity to characterize disease in patient populations. Quality control procedures allow the ... [more ▼]

Motion during the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data degrades image quality, hindering our capacity to characterize disease in patient populations. Quality control procedures allow the exclusion of the most affected images from analysis. However, the criterion for exclusion is difficult to determine objectively and exclusion can lead to a suboptimal compromise between image quality and sample size. We provide an alternative, data-driven solution that assigns weights to each image, computed from an index of image quality using restricted maximum likelihood. We illustrate this method through the analysis of brain MRI data. The proposed method restores the validity of statistical tests, and performs near optimally in all brain regions, despite local effects of head motion. This method is amenable to the analysis of a broad type of MRI data and can accommodate any measure of image quality. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality performance gaps, minimal electricity losses, and economic development in East Africa
Nsabimana, René ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Walheer, Barnabé ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Le papier mesure les performances en termes de minimisation des pertes d'électricité. En utilisant un modèle DEA window analysis, le papier utilise les données de six pays sur une période de 10 ans, de ... [more ▼]

Le papier mesure les performances en termes de minimisation des pertes d'électricité. En utilisant un modèle DEA window analysis, le papier utilise les données de six pays sur une période de 10 ans, de 2008 à 2017. L'analyse statistique montre que les pertes d'électricité dans les pays considérés varient entre 20 et 30%. Cela réduit de façon considérable les performances des compagnies d'électricité. La modélisation utilisée montre que l'écart en termes de minimisation des pertes est relativement favorable pour deux pays, l'Ouganda et le Kenya. Il est défavorable pour le Burundi, la Tanzanie, l'Ethiopie et le Rwanda. Tous les pays ont intérêt à continuer à mettre en oeuvre des mesures visant la réduction des pertes d'électricité [less ▲]

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See detailSe rétablir des excès de table selon Oribase, médecin grec de l’empereur Julien (milieu du IVe siècle)
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Recommandations thérapeutiques du médecin grec Oribase de Pergame pour se rétablir des excès de table et de boisson.

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
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See detailCRÉER DES SAÉ - Guide de soutien à la création de situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (SAÉ) en contexte d’APC1,2
Georges, François ULiege; Poumay, Marianne ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la ... [more ▼]

Guide d'aide à la rédaction de Situations d'Apprentissage et d'Évaluation. Le guide propose trois portes d'entrée : La première (en p. 2) reprend succinctement quelques éléments théoriques relatifs à la tâche authentique, ce qu’elle est et son intérêt. La seconde (en p. 6) est destinée à l’équipe enseignante désireuse d’entrer directement en action.Elle l’accompagne pas à pas dans la conception d’une SAÉ. La troisième (en p. 14) est une grille destinée à évaluer la qualité d’une SAÉ. L’outil s’adresse auxenseignants chevronnés qui souhaitent s’assurer que leur SAÉ rencontre les critères d’une tâche authentique susceptible de soutenir le développement de compétences. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailScientists for Future empfiehlt eine repräsentative Klima-Bürger:innenversammlung im Jahr 2021 (Version 1.0)
Hagedorn, Gregor; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULiège)
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See detailUn modèle relatif à la TSUS (Transition Secondaire-Université en Statistique)
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets ... [more ▼]

Nous nous intéressons à l'enseignement de la statistique descriptive au niveau de la TSU (Transition Secondaire-Université). Nous présentons un modèle didactique sous forme d'un graphe dont les sommets (ou pôles) sont relatifs aux savoirs en jeu (c'est-à-dire au savoir savant, au savoir à enseigner, au savoir enseigné et au savoir appris), tandis que les arcs traduisent l'influence directe d'un pôle sur un autre. Les degrés des divers sommets peuvent fournir intuitivement un indicateur relatif à l'importance des différents pôles dans le processus d'enseignement. [less ▲]

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See detailSpin-orbit-assisted electron pairing in 1D waveguides
Damanet, François ULiege; Mansfield, Elliott; Briggeman, Megan et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D ... [more ▼]

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D electron channels written on the $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ interface, we analyse how the presence of different forms of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can enhance electron pairing in 1D waveguides. We first show how the intrinsic Rashba SOC felt by electrons at interfaces such as $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ can be reduced when they are confined in 1D. Then, we discuss how SOC can be engineered, and show using a mean-field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model that SOC can generate and enhance spin-singlet and triplet electron pairing. Our results are consistent with two recent sets of experiments [Briggeman et al., arXiv:1912.07164; Sci. Adv. 6, eaba6337 (2020)] that are believed to engineer the forms of SOC investigated in this work, which suggests that metal-oxide heterostructures constitute attractive platforms to control the collective spin of electron bound states. However, our findings could also be applied to other experimental platforms involving spinful fermions with attractive interactions, such as cold atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailLes citoyens et leur patrimoine local en Wallonie
Pepe, Lauriano ULiege; Schmitz, Serge ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1976, l'asbl "Qualité village Wallonie" travaille à la sauvegarde du patrimoine rural local et a constaté au cours de ces dernières décennies des changements quant à l’intérêt des Wallons pour leur patrimoine. Ce document interroge le rôle actuel du patrimoine local et sa place dans les préoccupations citoyennes en présentant les résultats d'une enquête menée auprès de 1088 Wallons. [less ▲]

