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See detailOptimal Control of Renewable Energy Communities with Controllable Assets
Aittahar, Samy ULiege; Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Castronovo, Michaël ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

The control of renewable energy communities with controllable assets (e.g., batteries) can be formalised as a decision process. This paper pro-poses a generic formulation for such a problem whereby the ... [more ▼]

The control of renewable energy communities with controllable assets (e.g., batteries) can be formalised as a decision process. This paper pro-poses a generic formulation for such a problem whereby the electricity generated by the community members is redistributed using repartition keys. These keys represent the fraction of the surplus of local electricity production (i.e., electricity generated but not consumed by any community member) to be allocated to each community member. This formalisation allows to jointly optimise the controllable assets and the repartition keys in order to minimise the sum of the electricity bills of the community members, as opposed to common practices in the literature which only optimise one of them. To perform this optimisation, we propose ywo algorithms aimed to solve an optimal open-loop control problem in a receding horizon fashion. Moreover, we also propose another approximated algorithm which only optimises the controllable assets (as opposed to optimising both controllable assets and repartition keys). We test these algorithms on renewable energy community control problems built from synthetic data. Our results show that the sum of the electricity bills of the members is greatly reduced when simultaneously optimising the controllable assets and the repartition keys (i.e., the first two algorithms proposed). These findings strongly advocate the need for algorithms that take a more holistic standpoint when it comes to controlling energy sys-tems such as renewable energy communities, co-optimising or jointly op-timising them from both a traditional (very granular) control standpoint and a larger economic perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailDe linguae latinae usu, Actes du 13e Colloque international de Linguistique latine, Bruxelles et Liège, 4-9 avril 2005
Longrée, Dominique ULiege; Lenoble, Muriel

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailLes expériences de mort imminente: Que nous apprennent les neurosciences?
Martial, Charlotte ULiege

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 233 (27 ULiège)
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See detailL’allo-attribution au prisme d’une approche pragma-énonciative
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailInnovation
Artige, Lionel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailChurn prediction in online gambling
Merchie, Florian ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In business retention, churn prevention has always been a major concern. This work contributes to this domain by formalizing the problem of churn prediction in the context of online gambling as a binary ... [more ▼]

In business retention, churn prevention has always been a major concern. This work contributes to this domain by formalizing the problem of churn prediction in the context of online gambling as a binary classification task. We also propose an algorithmic answer to this problem based on recurrent neural network. This algorithm is tested with online gambling data that have the form of time series, which can be efficiently processed by recurrent neural networks. To evaluate the performances of the trained models, standard machine learning metrics were used, such as accuracy, precision and recall. For this problem in particular, the conducted experiments allowed to assess that the choice of a specific architecture depends on the metric which is given the greatest importance. Architectures using nBRC favour precision, those using LSTM give better recall, while GRU-based architectures allow a higher accuracy and balance two other metrics. Moreover, further experiments showed that using only the more recent time-series histories to train the networks decreases the quality of the results. We also study the performances of models learned at a specific instant t, at other times t' > t. The results show that the performances of the models learned at time t remain good at the following instants t' > t, suggesting that there is no need to refresh the models at a high rate. However, the performances of the models were subject to noticeable variance due to one-off events impacting the data. [less ▲]

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See detailBinomial Complexities and Parikh-Collinear Morphisms
Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege; Whiteland, Markus ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Two words are k-binomially equivalent, if each word of length at most k occurs as a subword, or scattered factor, the same number of times in both words. The k-binomial complexity of an infinite word maps ... [more ▼]

Two words are k-binomially equivalent, if each word of length at most k occurs as a subword, or scattered factor, the same number of times in both words. The k-binomial complexity of an infinite word maps the natural n to the number of k-binomial equivalence classes represented by its factors of length n. Inspired by questions raised by Lejeune, we study the relationships between the k and (k+1)-binomial complexities; as well as the link with the usual factor complexity. We show that pure morphic words obtained by iterating a Parikh-collinear morphism, i.e. a morphism mapping all words to words with bounded abelian complexity, have bounded k-binomial complexity. In particular, we study the properties of the image of a Sturmian word by an iterate of the Thue-Morse morphism. [less ▲]

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See detailOn digital sequences associated with Pascal's triangle
Mathonet, Pierre ULiege; Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We consider the sequence of integers whose nth term has base-p expansion given by the nth row of Pascal's triangle modulo p (where p is a prime number). We first present and generalize well-known ... [more ▼]

We consider the sequence of integers whose nth term has base-p expansion given by the nth row of Pascal's triangle modulo p (where p is a prime number). We first present and generalize well-known relations concerning this sequence. Then, with the great help of Sloane's On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, we show that it appears naturally as a subsequence of a 2-regular sequence. Its study provides interesting relations and surprisingly involves odious and evil numbers, Nim-sum and even Gray codes. Furthermore, we examine similar sequences emerging from prime numbers involving alternating sum-of-digits modulo p. This note ends with a discussion about Pascal's pyramid involving trinomial coefficients. [less ▲]

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See detailSequencing of over 100,000 individuals identifies multiple genes and rare variants associated with Crohns disease susceptibility
International IBD Genetics Consortium; Rahmouni, Souad ULiege; Georges, Michel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci associated with Crohns disease (CD), however, as with all complex diseases, deriving pathogenic mechanisms from these non-coding ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci associated with Crohns disease (CD), however, as with all complex diseases, deriving pathogenic mechanisms from these non-coding GWAS discoveries has been challenging. To complement GWAS and better define actionable biological targets, we analysed sequenced data from more than 30,000 CD patients and 80,000 population controls. We observe rare coding variants in established CD susceptibility genes as well as ten genes where coding variation directly implicates the gene in disease risk for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailUne invitation à vivre
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Je ne me fais aucune illusion sur l’influence que pourrait avoir un professeur à la retraite... Nous vivons depuis deux ans avec un virus qui change notre vie et, plus encore, celles de nos enfants et ... [more ▼]

Je ne me fais aucune illusion sur l’influence que pourrait avoir un professeur à la retraite... Nous vivons depuis deux ans avec un virus qui change notre vie et, plus encore, celles de nos enfants et petits-enfants. Pourtant, nous disposons aujourd’hui d’informations fiables et valables sur la réalité des choses. Le plus important : vous n’êtes pas mort ; moi non plus ! Le temps est venu de s’assoir, de se taire et de penser (Sit down, Shut up and Think !). Pendant cette Éclipse de la Raison, le monde n’a pas cessé de se transformer, de progresser. Nous avons appris à modifier nos modes de communication, d’interaction et d’apprentissage. En perdant – temporairement ? – quelque liberté, nous en avons conquis de nouvelles. On n’a jamais autant joué, cuisiné, lu, échangé, médité (prié ?) qu’aujourd’hui. Une prise de conscience de l’importance de la vie familiale, de la vie professionnelle, et du respect de la Constitution, a vu le jour. Au cours de la phase de relativisme et de négation du sens que nous traversions, c’est un réveil utile. Le moment est venu d’octroyer quelques… titres et promotions ; de tourner la page sur des craintes déraisonnables ; et d’oser Vivre et Travailler. Cette Renaissance s’inscrit dans la Continuité de l’Histoire, éclairée des lueurs d’une plus Savante Ignorance. [less ▲]

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See detailLe «Lubin», la comédie de Justine Favart et la colline de Spa
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (5 ULiège)
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See detailActualité d'Annette et Lubin: Spa, Marmontel et Fragonard
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailInvestir : apprendre à attendre
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Sur les marchés financiers, avoir raison trop tôt, c’est se tromper ! Il ne faut jamais reporter à demain ce qu’on peut reporter après demain ! On apprend tous, généralement dans la douleur, qu’il vaut ... [more ▼]

Sur les marchés financiers, avoir raison trop tôt, c’est se tromper ! Il ne faut jamais reporter à demain ce qu’on peut reporter après demain ! On apprend tous, généralement dans la douleur, qu’il vaut mieux acheter un peu trop tard, qu’un peu trop tôt ; et vendre un peu trop tôt, qu’un peu trop tard. Ce n’est jamais une mauvaise décision de gagner de l’argent en corrigeant les errements des marchés. C’est même la seule manière de contribuer à leur fonctionnement, à leur efficience. Ne pas être rentable est la preuve irréfutable qu’un investissement n’était pas justifié, et que la décision prise était mauvaise. Plutôt que de chercher à gagner, la clé est donc de concevoir des stratégies qui permettent de réduire, voire d’éliminer, les pertes. Apprendre à attendre est le chemin du succès. Peut-être aussi, celui de la sagesse. C’est en s’organisant pour ne pas perdre qu’on finit par vaincre. L’intelligence et la patience l’emportent sur le hasard (l’irrationalité) et la nécessité (la violence) qui, une fois maîtrisés, deviennent des alliés. Quant au reste : « Seul le silence est grand, tout le reste est faiblesse » (Alfred de Vigny). [less ▲]

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See detailDisruption in structural-functional network repertoire and time resolved subcortical-frontoparietal connectivity in disorders of consciousness
Panda, Rajanikant ULiege; THIBAUT, Aurore ULiege; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ane et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Understanding recovery of consciousness and elucidating its underlying mechanism is believed to be crucial in the field of basic neuroscience and medicine. Ideas such as the global neuronal workspace and ... [more ▼]

Understanding recovery of consciousness and elucidating its underlying mechanism is believed to be crucial in the field of basic neuroscience and medicine. Ideas such as the global neuronal workspace and the mesocircuit theory hypothesize that failure of recovery in conscious states coincide with loss of connectivity between subcortical and frontoparietal areas, a loss of the repertoire of functional networks states and metastable brain activation. We adopted a time-resolved functional connectivity framework to explore these ideas and assessed the repertoire of functional network states as a potential marker of consciousness and its potential ability to tell apart patients in the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). In addition, prediction of these functional network states by underlying hidden spatial patterns in the anatomical network, i.e. so-called eigenmodes, were supplemented as potential markers. By analysing time-resolved functional connectivity from fMRI data, we demonstrated a reduction of metastability and functional network repertoire in UWS compared to MCS patients. This was expressed in terms of diminished dwell times and loss of nonstationarity in the default mode network and fronto-parietal subcortical network in UWS compared to MCS patients. We further demonstrated that these findings co-occurred with a loss of dynamic interplay between structural eigenmodes and emerging time-resolved functional connectivity in UWS. These results are, amongst others, in support of the global neuronal workspace theory and the mesocircuit hypothesis, underpinning the role of time-resolved thalamo-cortical connections and metastability in the recovery of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intelligence des choses
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Si vous croyez que la réalité (espace-temps) est le seul fruit du hasard (mutations aléatoires) et de la nécessité (sélection naturelle), faisant de l’univers un « oxymore hallucinant », selon Jean ... [more ▼]

Si vous croyez que la réalité (espace-temps) est le seul fruit du hasard (mutations aléatoires) et de la nécessité (sélection naturelle), faisant de l’univers un « oxymore hallucinant », selon Jean d’Ormesson, je vous invite à ne pas me lire ! Les certitudes, qu’elles soient physiques ou métaphysiques, ne font pas partie de mon quotidien. Je pense, et cela me suffit à vivre. Dans notre monde, il n’y a que deux types de choses (matérielles, intellectuelles, spirituelles): celles qui ont été créées par l’homme et sont le fruit de sa pensée, et celles qui ne le sont pas. Aucune autre possibilité ! Pour les premières, sans doute, le hasard et la nécessité sont d’utiles partenaires. Mais, le choix final de les admettre dans la réalité lui appartient. Elles sont, directement ou indirectement, la projection de sa volonté. Il en est le coauteur, sinon le créateur. Mais, pour les secondes, qui dépassent en nombre, en beauté, en complexité et en harmonie les premières, la question reste entière : à quelle intelligence, à quelle sagesse, à quelle bonne volonté, doivent-elles d’exister ? Cette question ne peut être éludée face au grand dérèglement de l’esprit et des mœurs auquel nous assistons. Époque détraquée ? Révolutionnaire ? Évitons de perdre la maîtrise du temps : il faut choisir : la paix ou la guerre ? La vérité ou le mensonge ? Le bien ou le mal ? L’Être ou le néant ? « Le sage dont notre monde a besoin a bel et bien existé. C’était il y a deux mille ans […] Puissent les dirigeants de ce monde l’entendre, et surtout l’écouter, avant qu’il ne soit trop tard » (Christian de Duve, prix Nobel de médecine). [less ▲]

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See detailLe « Poniatowsky » (milieu du dix-neuvième siècle)
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailGeneralized Vandermonde determinants
Dupont, Pascal ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nous établissons une formule pour le calcul de déterminants de Vandermonde généralisés, qui apparaissent dans des problèmes d'interpolation.

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See detailIntervista all’autore
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

“Il mondo come teatro. Storia e storie nelle narrazioni di Ernesto Ferrero” di Luciano Curreri – Intervista all’autore – 29 novembre 2021

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See detailRethinking protein drug design with highly accurate structure prediction of anti-CRISPR proteins
Park, Ho-Min; Park, Yunseol; Vankerschaver, Joris et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Protein therapeutics play an important role in controlling the functions and activities of disease-causing proteins in modern medicine. Despite protein therapeutics having several advantages over ... [more ▼]

Protein therapeutics play an important role in controlling the functions and activities of disease-causing proteins in modern medicine. Despite protein therapeutics having several advantages over traditional small-molecule therapeutics, further development has been hindered by drug complexity and delivery issues. However, recent progress in deep learning-based protein structure prediction approaches such as AlphaFold opens new opportunities to exploit the complexity of these macro-biomolecules for highly-specialised design to inhibit, regulate or even manipulate specific disease-causing proteins. Anti-CRISPR proteins are small proteins from bacteriophages that counter-defend against the prokaryotic adaptive immunity of CRISPR-Cas systems. They are unique examples of natural protein therapeutics that have been optimized by the host-parasite evolutionary arms race to inhibit a wide variety of host proteins. Here, we show that these Anti-CRISPR proteins display diverse inhibition mechanisms through accurate structural prediction and functional analysis. We find that these phage-derived proteins are extremely distinct in structure, some of which have no homologues in the current protein structure domain. Furthermore, we find a novel family of Anti-CRISPR proteins which are structurally homologous to the recently-discovered mechanism of manipulating host proteins through enzymatic activity, rather than through direct inference. Using highly accurate structure prediction, we present a wide variety of protein-manipulating strategies of anti-CRISPR proteins for future protein drug design. [less ▲]

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See detailFreedom and Rational Behavior: Making Choices and its Consequences amidst COVID-19
Pahud de Mortanges, Charles ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this personal essay, freedom, and the freedom to choose are considered amidst the current COVID-19 pandemic. The question is raised how free we truly are and to what extent we are influenced by others ... [more ▼]

In this personal essay, freedom, and the freedom to choose are considered amidst the current COVID-19 pandemic. The question is raised how free we truly are and to what extent we are influenced by others. What role do social media play in disseminating false information and contribute to irrational behavior? People have the right to believe what they want, but not everything a person believes is right, which has consequences. This essay cites a number of scientific studies to support the detrimental effects of misleading information on the COVID-19 virus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe digital twin concept: a definition attempt
Tonka, Jenny ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nowadays more than ever, the digital transition is an essential evolution for the survival of industrial activity. Digital twins (DT) are a good way for enterprises to face this new challenge. Although ... [more ▼]

Nowadays more than ever, the digital transition is an essential evolution for the survival of industrial activity. Digital twins (DT) are a good way for enterprises to face this new challenge. Although the concept is not new, there is still no general agreement on its definition. Therefore, this paper seeks to identify what are the key elements of DTs and attempts to formulate a definition that group them all together. [less ▲]

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See detailPosterior integration and thalamo-frontotemporal broadcasting are impaired in disorders of consciousness
Panda, Rajanikant ULiege; López-González, Ane; Gilson, Matthieu et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The study of the brain’s dynamical activity is opening a valuable source of assistance for the clinical diagnosis of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). For example, dysfunctional spread of ... [more ▼]

The study of the brain’s dynamical activity is opening a valuable source of assistance for the clinical diagnosis of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). For example, dysfunctional spread of naturalistic and synthetic stimuli has proven useful to characterize hampered consciousness. However, understanding of the mechanisms behind loss of consciousness following brain injury is still missing. Here, we study the propagation of endogenous and in-silico exogenous perturbations in patients with DOC, based upon directed and causal interactions estimated from resting-state fMRI. We found that patients with DOC suffer decreased capacity for neural propagation and responsiveness to events. Particularly, that loss of consciousness is related to the malfunctioning of two neural circuits: the posterior cortical regions failing to convey information, in conjunction with reduced broadcasting of information from subcortical, temporal, parietal and frontal regions. These results seed light on the mechanisms behind DOC, thus opening new possibilities for clinical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailTOI-2257 b: A highly eccentric long-period sub-Neptune transiting a nearby M dwarf
Schanche, N.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Günther, M. N. et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Thanks to the relative ease of finding and characterizing small planets around M dwarf stars, these objects have become cornerstones in the field of exoplanet studies. The current paucity of planets in ... [more ▼]

Thanks to the relative ease of finding and characterizing small planets around M dwarf stars, these objects have become cornerstones in the field of exoplanet studies. The current paucity of planets in long-period orbits around M dwarfs make such objects particularly compelling as they provide clues about the formation and evolution of these systems. In this study, we present the discovery of TOI-2257 b (TIC 198485881), a long-period (35 d) sub-Neptune orbiting an M3 star at 57.8pc. Its transit depth is about 0.4%, large enough to be detected with medium-size, ground-based telescopes. The long transit duration suggests the planet is in a highly eccentric orbit ($e \sim 0.5$), which would make it the most eccentric planet that is known to be transiting an M-dwarf star. We combined TESS and ground-based data obtained with the 1.0-m SAINT-EX, 0.60-m TRAPPIST-North and 1.2-m FLWO telescopes to find a planetary size of 2.2 $R_{\oplus}$ and an orbital period of 35.19 days. In addition, we make use of archival data, high-resolution imaging, and vetting packages to support our planetary interpretation. With its long period and high eccentricity, TOI-2257 b falls in a novel slice of parameter space. Despite the planet's low equilibrium temperature ($\sim$ 256 K), its host star's small size ($R_* = 0.311 \pm{0.015}$) and relative infrared brightness (K$_{mag}$ = 10.7) make it a suitable candidate for atmospheric exploration via transmission spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit de ne pas croire
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nous vivons une période singulière de l’Histoire. Une capacité de calcul et de raisonnement infinie, fruit de développements technologiques remarquables, amène la Science à découvrir son incapacité à tout ... [more ▼]

Nous vivons une période singulière de l’Histoire. Une capacité de calcul et de raisonnement infinie, fruit de développements technologiques remarquables, amène la Science à découvrir son incapacité à tout expliquer. Comme à d’autres étapes de notre longue marche, la tentation devient forte pour certains d’imposer leurs croyances, plutôt que de montrer l’exemple et de faire appel à la raison pour convaincre. Mais, nous gardons Le droit de ne pas croire ceux qui voudraient nous obliger à croire en eux. Nous avons le droit d’être intelligents ! Ainsi, un scientifique a Le droit de ne pas croire que l’Univers soit la seule chose existante qui n’ait pas de cause. Un probabiliste a Le droit de ne pas croire que le hasard soit à l’origine de la rationalité intelligible. Un informaticien a Le droit de ne pas croire que la nécessité soit la cause de sa négation, le libre choix. Enfin, nous avons Le droit de ne pas croire que, sur la base des informations disponibles, tel virus causera notre mort, ou celle de nos proches. Nul besoin d’invectiver, ni de menacer. « Si la foi est la substance de l’espérance et la conviction des choses invisibles », les marchés financiers pourraient être devenus des « cathédrales » de l’éphémère, avec les risques que révèle le livre de l’Exode ! La bêtise des uns s’arrête où commence l’intelligence des autres. Pour la Science, l’Économie et les Marchés, seule la Réalité oblige ! [less ▲]

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See detailUnifying turbulent dynamics framework distinguishes different brain states
Escrichs, Anira; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Uribe, Carme et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Recently, significant advances have been made by identifying the levels of synchronicity of the underlying dynamics of a given brain state. This research has demonstrated that unconscious dynamics tend to ... [more ▼]

Recently, significant advances have been made by identifying the levels of synchronicity of the underlying dynamics of a given brain state. This research has demonstrated that unconscious dynamics tend to be more synchronous than those found in conscious states, which are more asynchronous. Here we go beyond this dichotomy to demonstrate that the different brain states are always underpinned by spatiotemporal chaos but with dissociable turbulent dynamics. We investigated human neuroimaging data from different brain states (resting state, meditation, deep sleep, and disorders of consciousness after coma) and were able to distinguish between them using complementary model-free and model-based measures of turbulent information transmission. Our model-free approach used recent advances describing a measure of information cascade across spatial scales using tools from turbulence theory. Complementarily, our model-based approach used exhaustive in silico perturbations of whole-brain models fitted to the empirical neuroimaging data, which allowed us to study the information encoding capabilities of the brain states. Overall, the current framework demonstrates that different levels of turbulent dynamics are fundamental for describing and differentiating between brain states. [less ▲]

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See detailLe pari de Donald J. Trump
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Vous connaissez sans doute le pari de Pascal : en pariant que Dieu est, si vous gagnez, vous gagnez tout ; si vous perdez, vous ne perdez rien… En confiant son avenir économique – et politique ? – aux ... [more ▼]

Vous connaissez sans doute le pari de Pascal : en pariant que Dieu est, si vous gagnez, vous gagnez tout ; si vous perdez, vous ne perdez rien… En confiant son avenir économique – et politique ? – aux marchés financiers, le pari de Donald Trump n’est pas fondamentalement différent. S’il gagne, il gagne tout ; s’il perd, il ne perd, sans doute, rien ! Le choix est donc aisé. Dans les quelques mois et années à venir, nous allons donc beaucoup apprendre d’une expérience naturelle (quasi-expérience), sur l’efficacité des marchés et l’intégrité des élections. Accessoirement, sur l’incidence de la volonté humaine sur le cours des choses. Quant à nous, n’ayons pas peur ! Le ciel ne va pas nous tomber sur la tête. Le pire n’est jamais certain ! Dieu merci, une nouvelle guerre mondiale est pratiquement impossible. « Today, we reaffirm the principle that a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought » (Geneva Joint Statement). Les hommes sont condamnés à vivre ensemble. Après d’inévitables poussées d’inflation, ruptures d’approvisionnement et mouvements sociaux, notre système politique et économique tendra vers un nouvel équilibre, fruit du travail de tous, des innovations technologiques et des choix, nécessairement courageux, effectués dans les domaines clés de l’industrie, de la défense, de l’éducation et de la santé. [less ▲]

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See detailqMRI-BIDS: an extension to the brain imaging data structure for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging data
Karakuzu, Agah; Appelhoff, Stefan; Auer, Tibor et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) established community consensus on the organization of data and metadata for several neuroimaging modalities. Traditionally, BIDS had a strong focus on functional ... [more ▼]

The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) established community consensus on the organization of data and metadata for several neuroimaging modalities. Traditionally, BIDS had a strong focus on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets and lacked guidance on how to store multimodal structural MRI datasets. Here, we present and describe the BIDS Extension Proposal 001 (BEP001), which adds a range of quantitative MRI (qMRI) applications to the BIDS. In general, the aim of qMRI is to characterize brain microstructure by quantifying the physical MR parameters of the tissue via computational, biophysical models. By proposing this new standard, we envision standardization of qMRI which makes multicenter dissemination of interoperable data possible. As a result, BIDS can act as a catalyst of convergence between qMRI methods development and application-driven neuroimaging studies that can help develop quantitative biomarkers for neural tissue characterization. Finally, our BIDS extension offers a common ground for developers to exchange novel imaging data and tools, reducing the practical barriers to standardization that is currently lacking in the field of neuroimaging. [less ▲]

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See detailBon appétit! mesdames, messieurs!
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Toute ressemblance avec des personnes ou des faits actuels ne pourrait être que pure et fortuite coïncidence. Mais…, c’est une des lois de l’histoire que ceux qui l’ignorent sont condamnés à la revivre ... [more ▼]

Toute ressemblance avec des personnes ou des faits actuels ne pourrait être que pure et fortuite coïncidence. Mais…, c’est une des lois de l’histoire que ceux qui l’ignorent sont condamnés à la revivre. Imprimer de la monnaie – aujourd’hui, la créer numériquement – n’est pas produire de la richesse ! L’économie est une science exacte... On ne peut redistribuer que ce qui a été produit. Le travail et l’entreprise privée sont les clés de la liberté. Ne cherchez pas ailleurs ! Encourager l’oisiveté dans le confinement n’est pas une politique. C’est le chemin de la servitude : The road to serfdom. La liberté et l’égalité demeurent d’irréductibles adversaires. Quant à la fraternité, elle relève de la foi. L’Acte III, Scène 2 de Ruy Blas (Victor Hugo, 1802-1885) est une leçon d’histoire et un test de réalité. Après la farce vient la tragédie. Toujours ! A conserver à l’esprit en cette période de fébrilité et de volatilité ? [less ▲]

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See detailAverting A Crisis In Simulation-Based Inference
Hermans, Joeri ULiege; Delaunoy, Arnaud ULiege; Rozet, François ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We present extensive empirical evidence showing that current Bayesian simulation-based inference algorithms are inadequate for the falsificationist methodology of scientific inquiry. Our results collected ... [more ▼]

We present extensive empirical evidence showing that current Bayesian simulation-based inference algorithms are inadequate for the falsificationist methodology of scientific inquiry. Our results collected through months of experimental computations show that all benchmarked algorithms - (s)npe, (s)nre, snl and variants of abc – may produce overconfident posterior approximations, which makes them demonstrably unreliable and dangerous if one’s scientific goal is to constrain parameters of interest. We believe that failing to address this issue will lead to a well-founded trust crisis in simulation-based inference. For this reason, we argue that research efforts should now consider theoretical and methodological developments of conservative approximate inference algorithms and present research directions towards this objective. In this regard, we show empirical evidence that ensembles are consistently more reliable. [less ▲]

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See detailDeforestation in Cambodia. A story of land concessions, migration and resource exploitation
Hayward, Daniel; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailJuly 2021 extreme floods in the Belgian part of the Meuse basin
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The floods which occurred in July 2021 in the Belgian part of the Meuse basin were the highest on record along many tributaries. The combination of such extreme flows with a floodplain vulnerability ... [more ▼]

The floods which occurred in July 2021 in the Belgian part of the Meuse basin were the highest on record along many tributaries. The combination of such extreme flows with a floodplain vulnerability comparable to the current one is unprecedented. This led to a high number of casualties, partly due to substantial surprise effects. In this article, the exceptional nature of the floods is highlighted, and some implications for flood risk management are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (8 ULiège)
See detailA closer look at an eroded dune landscape: first functional insights into the Federmessergruppen site of Lommel - Maatheide
Tomasso, Sonja ULiege; Cnuts, Dries ULiege; Coppe, Justin ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The vast Federmessergruppen site of Lommel-Maatheide, which is located in the Campine region (Northern Belgium), revealed the presence of numerous Final Palaeolithic concentrations situated on a large ... [more ▼]

The vast Federmessergruppen site of Lommel-Maatheide, which is located in the Campine region (Northern Belgium), revealed the presence of numerous Final Palaeolithic concentrations situated on a large Late Glacial sand ridge on the northern edge of a contemporary lake. This situation offers a unique possibility for a large-scale functional analysis in order to understand the occupation of such a Late Glacial dune landscape. The variable preservation state of the lithic artefacts permitted to evaluate in detail the impact of post-depositional processes on the potential of functional studies. Also, the impact of excavation protocols on the preservation of wear traces and residues was evaluated, in particular the impact of mechanical sieving. The integrated functional research that included the microscopic examination of wear traces, fractures and residues, next to experimentation, permitted the identification of a range of crafting and hunting activities, thereby demonstrating the potential of such assemblages for obtaining innovative insights into Late Glacial site dynamics in spite of a varying preservation state. [less ▲]

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See detailMichael Hulse, La mère des batailles
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This five part epic poem uses the Sumerian myth of Inanna and her journey to the underworld to expose the violence unleashed in the first Gulf War.

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULiège)
See detailTrois poètes, trois plaidoyers pour la paix
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

this short text introduces and contextualizes the French translations of three long poems written in response to war situation and pleading for peace.

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See detailLeonard Schwartz, Nouvelle Babel
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This long poem unfolds in generous Whitmanian verses the human capacity to experience and express love and sensual fulfilment in the face of blind destruction.

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULiège)
See detailArk
Gérard, Annette; Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

An elegy for those who died on 9/11 (2001), and all those who died violnt deaths because of imperialist exploitation or sheer profit-driven negligence is counterpointed by a celebration of life embodied ... [more ▼]

An elegy for those who died on 9/11 (2001), and all those who died violnt deaths because of imperialist exploitation or sheer profit-driven negligence is counterpointed by a celebration of life embodied in Colin Hawkins' sax solo. [less ▲]

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See detailL'essence de la vie
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’essence de la vie est ce qu’il en reste quand on l’a perdue. Comme François Mitterrand, dont je n’ignore rien des errements, je crois en la force de l’esprit. « … Nous sommes des êtres spirituels vivant ... [more ▼]

L’essence de la vie est ce qu’il en reste quand on l’a perdue. Comme François Mitterrand, dont je n’ignore rien des errements, je crois en la force de l’esprit. « … Nous sommes des êtres spirituels vivant une expérience humaine » (cf. Teilhard de Chardin). Nous devenons ce que nous choisissons d’être et non seulement ce que nous sommes. Freud se trompe... Le mal existe bien ! Il réside en toute pensée, toute parole, tout acte contraire au respect et à la compassion envers les autres. Ce n’est pas par hasard que la Règle d’Or porte son nom ! L’homme ne peut tout savoir, tout pouvoir. Le flot des événements improbables, impensables, impossibles ébranle ses théories et ses certitudes. Les marchés financiers nous le rappellent tous les jours et l’effondrement de l’armée Afghane en constitue un exemple. Le moment arrive où relativiser ses croyances permet de toucher à l’indicible, à l’essentiel ! Nul besoin de science, d’algorithme ou d’ordinateur pour y accéder. Un souffle de liberté, une réflexion franche et un zeste de volonté suffisent. [less ▲]

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See detailQue sont les matrimoines ? Projet d'exposition
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailCycle Selections
Baratto, Marie ULiege; Crama, Yves ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We introduce the following cycle selection problem which is motivated by an application to kidney exchange problems. Given a directed graph, a cycle selection is a subset of arcs forming a union of ... [more ▼]

We introduce the following cycle selection problem which is motivated by an application to kidney exchange problems. Given a directed graph, a cycle selection is a subset of arcs forming a union of directed cycles. A related optimization problem, the Maximum Weighted Cycle Selection problem can be defined as follows: given a weight for each arc, find a cycle selection which maximizes the total weight. We prove that this problem is strongly NP-hard. Next, we focus on cycle selections in complete directed graphs. We provide several ILP formulations of the problem: an arc formulation featuring an exponential number of constraints which can be separated in polynomial time, four extended compact formulations, and an extended non compact formulation. We investigate the relative strength of these formulations. We concentrate on the arc formulation and on the description of the associated cycle selection polytope. We prove that this polytope is full-dimensional, and that all the inequalities used in the arc formulation are facet-defining. Furthermore, we describe three new classes of facet-defining inequalities and a class of valid inequalities. We also consider the consequences of including additional constraints on the cardinality of a selection or on the length of the associated cycles. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailComputing Necessary Conditions for Near-Optimality in Capacity Expansion Planning Problems
Dubois, Antoine ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In power systems, large-scale optimisation problems are extensively used to plan for capacity expansion at the supranational level. However, their cost-optimal solutions are often not exploitable by ... [more ▼]

In power systems, large-scale optimisation problems are extensively used to plan for capacity expansion at the supranational level. However, their cost-optimal solutions are often not exploitable by decision-makers who are preferably looking for features of solutions that can accommodate their different requirements. This paper proposes a generic framework for addressing this problem. It is based on the concept of the epsilon-optimal feasible space of a given optimisation problem and the identification of necessary conditions over this space. This framework has been developed in a generic case, and an approach for solving this problem is subsequently described for a specific case where conditions are constrained sums of variables. The approach is tested on a case study about transmission expansion planning of the European electricity network to determine necessary conditions on the minimal investments in transmission, storage and generation capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailPas de chance... La chance n'existe pas!
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

On vit rarement des moments historiques. Des instants où le cours des choses bascule, le destin du monde se joue. La conférence de presse du Président Biden du 22 août 2021 restera dans les mémoires et ... [more ▼]

On vit rarement des moments historiques. Des instants où le cours des choses bascule, le destin du monde se joue. La conférence de presse du Président Biden du 22 août 2021 restera dans les mémoires et dans les livres d’histoire comme l’expression d’un tel moment. Pas de chance… La chance n’existe pas ! Comme le savent tous les probabilistes, l’invoquer comme facteur déterminant de la réalité, si l’on était honnête, requerrait de préciser le domaine de définition et la distribution de probabilité de chacun des phénomènes sous-jacents. Ce qui, en supposant que cela soit possible, consisterait à reporter le problème de l’ignorance du monde qui nous enveloppe et de l’action encore plus loin... « Kick the can further… Once again! » N’en déplaise à Spinoza, le bien et le mal ne sont pas que des mots et le libre arbitre une illusion. L’homme construit son histoire comme il l’entend, comme il en a le courage, en totale liberté. Le choix ultime est d’une simplicité biblique: préserver la civilisation en cherchant à l’étendre, ou la détruire en acceptant le chaos, voire le néant… Le Président Biden l’a parfaitement compris. Il a choisi. Bien, je le pense ! [less ▲]

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See detailLe fin fond des choses
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment ... [more ▼]

Je ne partage pas l’avis de nombreux intellectuels qui, au terme de leur vie, déclarent qu’ils ont finalement appris qu’ils ne savaient rien, ou, pour faire bonne figure et ne pas donner le sentiment d’avoir perdu leur temps, pas grand chose ! La réalité est que la vie offre à qui le désire une invraisemblable et infinie succession d’opportunités de découvrir, d’apprendre, et de progresser dans sa compréhension de ce qu’il est, et dans celle du monde singulier dans lequel il vit. La clé de toute vérité est dans la recherche systématique du lieu de convergence de ses contraires. C’est par ce que j’ai la certitude de ne pas être que je finis par savoir précisément qui je suis ! Il en va de même pour toutes les choses qui nous entourent. C’est pourquoi je trouve étrange que l’homme choisisse d’être le « fils de celui qui n’est pas » (le néant, le chaos) plutôt que le « fils de Celui qui est » (l’Eternel, l’Immanent). En cette période d’hystérie collective et d’éclipse du sens, il est essentiel d’énoncer certaines vérités scientifiques et historiques, précises et indiscutables, qui permettent d’atteindre Le fin fond des choses. « To be, or not to be, that is the question. » (William Shakespeare) [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailPer un Dante dappertutto e fuori posto, encore que...
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailPour solde de tout compte
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition ... [more ▼]

L’absence de sens n’a pas de sens ! Il appartient à chacun de le découvrir. Notre univers a une origine certaine. Il est en expansion. L’humanité ne cesse d’accumuler des connaissances. La compétition entre les nations atteint, enfin, sa limite. La conquête de l’espace est à portée de main. Notre niveau de civilisation amène à s’interroger sur sa préservation et son transfert. L’homme est cocréateur de la réalité et gardien de la vie. L’apparente fragilité de l’existence traduit sa robustesse. Le hasard et la nécessité ne peuvent, sous quelque condition que ce soit, expliquer une telle vérité, une telle histoire, une telle succession intelligible d’acteurs, de choses, d’événements et de faits. Un principe ne peut être la cause de sa négation ! Finalement, il n’est pas désagréable d’approcher du terme de sa vie en se disant qu’on n’a pas trop triché, pas trop menti, pas trop volé. Vivre, c’est apprendre et partager. On ne possède réellement que ce qu’on donne. Rien ne paraît plus urgent aujourd’hui que d’affirmer ses valeurs par la négation de celles qui leur sont contraires. Les quelques pages qui suivent n’ont d’autre objet. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sources orales, un apport précieux pour l'histoire des polices
Teicher, Elie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailIntelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ?
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est ... [more ▼]

« If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear » (George Orwell). S’il est exact qu’un problème bien posé est à moitié résolu (Henri Poincaré), il est plus vrai encore qu’un problème précisément défini cesse d’en être un. De surcroît, quand on a éliminé tout ce qui est impossible, ce qui reste, si improbable soit-il, est inévitablement la solution (Arthur Conan Doyle). Ainsi, une crise d’hystérie collective, telle que La Grande Panique de 2020, trouve naturellement son terme lorsque le substrat – concepts, modèles, théories – sur lequel elle repose, s’épuise. Ces objets intellectuels ne sont en fait que des croyances, des « actes de foi », dont il est toujours difficile de se débarrasser. « It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it… » (Upton Sinclair). Le Principe de Réalité nous invite à admettre l'existence d'une réalité supérieure, déstabilisatrice, non conforme à son idéalisation. Ainsi, le XXIème siècle pourrait marquer le début d’une ère nouvelle, centrée sur le retrait éthique et la transcendance. Intelligence naturelle ou stupidité artificielle ? « If you don't understand that, you're in the wrong business. » (Joe Biden) [less ▲]

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See detailraw data for article animals-1277236
Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailVittorio Frigerio : Nous nous reverrons aux barricades
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Io (2021) di Massimo Parizzi.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailHandlungsbedarfe für die Raumentwicklung der Großregion aus Sicht der Forschung
Caesar, Beate; Pallagst, Karina; Belkacem, Rachid et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas ... [more ▼]

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas relevant to the Greater Region (demography and migration, transport, employment and economic development, energy landscapes, cross-border governance) and formulates options for action for planning practice and political decision-makers. In addition, it addresses the exchange of knowledge between re-search and politics. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution spatiale de l’emploi et des modes de transport des travailleurs actifs au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg – Analyse des données de l’enquête Luxmobil 2017
Lambotte, Jean-Marc ULiege; Marbehant, Sylvain ULiege; Rouchet, Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and ... [more ▼]

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and cross-border workers within the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. This analysis highlights the significant disparities regarding these distributions, the predominant car dependency and the required conditions to achieve a high modal share of public transport. Confronted with the challenging European objective of decarbonisation by the year 2050 and considering the national and supra-regional strategic documents, in order to coordinate urban development with the public transport offer, a voluntarist cross-border ‘transit-oriented development’ policy appears to be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailVers un retour de la guerre de haute intensité face à la "menace chinoise"
Dumoulin, André ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining ... [more ▼]

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining which factors should be taken into account in order to justify, weigh up or invalidate a belligerent vision of this country, but also understanding the meaning of the words ‘challenges’, ‘adversary’, ‘risk’ and ‘enemy’. And, in the end, it is about always seeking to identify the elements that constitute the creation of an external enemy, whether real or imagined. [less ▲]

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See detailWarming-up recurrent neural networks to maximize reachable multi-stability greatly improves learning
Vecoven, Nicolas ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Drion, Guillaume ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on ... [more ▼]

Training recurrent neural networks is known to be difficult when time dependencies become long. Consequently, training standard gated cells such as gated recurrent units and long-short term memory on benchmarks where long-term memory is required remains an arduous task. In this work, we propose a general way to initialize any recurrent network connectivity through a process called “warmup” to improve its capability to learn arbitrarily long time dependencies. This initialization process is designed to maximize network reachable multi-stability, i.e. the number of attractors within the network that can be reached through relevant input trajectories. Warming-up is performed before training, using stochastic gradient descent on a specifically designed loss. We show that warming-up greatly improves recurrent neural network performance on long-term memory benchmarks for multiple recurrent cell types, but can sometimes impede precision. We therefore introduce a parallel recurrent network structure with partial warm-up that is shown to greatly improve learning on long time-series while maintaining high levels of precision. This approach provides a general framework for improving learning abilities of any recurrent cell type when long-term memory is required. [less ▲]

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See detailSong of Walt Whitman, Song of Hope?
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American ... [more ▼]

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American experience. In this collection, Whitman takes the voice of a democratic poet on and “prepares us for the perception of a single, universal truth and for our subsequent transformation into the kind of people we need to be” (Brink 2013, xv). Whitman was always close to US pop culture and its (anti)heroes. The nineteenth-century American poet is at the heart of America’s culture, which is shown by, for example, John Keating and his rebellious schoolboys chanting Whitman’s eponymous line of “O Captain! My Captain!” in Peter Weir’s Dead Poets Society (1989) and the many references to Whitman’s work in Breaking Bad (2008-2013) (Bolonik 2013). To the question “Who is the quintessential American?,” Elisabeth Panttaja Brinke, writer, editor and educator who taught literature at Harvard University, Tufts University and Boston College, argues it is “Whitman” (2013, xxii), mainly because of the poet’s representations of both democracy and nature. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslating Witchbroom
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Surveying various aspects of Scott's novel I paid special attention to as a translator: creole features, the rhythm and music that prevades this Carnival novel, sound effects.

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See detailRadiation pressure on a multi-level atom: an exact analytical approach
Podlecki, Lionel ULiege; Martin, John ULiege; Bastin, Thierry ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a standardized and exact analytical formalism for computing in the semiclassical regime the radiationforce experienced by a two-level atom interacting with an arbitrary number of plane waves with arbitrary intensities, frequencies, phases, and directions [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 127-132 (2018)]. Here, we extend this treatment to the multi-level atom case, where degeneracy of the atomic levels is considered and polarization of light enters into play. [less ▲]

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See detailLAGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Napoleone in venti parole
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailM4Depth: A motion-based approach for monocular depth estimation on video sequences
Fonder, Michaël ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of ... [more ▼]

Getting the distance to objects is crucial for autonomous vehicles. In instances where depth sensors cannot be used, this distance has to be estimated from RGB cameras. As opposed to cars, the task of estimating depth from on-board mounted cameras is made complex on drones because of the lack of constrains on motion during flights. In this paper, we present a method to estimate the distance of objects seen by an on-board mounted camera by using its RGB video stream and drone motion information. Our method is built upon a pyramidal convolutional neural network architecture and uses time recurrence in pair with geometric constraints imposed by motion to produce pixel-wise depth maps. In our architecture, each level of the pyramid is designed to produce its own depth estimate based on past observations and information provided by the previous level in the pyramid. We introduce a spatial reprojection layer to maintain the spatio-temporal consistency of the data between the levels. We analyse the performance of our approach on Mid-Air, a public drone dataset featuring synthetic drone trajectories recorded in a wide variety of unstructured outdoor environments. Our experiments show that our network outperforms state-of-the-art depth estimation methods and that the use of motion information is the main contributing factor for this improvement. The code of our method is publicly available on GitHub; see https://github.com/michael-fonder/M4Depth [less ▲]

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See detailThe Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from Belgium
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Bignandi, Sousso ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics ... [more ▼]

The shape of the firm size distribution (FSD) looks similar in all market economies but its approximation by a parametric distribution, a necessary information to build a general model of firm dynamics, remains much debated. In this paper, we use an exclusive comprehensive database on Belgian firms. We show that the lognormal distribution is a better approximation of the empirical FSD than the power law distribution. This result holds true at the aggregate, sectoral and regional levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Poesia come ossigeno.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Scritti su Leopardi
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailFlash-back sur l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Supérieur obtenue par des mathématiciens à l'Université de Liège
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, le diplôme universitaire le plus élevé possible en mathématiques est le doctorat. Mais, par le passé existaient des grades supérieurs, à savoir ceux d’Agrégation de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de Doctorat Spécial, désignés en abrégé par les acronymes AES et DS respectivement. Dans cet article, nous présentons succinctement ces deux épreuves, esquissons une étude historique générale sur ces diplômes, et plus spécialement sur celui de l’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège. Nous dressons ensuite la liste de diplômés AES ou DS en mathématiques à l’Université de Liège de 1931 à 2004 (ce qui correspond à la période pendant laquelle l’AES existait officiellement en Belgique), puis nous nous attardons plus spécialement sur un cas particulier, à savoir celui de l’auteur de ces lignes: nous retraçons la chronique des trois épreuves, ce qui nous permet de rappeler le règlement alors en application (en 1984-985). Nous terminons ce travail par cinq annexes composées de documents et de photos d'époque. [less ▲]

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See detailL'érable sycomore: une espèce d'érables toxique
Genoux, Nelly; Votion, Dominique ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles ... [more ▼]

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles respiratoires, posturaux et le myocarde, à l’issue souvent mortelle : la myopathie atypique. L’intoxication est saisonnière, avec deux principales périodes à risque au pâturage : la levée des plantules au printemps et la chute des fruits (samares) à l’automne. Comment limiter les risques sans systématiquement abattre les érables ? [less ▲]

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See detailReview: Legros, Rémi : 50 ans d’éternité. Jubilé de la Mission archéologique française de Saqqâra (1963-2013), IFAO, Le Caire, 2015
Pietri, Renaud ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Review of Legros, Rémi (dir.): Cinquante ans d’éternité - Jubilé de la Mission archéologique française de Saqqâra. Bibliothèque d’étude 162; 376 p., 28 x 2,3 x 21 cm, ISBN-13: 978-2724706581, (IFAO, Le ... [more ▼]

Review of Legros, Rémi (dir.): Cinquante ans d’éternité - Jubilé de la Mission archéologique française de Saqqâra. Bibliothèque d’étude 162; 376 p., 28 x 2,3 x 21 cm, ISBN-13: 978-2724706581, (IFAO, Le Caire 2015). [less ▲]

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See detailInterdiction de la mendicité : une atteinte au droit à la vie privée selon Strasbourg
Franssen, Mathilde ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié ... [more ▼]

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié de manière inoffensive. Quelle est la portée de cet arrêt ? Qu’implique-t-il pour la Belgique ? [less ▲]

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See detailLa vérité sur le « Made in Belgium » de l’e-commerce alimentaire
Ozer, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDe la Commune de Paris à l’Europe de la Communauté : bribes pour un imaginaire
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la ... [more ▼]

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la Catalogne d'aujourd'hui, Luciano Curreri trace un chemin qui révèle toute l'actualité des concepts mis en avant par la Commune à l'occasion de son 150e anniversaire. [less ▲]

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See detailInvest Smarter... All my Tweets on the Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most ... [more ▼]

“Invest smarter…” I started this project five years ago. After hundreds of hours of reading, thinking and writing, here they are: “All my Tweets on The Art & Science of Internet-Based Investing”, as most of them appear in my Twitter archive. My initial goal was to share my observations, analyses, and conclusions as to the evolution of the world and the behavior of the markets over a period of several years – which happened to correspond with the Presidency of Donald J. Trump. Also, I wanted to organize and illustrate the key heuristics that I learned, often painfully, as a modest investor. Needless to say that I never expected to experience a full-scale pandemic, and its accompanying episode of mass hysteria. A very real, and global, Black Swan! My main conclusion today is that our world hasn’t changed that much over time. It’s almost like it was stuck in a “steady state”, or some kind of “eternal present”. Human beings continue to “lie, cheat and steal”… (US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo). De La Bruyère (1645-1696) was perfectly right in his “Characters”, and the observations of Erasmus (1467-1536) in “Praise of Folly” are more relevant than ever: “Let us not speak of the evil which man does to man: he ruins him, imprisons him, dishonors him, tortures him, sets traps for him, betrays him; to enumerate everything, with outrages, lawsuits, swindles, would be to count the grains of sand.” So, I think that any investor could still succeed and prosper in today’s digital markets while following the advice of Henry Clews (1836-1923) in “Fifty Years in Wall Street”. As to me…, without a doubt, I am no Warren Buffett :-)! Feel free to disagree with what you will read in the following pages, and don’t hesitate to develop your own theory of investing as you allocate capital and observe results – a painful and solitary exercise. Success is at that price! Fortunately, based on what I achieved during these hectic years, it shouldn’t be hard for you to do better... “Bon vent”… in the fog of the markets! [less ▲]

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See detailBetween Self-Reliance and Responsibility: Rereading the Emersonian Sublime in an Age of Crisis
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to ... [more ▼]

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to develop a genuine sense of broader responsibility toward nonhumans and humans alike. In the light of the global ecological crisis and pandemic, the Emersonian Sublime urges us not to repeat our “failures and follies” but to deeply reflect upon their severe consequences, to learn from them, and to turn them into “justice” for all. Reconsidering our actions and lifestyle also compels us to redefine our relationship with what we have so far viewed as beautiful or sublime. The “nonconformist” individual is not exactly a social outcast, or one who renounces any interactions with other beings. Emersonian nonconformism highlights the urgency to stop blindly embracing everything that our society has thrown at us and to constantly question the legitimacy and utility of both our and others’ actions. After all, the “transparent eye-ball” metaphor itself might also be an invitation to start unveiling the appearances that were designed to conceal and protect injustices, and to begin to find problems where we had always seen solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa double carrière menée par les étudiants sportifs. Dans quelle mesure les domaines scolaire et sportif sont-ils liés ?
Bonni, Jérémy ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou ... [more ▼]

La littérature scientifique traitant de la conciliation d’un sport de haut niveau en parallèle avec un cursus scolaire se centre le plus souvent sur les facteurs qui favorisent la performance scolaire ou la performance sportive. Les relations pouvant exister entre ces deux domaines sont plus rarement étudiées. Dans cette recherche, nous avons questionné 56 judokas de haut niveau de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (Belgique) ayant été inscrits dans un établissement secondaire avant 2016. Les thèmes abordés portaient principalement sur la mesure de variables motivationnelles (domaines scolaire et sportif) visant à vérifier un modèle proposé. À partir d’analyses statistiques descriptives et corrélationnelles, nous avons pu mettre en évidence l’interrelation étroite entre les deux domaines et, plus particulièrement, identifier des variables corrélées positivement aux performances réalisées dans chacun d’eux. [less ▲]

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See detailHanan v. Germany: applying the ECHR to United Nations international military operation without affecting States’ willingness and ability to engage in such operations?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new ... [more ▼]

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new insights to its already complex case law regarding the extraterritorial applicability of the European Convention on Human Rights (the ‘Convention’). In the case Hanan v. Germany (application no. 4871/16), the Strasbourg-based Court confirmed the application of the Convention to German prosecution authorities in the context of an extraterritorial military operation within the framework of a mandate given by a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. This is therefore a particularly sensitive case, dealing both with the limits of the scope of the Convention and the effect it may have on military and geopolitical issues. [less ▲]

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See detailChunking by social relationship in working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task [less ▲]

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See detailDistance de collaboration
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en ... [more ▼]

L’illustre mathématicien Paul Erdős est quelquefois appelé le « pionnier des mathématiques de la collaboration ». Cette appellation suggère une petite étude présentant un concept général mesurant en quelque sorte le degré de collaboration entre des mathématiciens-chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailJournalism students in internship and deontology in French-speaking Belgium
Krywicki, Boris ULiege; Tixier, Florian; Fierens, Marie et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAutomatic sequences: from rational bases to trees
Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic ... [more ▼]

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic sequences built on a numeration system with a regular numeration language, we consider these built on languages associated with trees having periodic labeled signatures and, in particular, rational base numeration systems. We obtain two main characterizations of these sequences. The first one is concerned with r-block substitutions where r morphisms are applied periodically. In particular, we provide examples of such sequences that are not morphic. The second characterization involves the factors, or subtrees of finite height, of the tree associated with the numeration system and decorated by the terms of the sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical behavior of alternate base expansions
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Dajani, Karma

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a ... [more ▼]

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a particular case of Cantor bases. As in the real base case, these new transformations, denoted Tβ and Lβ respectively, can be iterated in order to generate the digits of the greedy and lazy β-expansions of real numbers. The aim of this paper is to describe the dynamical behaviors of Tβ and Lβ. We first prove the existence of a unique absolutely continuous (with respect to an extended Lebesgue measure, called the p-Lebesgue measure) Tβ-invariant measure. We then show that this unique measure is in fact equivalent to the p-Lebesgue measure and that the corresponding dynamical system is ergodic and has entropy 1/p log(βp−1 · · · β0). We then express the density of this p measure and compute the frequencies of letters in the greedy β-expansions. We obtain the dynamical properties of Lβ by showing that the lazy dynamical system is isomorphic to the greedy one. We also provide an isomorphism with a suitable extension of the β- shift. Finally, we show that the β-expansions can be seen as (βp−1 · · · β0 )-representations over general digit sets and we compare both frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailFoucault auditeur: les études de philosophie et de psychologie à Paris, 1946-1953.
Dassonneville, Gautier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken ... [more ▼]

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken during the years of study in Paris where Foucault obtained his degrees in philosophy and psychology, at the end of a double course of study carried out between 1946 and 1953, at the ENS and the Sorbonne. Placed side by side, these documents reveal the portrait of a Foucault who, between the ages of twenty and twenty-seven, trained with some of the new masters of the University at the Liberation, took part in the age-old and prestigious game of the Agrégation in philosophy and enrolled among the very first students of the new psychology course at the University of Paris. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version) [less ▲]

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See detailTémoignages d'universitaires liégeois en liaison avec la guerre de la mathématique moderne
Bair, Jacques ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième ... [more ▼]

L'enseignement des mathématiques en Belgique a connu essentiellement deux querelles portant sur les programmes suivis dans le secondaire: la "Guerre entre Infinicoles et Infinifuges" au dix-neuvième siècle, et la "Guerre de la Mathématique Moderne" au vingtième siècle. Ces deux épisodes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses études historiques. Dans ce travail, nous allons nous intéresser exclusivement à la "guerre de la mathématique moderne" qui s'est déroulée dans les années 1960 et 1970 à propos d'une réforme radicale préconisant d'introduire les concepts d'ensembles et de structures mathématiques dans le secondaire (et même dans le primaire et en maternelle). Cette étude est focalisée sur l'action de mathématiciens de l'Université de Liège autour de cette réforme, ce qui est apparemment l'objet de peu de travaux historiques. Et pourtant, cette querelle fut ``ardente''. Nous en apportons des témoignages datant de l'époque concernée. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment using chalybs, according to Johannes Hartmann and Eberhard Gockel: A remedy against diseases of the liver and the spleen in 17th century Germany
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has ... [more ▼]

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has written, ‘the road to the laboratory of chemical medicine in Marburg began in Kassel, at the court of the university’s protector, the Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572-1632)’. Having studied at Wittenberg, Hartmann was appointed as a mathematician in Kassel and was chosen to fill the chair of mathematics when the incumbent died. He received a medical degree in 1606 and ‘began a brief correspondence with the French Paracelsian, Joseph Duchesne (Quercetanus) (c. 1544-1609), who had visited Kassel in 1604’. Moritz had become captivated by the study of occult philosophy, especially in relation to alchemy, and was well on his way to amassing an extensive collection of alchemical, Cabbalistic, and Paracelsian manuscripts, and to fashioning a court circle of alchemical and medical adepts. Thus, ‘in 1608, he enthusiastically received a suggestion from Hartmann for founding a collegium chymicum at Marburg’ and he ‘chose to invest Hartmann with a new university role and a new title – Professor publicus chymiatriae’. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitique commerciale extérieure : quel rôle pour les assemblées parlementaires ? Le cas des États-Unis et de l’Union Européenne
Bricart, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les États-Unis ont à ce titre joué un rôle de premier plan dans ces initiatives et dans leurs proliférations. Face à l’impact grandissant de la globalisation sur le quotidien des citoyens, les assemblées législatives tendent à s’impliquer progressivement dans ces processus diplomatiques et à gagner en importance et en visibilité dans leur fonction vis-à-vis de ces accords. Si bien qu’aujourd’hui, toute personne s’intéressant de près ou de loin à l’étude des accords commerciaux ne peut plus ignorer le rôle qu’y jouent les parlements des États impliqués dans ces processus. Les négociations du Partenariat Transatlantique de Commerce et d’Investissement (TTIP), de l’Accord Économique et Commercial Global (CETA) et de l’Accord de Partenariat Transpacifique (TPP) représentent ainsi de bons indicateurs du rôle, des atouts et des limites que les interventions d’un parlement dans un processus de négociation peuvent rencontrer en fonction du contexte politique ou institutionnel et de l’appui de l’opinion publique. Le Parlement européen et le Congrès américain constituent respectivement des assemblées législatives relativement puissantes, représentant un nombre de citoyens conséquent et ayant d’importantes prérogatives constitutionnelles ou institutionnelles en matière commerciale, mais évoluant dans des cadres significativement différents. Via leurs outils institutionnels et à travers des pressions formelles et informelles de la part de ces deux pouvoirs législatifs, les exécutifs se retrouvent souvent contraints de prendre en compte certaines revendications des parlementaires faisant voix aux revendications d’une partie de la société civile. À défaut, le risque de voir une négociation échouer faute de ratification de l’accord par le pouvoir législatif est important. Néanmoins, l’influence du pouvoir législatif n’est pas la même pour chaque négociation et le contexte de celle-ci va dès lors jouer un rôle important pour en déterminer l’amplitude et la visibilité d’une assemblée dans ces différents processus. [less ▲]

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See detailshamo: A tool for electromagnetic modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of the head
Grignard, Martin ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Phillips, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and ... [more ▼]

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and, even though the geometry of the tissues can be extracted from magnetic resonance images (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), their physical properties such as the electrical conductivity are hard to measure with non intrusive techniques. In this paper, we propose a tool to assess the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as compute a parametric electroencephalography (EEG) forward solution and current distribution for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of consciousness in anesthesia
Montupil, Javier ULiege; Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDepth of sedation with dexmedetomidine modulates cortical excitability non-linearly
Cardone, Paolo ULiege; Bodart, Olivier; Kirsch, Murielle et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious ... [more ▼]

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious processes and underlying brain dynamics. Among commonly used anaesthetic agents, dexmedetomidine (DEX) effects are not completely known. In this study, we investigated cortical excitability as a function of DEX sedation depth.Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled with electroencephalography was recorded in 20 healthy subjects undergoing DEX sedation in four conditions (baseline, light sedation, deep sedation, recovery). Frontal and parietal cortices were stimulated using a neuronavigation system. Cortical excitability was inferred by slope, amplitude, positive and negative peak latencies of the first component (0-30 ms) of the TMS-evoked potential. Four Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to test the effect of condition and brain region over cortical excitability.Results Dexmedetomidine modulated amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P=0.0001) and positive peak (P=0.042), while the targeted brain region affected amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P\<0.001), and negative peak (P=0.001). The interaction between dexmedetomidine and region had an effect over amplitude (P=0.004), and slope (P=0.009) such that cortical excitability was higher during all conditions where DEX was present as compared to the baseline.Conclusions Cortical excitability changes non-linearly as a function of the depth of DEX sedation, with a paradoxical non dose-dependent increase. The effect is region-specific, being present in the frontal but not in the parietal region. Future research should extend the current results with other anaesthetics to better understand the link between cortical excitability and depth of sedation.Competing Interest StatementVB declares that he has received a research grant from Orion Pharma and honoraria for consultancy from Medtronic for the past 6 years. PC, OB, MK, JS, AV, CM, JS, SW, RS, SL, MM \& OG declare that they have no conflict of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailLes trois « C » du succès pour une exposition d’art et d’histoire. L’expérience liégeoise
George, Philippe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Les expositions d'art et d'histoire à Liège

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See detailLa rivière ‘Khauraha’, médiatrice entre non-humains et villageois (Népal)
Vouiller, Nolwen ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l ... [more ▼]

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l'importance de la rivière dans les interactions entre humains et non-humains. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Scholcomm Chronicles #1. Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access
Dony, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles ... [more ▼]

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles", which will hopefully develop into an ongoing series. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 207 (26 ULiège)