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See detailRegular sequences and synchronized sequences in abstract numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this ... [more ▼]

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this definition does not allow us to generalize all of the many characterizations of b-regular sequences. In this paper, we present an alternative definition of S-kernel, and hence an alternative definition of S-regular sequences, which enables us to use recognizable formal series in order to generalize most (if not all) known characterizations of b-regular sequences to abstract numeration systems. We then give two characterizations of S-automatic sequences as particular S-regular sequences. Next, we present a general method to obtain various families of S-regular sequences by enumerating S-recognizable properties of S-automatic sequences. As an example of the many possible applications of this method, we show that, provided that addition is S-recognizable, the factor complexity of an S-automatic sequence defines an S-regular sequence. In the last part of the paper, we study S-synchronized sequences. Along the way, we prove that the formal series obtained as the composition of a synchronized relation and a recognizable series is recognizable. As a consequence, the composition of an S-synchronized sequence and a S-regular sequence is shown to be S-regular. All our results are presented in an arbitrary dimension d and for an arbitrary semiring K. [less ▲]

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See detailSoccerNet-v2: A Dataset and Benchmarks for Holistic Understanding of Broadcast Soccer Videos
Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Giancola, Silvio et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose ... [more ▼]

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose SoccerNet-v2, a novel large-scale corpus of manual annotations for the SoccerNet video dataset, along with open challenges to encourage more research in soccer understanding and broadcast production. Specifically, we release around 300k annotations within SoccerNet's 500 untrimmed broadcast soccer videos. We extend current tasks in the realm of soccer to include action spotting, camera shot segmentation with boundary detection, and we define a novel replay grounding task. For each task, we provide and discuss benchmark results, reproducible with our open-source adapted implementations of the most relevant works in the field. SoccerNet-v2 is presented to the broader research community to help push computer vision closer to automatic solutions for more general video understanding and production purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailOpto-electronic properties and solar cell efficiency modelling of Cu2ZnXS4 (X=Sn,Ge,Si) kesterites
Ratz, Thomas ULiege; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege; Brammertz, Guy et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic ... [more ▼]

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic and optical properties of kesterite compounds. Direct bandgaps are reported with values of 1.32, 1.89 and 3.06 eV respectively for CZTS, CZGS and CZSS. In addition, absorption coefficient values of the order of 10^4 cm^{−1} are obtained, indicating the applicability of these materials as absorber layer for solar cell applications. In the second part of this study, ab initio results (absorption coefficient, refractive index and reflectivity) are used as input data to model the electrical power conversion efficiency of kesterite-based solar cell. In that perspective, we used an improved version of the Shockley-Queisser theoretical model including non-radiative recombination via an external parameter defined as the internal quantum efficiency. Based on predicted optimal absorber layer thicknesses, the variation of the solar cell maximal efficiency is studied as a function of the non-radiative recombination rate. Maximal efficiencies of 25.88 %, 19.94 % and 3.11 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 for vanishing non-radiative recombination rate. Using a realistic internal quantum efficiency which provides 𝑉OC values comparable to experimental measurements, solar cell efficiencies of 15.88, 14.98 and 2.66 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 (for an optimal thickness of 1.15 𝜇m). With this methodology we confirm the suitability of Cu2ZnSnS4 in single junction solar cells, with a possible efficiency improvement of 10% enabled through the reduction of the non-radiative recombination rate. In addition, Cu2ZnGeS4 appears to be an interesting candidate as top cell absorber layer for tandem approaches whereas Cu2ZnSiS4 might be interesting for transparent photovoltaic windows. [less ▲]

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See detailCan AI Replace the FTC?
Massarotto, Giovanna; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULiège)
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See detailLes contours de la nouvelle taxe sur les comptes-titres
Nollet, Aymeric ULiege; Philippe, Denis-Emmanuel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)
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See detailTowards constraining warm dark matter with stellar streams through neural simulation-based inference
Hermans, Joeri ULiege; Banik, Nilanjan; Weniger, Christophe et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to ... [more ▼]

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to constrain the mass of the dark matter particle. However, the likelihood of a stellar density with respect to the stream and subhaloes parameters involves solving an intractable inverse problem which rests on the integration of all possible forward realisations implicitly defined by the simulation model. In order to infer the subhalo abundance, previous analyses have relied on Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) together with domain-motivated but handcrafted summary statistics. Here, we introduce a likelihood-free Bayesian inference pipeline based on Amortised Approximate Likelihood Ratios (AALR), which automatically learns a mapping between the data and the simulator parameters and obviates the need to handcraft a possibly insufficient summary statistic. We apply the method to the simplified case where stellar streams are only perturbed by dark matter subhaloes, thus neglecting baryonic substructures, and describe several diagnostics that demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method and the statistical quality of the learned estimator. [less ▲]

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See detailLa preuve par l'image. "En Vie ?" : une inscription urbaine
Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des ... [more ▼]

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des Chercheur·e·s, réunissant des images commentées issues de travaux de recherche. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULiège)
See detailLutte contre la furiose du bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULiège)
See detailModels of Law and Regulation for AI
De Cooman, Jérôme ULiege; Petit, Nicolas

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk ... [more ▼]

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk regulation model. All four models currently inform, individually or jointly, integrally or partially, consciously or unconsciously, law and regulatory reform towards AI. We describe each model’s strengths and weaknesses, discuss whether technological evolution deserves to be accompanied by existing or new laws, and propose a fifth model based on externalities with a moral twist. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustry 4.0: An empirical analysis of its adoption in Wallonia
Paseyro Mayol, Joaquin ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Neysen, Nicolas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular technologies (Predictive Maintenance, Smart Production and Advanced Planning) in the Belgian region of Wallonia. In line with the claims of related qualitative studies, our findings suggest that smaller firms, which have a more restricted access to financial resources, are less prone to adopt these technologies. Our results are compatible with the notion that more digitally mature firms are more prone to be adopters. Moreover, we do not find evidence supporting the claim that more profitable firms are more likely to be adopters. Finally, we present indicative evidence regarding the efficacy of the regional governmental program which aimed to increase the diffusion of Industry 4.0. [less ▲]

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See detailThe political economic of financing climate policy : evidence from the solar PV subsidy programs
De Groote, Olivier; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Verboven, Frank

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar ... [more ▼]

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar PVs in the three regions of Belgium to ask the question of how voters responded to these programs. We provide evidence that voters did not reward the incumbent government that was responsible for the program, as predicted by the ‘buying-votes’ hypothesis. Instead, we find that voters punish the incumbent government because of the increasing awareness of the high financing costs. These did not only affectt he non-adopting electricity consumers who did not benefit from the programs, but also the adopting prosumers, who saw unannounced new costs such as the introduction of prosumer fees to get access to the grid. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (3 ULiège)
See detailCeramica comune da mensa e da dispensa di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULiège)
See detailCeramica da cucina di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULiège)
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See detailEquipedia: La myopathie atypique
Votion, Dominique ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
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See detailI want to be an Open Scientist! Research evaluation and incentives to boost Open Science and research careers
Tanlongo, Federica; O’Neill, Gareth; Kurapati, Shalini et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache ... [more ▼]

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache? When someone will evaluate my research, will the fact that my data complies with all the Open Science best practices matter? Or am I just losing time I should rather spend publishing on whatever journal I can lay hands on? And where am I supposed to learn how to be fair and open anyway? The right answer to these questions is crucial to the career choices and expectations of many students and young researchers, yes, but it is also the point which can make the difference between succeeding or failing in establishing Open Science (and ultimately Good Science). To be able to shift the research evaluation system in Europe in order to produce quality and reliable data, to set up a working incentive system for individual researchers and organisations is one of the keys to a widespread uptake of Open Science and FAIR practices. And being so crucial a point, we believe that researchers, Research Infrastructures, scientific organisations should have a say in this. That’s why we proposed an interactive session where good ideas, innovative pilots, proposed policies from all across Europe were presented and discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (7 ULiège)
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See detailConversation japonaise sur les bienfaits de la sémiotique
Badir, Sémir ULiege; Leone, Massimo

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULiège)
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See detailNutritional status of inmates in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo
De Coninck, Gérard; Okenge Ngongo, Leon; Ilunga Ilunga, Félicien et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional ... [more ▼]

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of inmates jailed in a prison of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-month period in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, DRC. Three hundred inmates were selected according to the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Severe malnutrition was defined according to Buzby index and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The inmates were aged between 18 and 70 years and primarily males (88.7%). Of them, 24% were suffering from severe malnutrition and 62% of moderate malnutrition as based on the NRI. At the time of study, 88% of inmates were incarcerated for more than 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with severe malnutrition were incarceration of more than 6 months (OR=5.1; 95% CI [1.5-17.4]), origin of food (prison vs. family or NGO) (OR=4.7; 95% CI [1.6-13.8]) but also presence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus and/or intestinal infections (OR=2.6; 95% CI [1.4-4.7]). Conclusions: The nutritional situation in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi is precarious. There is urgent need to supply enough nutrient-rich food to improve health of inmates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (2 ULiège)
See detailLa terre sigillée africaine - productions C, C/E et E
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (4 ULiège)
See detailLa céramique à vernis noir
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULiège)