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See detailExperimental and numerical study of first passage time
Delhez, Elise ULiege

Master's dissertation (2018)

The first passage time refers to the time required for a dynamical system to reach a target energy level for the first time, departing from a known initial state. Analytical studies of single-degree-of ... [more ▼]

The first passage time refers to the time required for a dynamical system to reach a target energy level for the first time, departing from a known initial state. Analytical studies of single-degree-of-freedom systems governed by the linear Mathieu equation and subjected to broadband forced and parametric excitations have revealed the existence of different regimes for the first passage time. This Master thesis aims at the experimental validation of the existence of these regimes for a real structure consisting in a strip pre-stressed by a mass. The complete process, from the structure design to the experimental validation, is conducted in this work. A finite element model of the structure is built in Matlab and updated with various state-of-the-art techniques from the field of experimental modal analysis. A model reduction of the full multi-degree-of-freedom system is introduced to match the conditions of the analytical results. It is shown that the dynamics of the structure can be approached by a single-degree-of-freedom reduced model only when both the forced and parametric excitations are narrow-band processes. The influence of narrow-band excitations on the first passage time is therefore studied numerically. The results of this numerical preparatory study are used to define the conditions of the experimental tests. First passage time maps are reproduced experimentally in the framework of the linear single-degree-of-freedom Mathieu equation. This work provides the first physical evidence that the first passage time of real multi-degree-of-freedom systems can be characterized with the physical properties of the structure. It also addresses for the first time the influence of narrow-band excitations. Therefore, it opens the way to broadening the scope of the first passage time theory beyond the context of one-degree-of-freedom linear systems subjected to broadband excitations considered so far. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts comparés de trois régimes fonciers sur la biodiversité et la biomasse forestière au sud-est du Cameroun
Fonteyn, Davy ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Terrestrial ecosystems are currently facing an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. In the future, and specifically in the tropics, land use changes will have the greatest impacts on biodiversity. The aim ... [more ▼]

Terrestrial ecosystems are currently facing an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. In the future, and specifically in the tropics, land use changes will have the greatest impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this master thesis was to assess biodiversity for trees (forest structure and composition) and animals (composition) in three different land tenures in the semi-deciduous forests of South-East Cameroon. The Dja Reserve represents the control never logged, while the community forests are considered as the highest disturbance level. The sites sampled inside the certified FSC logging concession were at an intermediate location along the disturbance gradient depending on time since logging. In the 36 forest plots, more than 17 000 trees were measured and identified at the species level to assess the tree biodiversity. In the 44 camera traps installed for 3 months, the 4 329 detection events allowed assessing animal biodiversity. Regarding tree biodiversity, the community forests hold relatively high species richness (in contrasts to our expectations) specifically for pioneer species. Though a great part of the animal diversity is retained inside the logging concession, the Dja Reserve holds the richest and most abundant animal communities. Selective logging can thus retain a substantial part of biodiversity compared to areas entirely dedicated to protection. Finally, community forests, although defaunated and structurally disturbed, still answer the social and economical demands of the local communities. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation de sondes SERS pour des applications bio-analytiques
Verdin, Alexandre ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

La spectroscopie Raman exaltée de surface (SERS) est une technique permettant des analyses rapides, sensibles et spécifiques particulièrement bien adaptée au domaine biomédical. Dans ce contexte, une ... [more ▼]

La spectroscopie Raman exaltée de surface (SERS) est une technique permettant des analyses rapides, sensibles et spécifiques particulièrement bien adaptée au domaine biomédical. Dans ce contexte, une perspective intéressante est l’utilisation de sondes SERS (combinaison d’un substrat nanostructuré et d’une molécule active en Raman) fonctionnalisées par diverses molécules, permettant le ciblage spécifique de macromolécules biologiques (antigènes, enzymes, ADN, récepteur membranaire, etc). Nous avons développé des sondes SERS utilisant des nanoparticules monométalliques d’or ainsi que des nanoparticules bimétalliques Au@Ag et nous avons étudié leurs performances en présence de différentes molécules actives. Les nanoparticules bimétalliques ont été encapsulées par un polymère afin de leur offrir des possibilités de fonctionnalisation ultérieures. Ces sondes SERS ont été fonctionnalisées et utilisées dans deux applications : la détection d’une enzyme sur support immunochromatographique par fonctionnalisation des sondes avec un anticorps, ainsi que la discrimination à l’aide de l’imagerie spectrale Raman de deux types de cellules cancéreuses par fonctionnalisation des sondes avec l’acide folique. [less ▲]

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See detailSouffrir mais: Abstraire, défendre et compatir - Vers une théorie générale du syndicalisme
Toussaint, Sarah ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Quelles sont les représentations sociales des syndicats à l'égard des chômeurs et quels argumentaires développent-ils pour les justifier? En 2016, nous avions abouti à l'élaboration d'une typologie de ... [more ▼]

Quelles sont les représentations sociales des syndicats à l'égard des chômeurs et quels argumentaires développent-ils pour les justifier? En 2016, nous avions abouti à l'élaboration d'une typologie de trois grammaires justificatrices en nous appuyant sur le modèle "De la justification" de Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot. Le travail dont il est question ici se propose de mettre une nouvelle fois à l'épreuve les "cités" intellectuelle, technique et compassionnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inevitable Death of Privacy? An Analysis of The Argumentation of Reciprocal Transparency
Fanouillère, Jean-Baptiste ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Following the advent of new Information and Communication Technologies such as smartphones and social networks, the boundaries between what is public and what is private have shifted significantly. While ... [more ▼]

Following the advent of new Information and Communication Technologies such as smartphones and social networks, the boundaries between what is public and what is private have shifted significantly. While concerns have been expressed by the population regarding the erosion of privacy, as in the case of the Patriot Act or Wikileaks, individuals also deliberately share a lot of personal information online. This has led some thinkers to propose that a “reciprocal transparency”, which would entail a nearly unlimited access to any kind of information for every citizen, might be an alternative to actual privacy laws, which are severely hampered by the pervasiveness of new surveillance technologies. By adopting the approach and the theories of Science and Technology Studies, this research aims at analysing the three cornerstones which underpin the argumentation in favour of transparency. By doing so, it demonstrates that discourses advocating for such transformations rely on the erroneous belief that technology determines social change, on a misconception of privacy, and finally on a utopian vision of transparency. These observations lead to the conclusion that reciprocal transparency is not so much simply a solution to modern ICT-related privacy issues as an ideological view of the world. [less ▲]

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See detailAnycast-based DNS in Mobile Networks
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Anycast offers a method for making a service IP address available to a routing system from several locations at once. It is used today to provide important services, such as naming and content delivery ... [more ▼]

Anycast offers a method for making a service IP address available to a routing system from several locations at once. It is used today to provide important services, such as naming and content delivery, in an economic, scalable, and simple to operate manner. The appeal and clear benefits of anycast to service providers have motivated a number of recent experimental studies on its potential performance impact. All studies have, to the best of our knowledge, focused on wired networks, despite the growing dominance of mobile as the most common and sometimes only form of Internet access. In this thesis, we present the first study of anycast performance for mobile users. In particular, our evaluation focuses on three distinct anycast services: K- and F-Root, each providing part the DNS root zone, and Google DNS. Our research revolves around three axes. First, we show that mobile clients are frequently routed to suboptimal replicas in terms of latency and that this issue is not limited to specific regions or ASes of the world. Second, we find that clients are often redirected to a DNS server hosted very far away from her. This happens more frequently while on a cellular connection than on WiFi, with a significant impact on performance. Our study reveals that this is not simply an issue of not having better alternatives, and that the problem is not localised to particular geographic areas or particular ASes. We investigate root causes of this phenomenon and describe three of the major detected classes of anycast anomalies. Third and finally, we explore IP assignment dynamics of mobile clients and find that recurrent IP changes on the client side lead to significant perceived variations of anycast latency. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en forme de principe actif par double émulsion pour application pharmaceutique
Roex, Edith ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

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See detailUnsteady pressure measurement around aerodynamic bodies: Development of a calibration apparatus and wind tunnel testing
Rigo, François ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Separated flows are complex but interesting to study because they are variable and unsteady. They are present for every bluff bodies and stalled streamlined bodies (at high angle of attack). Experimental ... [more ▼]

Separated flows are complex but interesting to study because they are variable and unsteady. They are present for every bluff bodies and stalled streamlined bodies (at high angle of attack). Experimental aerodynamics is able to study these types of flow, using pressure sensors. Due to sensor size, pressure tubes are used to connect the pressure scanner to the tap (where the pressure is effectively measured). Statically, nothing is changed, but when an unsteady flow is studied, the signal measured by the sensor is perturbed by the tube. The Transfer Function of the tube has to be computed, to correct for the pressure measure using an inverse Fourier Transform and to obtain the pressure effectively present at the tap. The correction is made on the fluctuation amplitudes (around the mean) and the phase of the signal. The synchronization is important when vortex shedding is studied. This Transfer Function is computed by comparing the pressure measured at the begin and at the end of the tube. For that purpose, pressure with a frequency content has been applied on the tube entry (periodic for KTH calibrator and aperiodic for ULg calibrator). The ratio between these pressures gave the desired correction, showing resonance peaks for some frequencies. When a simple tube is used, theoretical models from fluid equations give very similar results to experimental ones. A parallel with electricity has also been made, replacing the pressure tube by an RLC circuit or a transmission line. The longer and the narrower the tube, the higher the signal distortion. 3D printed models are nowadays commonly used in experimental aerodynamics, allowing not only to build complex shaped models easily, but also pressure taps directly on the model and pressure channels into the structure. These more complex measurement systems have also to be experimentally calibrated. Indeed, diameter restriction on tap or shrinks in tube channels highly distort the signal. We used this calibration to correct the pressure on a stalled wind turbine wing (at high incidence). The stall is linked to viscous effects, the flow becoming separated and turbulent. The fluctuations and phase of pressure taps signal have been studied to understand the Reynolds effect on a stalled wind turbine wing. Experiments were compared with CFD and theoretical models to validate the results. Another application of unsteady pressure that we have studied is the vortex shedding process, occurring around bluff bodies (in particular for rectangular cylinders). The synchronization and amplitude fluctuations of these vortices have been corrected using the dynamic calibration device. Fluid-structure interaction (vortex induced vibration) has then been studied: when vortices were ejected at the resonance frequency of the cylinder, the structure entered auto-excitation and vibrated a lot. When the cylinders were closely spaced in the flow (assembled into a grid), they interfered with each other and the vortex shedding process was changed compared to a single cylinder. To understand deeply this grid, theoretical and numerical models have been used (FEM and CFD) in parallel with experimental sensors: accelerometers (for vibration), pressure sensors connected on taps by tubes, Cobra Probe (velocity in the wake of cylinders), Hot Wire (free stream velocity). The study of this process in function of the incidence and the cylinder spacing allowed us to predict airspeed that induces instability. This is crucial in order to find parameters that minimize vibrations occurring on a real grid, with undesirable noise. In conclusion, this work can be used to take into account unsteady effects when pressure is measured around streamlined and bluff bodies. [less ▲]

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See detailComment permettre à une personne lésée médullaire de retrouver un véritable "chez-soi" ?
Schaff, Gwendoline ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

En s’intéressant à l’habitat des personnes lésées médullaires et en portant une attention particulière au bien-être éprouvé au sein du logement, ce mémoire vise à identifier, non seulement des solutions ... [more ▼]

En s’intéressant à l’habitat des personnes lésées médullaires et en portant une attention particulière au bien-être éprouvé au sein du logement, ce mémoire vise à identifier, non seulement des solutions fonctionnelles adaptées aux déplacements en fauteuil roulant, mais également des moyens permettant à ces personnes de (re)trouver un véritable chez-soi. Le contexte personnel de l’individu (le "soi") est brièvement développé, pour ensuite analyser l’habitat dans ses dimensions fonctionnelles et affectives (le "chez-soi"). Dans ce mémoire, nous démontrons qu’outre les normes pour personnes à mobilité réduite existantes, le ressenti et la perception subjective de l’habitant sont en effet essentiels à prendre en compte, afin de développer une relation positive au logis. Ce constat s’est accompagné de rencontres avec quatre blessés médullaires à leur domicile. Les entrevues, basées sur une approche qualitative, ont utilisé la méthode de l’entretien compréhensif. Une fois confrontées au cadre théorique développé, les interviews nous ont permis de proposer une série de principes à adopter par les architectes lors de la conception ou l’adaptation d’une telle habitation. [less ▲]

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See detailCertificat d'université en Building Information Modeling pour petites et moyennes structures - Rapport d'études
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULiege

Master's dissertation (2017)

Le BIM (pour Building Information Model – Modeling – Management) acquiert une importance de plus en plus grande dans les secteurs de l’architecture et de la construction, comme en témoignent les ... [more ▼]

Le BIM (pour Building Information Model – Modeling – Management) acquiert une importance de plus en plus grande dans les secteurs de l’architecture et de la construction, comme en témoignent les nombreuses communications en la matière, qu’elles émanent de fournisseurs de logiciels, d’associations professionnelles ou de centres de recherches. Le BIM y est présenté comme une solution d’avenir permettant d’améliorer l’efficacité des processus de projet, le partage des données et la collaboration entre tous les acteurs du projet, autour de la maquette numérique 3D, avec des économies en termes de coût mais aussi de délais, supposées conséquentes à terme. L’objectif du présent rapport d’études est d’abord de synthétiser les principaux acquis théoriques de la formation dispensée dans le cadre du « Certificat d’Université en Building Information Modeling pour Petites et Moyennes Structures ». Dans un domaine qui n’en est encore qu’à ses prémices, en particulier au niveau des retours d’expériences concrètes sur terrain, cette synthèse, documentée de références externes et de réflexions personnelles, propose de garder un regard critique sur le BIM et de placer au centre des réflexions les processus organisationnels et collaboratifs plutôt que la technologie. Ces acquis théoriques sont ensuite mobilisés pour esquisser une première ébauche de plan d’implémentation du BIM à l’Administration des Ressources Immobilières de l’Université de Liège. Cette section commence par un état des lieux des missions, de l’organisation et des projets gérés par cette Administration. Le propos développé se structure ensuite par type de projets et vise à identifier les questions-clés sur lesquelles la réflexion devra être portée et concertée avec l’ensemble des acteurs, internes et externes à l’Administration concernée par ce processus. L’implémentation doit ainsi être le fruit d’une réflexion partagée entre tous les acteurs, hors des recettes toutes faites et se faire progressivement, en plaçant la communication et la rationalisation des processus de projet au centre de la démarche. L’organisation, la rigueur et la planification sont essentiels à l’émergence d’une réelle culture de projets « BIM », efficace et partagée par tous. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection de l'innovation dans les PME Biotechnologiques: Étude du cas Mithra Pharmaceuticals
Blibek, Karim ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Résumé La protection de l’innovation biotechnologique est plus que primordiale. Pour les PME, le challenge est toujours lié aux moyens dont elles disposent pour protéger leurs innovations. De ce fait, il ... [more ▼]

Résumé La protection de l’innovation biotechnologique est plus que primordiale. Pour les PME, le challenge est toujours lié aux moyens dont elles disposent pour protéger leurs innovations. De ce fait, il est très important d’optimiser l’utilisation des méthodes de protection, en faveur d’une meilleure valorisation économique. Dans cette étude, on a voulu confirmer, de manière pratique, l’existence de paramètres assez simples qui permettraient d’orienter l’innovateur vers l’une ou l’autre méthode de protection. Mots clés : Innovation, Brevet, PME, Propriété Intellectuelle. Summary Protection of biotechnological innovation is clear necessity. For SMEs, the challenge is always linked to the means at their disposal to protect their innovations. Therefore, it is very important to optimize the use of protective methods for a better economic recovery. In this study, we wanted to confirm, in practice, the existence of relatively simple parameters that could guide the innovator to one or the other method of protection. Key Words : Innovation, Patent, SMEs, Intellectual Property. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfendre, compatir et abstraire - Des représentations syndicales du chômage
Toussaint, Sarah ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Les syndicats et le chômage sont historiquement liés. Au fil des évolutions de l’histoire sociale belge, les organisations syndicales se sont vues attribuées un rôle important dans la gestion du chômage ... [more ▼]

Les syndicats et le chômage sont historiquement liés. Au fil des évolutions de l’histoire sociale belge, les organisations syndicales se sont vues attribuées un rôle important dans la gestion du chômage. Les syndicats entretiennent, dès lors, un rapport de proximité avec leurs affiliés sans-emploi. La finalité de ce mémoire est de comprendre les représentations que les premiers se font des seconds. Afin de répondre à cet objectif, nous avons interrogé des membres des trois principaux syndicats belges, à savoir : la Centrale Générale des Syndicats Libéraux de Belgique, la Confédération des Syndicats Chrétiens de Belgique et la Fédération Générale du Travail de Belgique, qui, au plus près de la réalité du chômage, accompagnent les demandeurs d’emploi lors de leurs convocations auprès des instances de contrôle des chômeurs que sont l’ONEm et le FOREM. En s’appuyant sur les apports des « Économies de la grandeur » élaborés par Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot, nous sommes parvenus à une typologie de trois grammaires justificatrices [less ▲]

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See detailL'anatomie par (le) corps : visualiser, toucher et être touché dans la pratique des dissections
Salme, Juliette ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Ce mémoire porte sur l'apprentissage de l'anatomie humaine à partir des dissections réalisées par les étudiants en médecine. Il interroge la confrontation au cadavre à partir de l'apprentissage de gestes ... [more ▼]

Ce mémoire porte sur l'apprentissage de l'anatomie humaine à partir des dissections réalisées par les étudiants en médecine. Il interroge la confrontation au cadavre à partir de l'apprentissage de gestes techniques, via une éducation de l'attention sensorielle, afin de visualiser le corps en tant que support anatomique. Cet exercice, envisagé comme profondément multi-sensoriel, pose des questions relatives au dégoût, à l'expérience olfactive ou à l'expression des affects. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du profil psychologique de femmes victimes de violences conjugales au moyen du "Temperament and Character inventory" de Cloninger
El Guendi, Sarah ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

La violence conjugale constitue sans aucun doute la forme la plus courante de violence subie au sein de la famille. Il s’agit d’un phénomène complexe qui peut être étudié sous différents angles. Se ... [more ▼]

La violence conjugale constitue sans aucun doute la forme la plus courante de violence subie au sein de la famille. Il s’agit d’un phénomène complexe qui peut être étudié sous différents angles. Se plaçant dans une position scientifique, le premier volet de l’étude vise à recueillir les dimensions tempéramentales et caractérielles d’un échantillon de femmes victimes de violences conjugales. L’objectif consiste à déterminer si leurs attitudes, opinions, intérêts ou autres sentiments personnels se distinguent d’une population féminine belge de référence. Autrement dit, cette recherche analyse comment les traits de personnalité peuvent participer au maintien et au renforcement du processus de la violence. Notre question de recherche est la suivante: « Les femmes victimes de violences au sein du couple présentent-elles un ou des traits de personnalité qui les distinguent des femmes non-victimes de violences conjugales ? ». Dans un second temps, l’étude s’intéressera aux caractéristiques sociodémographiques propres à chaque participante dont le profil personnel est inconnu. Ce deuxième volet de recherche permettra de recueillir des informations descriptives générales de l’échantillon étudié. La population étudiée a été sélectionnée par méthode d’échantillonnage non probabiliste de volontaires associée à un échantillonnage par critère en lien avec les caractéristiques requises pour la réalisation de l’étude. Pour la présente étude, nous avons utilisé deux questionnaires: le Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) de Cloninger et un questionnaire sociodémographique. Pour conclure, les résultats montrent qu’il n’existe pas de profil psychologique «type» de femmes victimes de violences conjugales. Néanmoins, les victimes de notre échantillon présentent un certain nombre de traits de personnalité qui les distinguent sensiblement de la population féminine belge générale. Cela a été mis en évidence par le Temperament and Character Inventory de Cloninger. Des recherches ultérieures sur un échantillon plus large et plus hétérogène doivent être menées pour confirmer les résultats de notre étude. [less ▲]

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See detailFormasup: Portfolio professionnel
Tonus, Céline ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

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See detailEtude des effets du Plasma Riche en Plaquettes (PRP) sur les monodiscopathies peu évoluées
Charneux, Laurent ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Objectives: Pre-clinical testing to study the potential tissue regeneration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in the case of a monodiscopathy. After analysing the available literature on the subject, a ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Pre-clinical testing to study the potential tissue regeneration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in the case of a monodiscopathy. After analysing the available literature on the subject, a research team was established at the CHU. The objective is to standardise the PRP and use it within the restrictive framework of the monodiscopathy on the human in order to supplement knowledge relating to this biological therapy. Equipment and Method: The recruitment of a panel of ten patients was launched in January 2016. Once admitted in the study, the patients are followed for one year with an MRI, an EVA, an inclinometry and the questionnaires of Roland Morris and Tampa. The infiltration of PRP is carried out in the middle of the nucleus pulposus using a discography. Results: Only one patient underwent the intervention, which could not be finished because we were unable to reach the L5-S1 disc. The objective was to inject 1.5 ml of PRP within the L5-S1 disc. Conclusions: The infiltration of PRP still needs to be studied in order to set the limits, the advantages and the disadvantages of this infiltration. The literature suggests that this might be an effective solution, however it is impossible to make generalised conclusions due to the lack of uniformity between existing studies. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle place pour les diplômés en sciences biomédicales dans le système de santé belge de demain ?
Detaille, Emilie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

The SBIM (biomedical sciences) program appeared in Belgium as early as 1997 in a lot of universities in order to offer an alternative to medical studies. That year corresponds with the introduction of ... [more ▼]

The SBIM (biomedical sciences) program appeared in Belgium as early as 1997 in a lot of universities in order to offer an alternative to medical studies. That year corresponds with the introduction of federal quotas from the INAMI (National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance) and admission procedures to medical and dentistry studies. In the framework of a reflection on the role of biomedical sciences graduates in the Belgian health system, given their sometimes close proximity with the health care professions, an investigation was conducted among the graduates of the past five years (classes 2011 to 2015) but also the first- and final-year students in biomedical sciences of the academic year 2015-2016, so as to achieve a detailed description of the current situation. The aim of this exploratory study was to get an overall vision of the training, experience and daily practice of the graduates as Master in biomedical sciences issued by the Belgian universities. In 2016, the Master in biomedical sciences no longer attracts only students leaving medical studies leave. It is now organized by 10 Belgian universities, offering altogether 44 specific orientations in 25 different areas and awarding 350 diplomas per year. The lack of training standards and the diversity of available orientations do not allow us to have a precise idea of the competency profiles and professions of those graduates. All this creates ambiguities in terms of professional practice, competencies identification and profession. Our enquiries unveiled an orientation with multiple paradoxes which, given this legislative gap sometimes lead the SBIMs to work illegally. This work thus gives an overview of the present situation, providing potential solutions to the future place of the SBIMs in the Belgian health system of tomorrow, so they would not be performing medicine illegally anymore. [less ▲]

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See detailConception et évaluation de méthodes de détection d'insectes dans les matrices alimentaires
Gerard, Amaury ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Worldwide, a lot of people eat insects for milleniums. Insects could also be an alternative source of proteins to feed breeding animals, but also as food substitute for humans; current agricultural and ... [more ▼]

Worldwide, a lot of people eat insects for milleniums. Insects could also be an alternative source of proteins to feed breeding animals, but also as food substitute for humans; current agricultural and breeding systems being indeed unable to face population growth. As a consequence, a lot of companies have already started the production of insects, at diverse scales. Most of business models are based on the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). In Europe, these novel foods are not yet fully allowed. Before an authorization in our regions, some points have to be checked concerning consumers’ safety. AFSCA tolerates 10 species of insects in Belgium, but opinions vary according to European countries (AFSCA, 2016). To allow an introduction of this food on the European marlet, it’s important to develop methods in order to detect and authenticate these insect-based ingredients. Regulation (CE) No 51/2013 has recognised the polymerase chain reaction as a reference method to detect animal-derived ingredients in feedingstuffs. In this work, several targets were evaluated in silico and by real-time PCR. So, 12 targets have been designed, classified into 4 categories: global targets detecting a wide variety of species (18s-INS, Duplex 1 and Duplex 2), targets specific to Diptera (1α-DIPT and 18s-DIPT) and targets specific to T. molitor (TM-WING, TM-COI, Cadherin-Genesig and Cadherin-CRAW) and H. illucens (COI-HERM, HI-MITO and HI-MITO2). For the first category, 3 targets were designed, based on the gene of 18s RNA. In a first time, 18s-INS was evaluated, able to recognise all insects except Diptera. The determination of the limit of detection confirmed the multicopy nature of the 18s RNA gene. In order to detect more species, it was decided to simultaneously use 2 probes: the first one specific to Diptera, and the other one able to recognise all other insects. These targets were named Duplex 1 and Duplex 2. Their specificity was assessed with at least 50 species of insects and 10 insect-bases commercial products. However, aspecificities were observed with some plants like wheat or tomato. Optimisation was unsuccessfully tried. Two targets for Diptera were also tested, based on 18s RNA gene and elongation factor 1α gene, but none of them gave interesting results. Concerning T. molitor, targeted genes were cytochrome C oxydase subunit I, wingless and the gene of cadherin, for which 2 PCR targets were evaluated. Cadherin-CRAW and TM-WING have shown a perfect specificity to T. molitor. For these 2 targets, the limit of detection was assessed to be lower than 20 copies. Finally, in the case of H. illucens, cytochrome C oxydase subunits I and III genes were targeted. However, only the target HI-MITO2 showed an interesting potential, 2 aspecificities having to be eliminated. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact de champignons entomopathogènes sur la biologie et le comportement de la punaise Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera : Pentatomidea)
Fingu Mabola, Junior Corneille ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Halyomorpha halys Stål is an invasive insect native to East Asia, whose distribution area is currently growing steadily. This insect is responsible of severe crop economic damages and can cause nuisance ... [more ▼]

Halyomorpha halys Stål is an invasive insect native to East Asia, whose distribution area is currently growing steadily. This insect is responsible of severe crop economic damages and can cause nuisance when taking refuge in domestic dwellings. Currently, the use of entomopathogenic fungi constitutes the main control method towards which research are focusing. The aim of this study was to identify an effective strain of fungi that could impact on biological characteristics and behaviour of the above-mentioned insect. This could allow establishment of a control strategy based on host-pathogen interaction. Trials on the assessment of virulence effectiveness of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metharizium acridum strain X (unidentified) were carried out. Individuals from the second instar were sprayed with a suspension of 107 conidia per milliliter and monitored during 60 days. Growth rate was established using molting dates that were daily recorded. The behavioural bioassay was conducted using the GHA strain at the same concentration as previously established. Nine healthy individuals and one individual sprayed with spores were kept in a circular arena and observed by video recording for three hours. The feeding behaviour was recorded using Giga-8d EPG device and fava bean plants served as support on which insects were fed. Results showed that the GHA strain was more virulent (LT50 = 18 days) than the strain X (LT50: not reached). A delay and acceleration of growth rate were observed respectively for the strain GHA and X. However, no significant variation of the insect behaviour has been observed. Nevertheless, some profiles on EPG insect's feeding behaviour have been identified. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique étrangère russe envers le Venezuela, entre balancing et new world order
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

La politique étrangère de la Russie envers le Venezuela au travers des approches réaliste et libérale. Entre opposition aux Etats-Unis et coopération sur la scène internationale.

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See detailComparative study of edible insect acceptance between Vietnam and Belgium and potentiality of cricket breeding in Southern Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)
Detilleux, Loïc ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Humanity has to face major problems such as population growth, forcing humans to find food alternatives. Insect consumption is part of these alternatives and this work aims to study production and ... [more ▼]

Humanity has to face major problems such as population growth, forcing humans to find food alternatives. Insect consumption is part of these alternatives and this work aims to study production and consumption aspects of this practice. On the one hand, eight diets, made of feed (chicken or fish feed) alone or with an extra feed (elephant grass, carrots or sweet potatoes), were tested in Vietnam during a breeding of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). The goal of this study was to find a diet at the lowest cost which could provide the best results in terms of mortality, final weight, fertility and protein, lipid, ash and carbohydrate contents. On the other hand, insect tasting sessions were organised both in Vietnam and in Belgium in order to study and to compare consumer acceptance and to determine the development potential of this practice in each country. The results of the breeding show that no experimental diet differentiate clearly from others when all factors were taken into account and extra feed did not bring nutritional advantage. Concerning consumption aspect, Vietnamese and Belgian respondents seemed to be ready to consume insects in the future. Surrounding insects with a fritter dough allowed to improve a series of parameters as taste, texture, smell and aspect of the preparation. The benefit of tasting sessions was also highlighted because they allow participants to make their own opinion which was generally positive in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailLa traduction des exemples lexicographiques: Analyse comparative de trois dictionnaires allemand-français
Belleflamme, Clémence ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Puisqu’il fournit des équivalents de traduction, le dictionnaire bilingue est l’outil de travail privilégié du traducteur. Celui-ci y cherche les solutions aux problèmes qu’il rencontre au moment de ... [more ▼]

Puisqu’il fournit des équivalents de traduction, le dictionnaire bilingue est l’outil de travail privilégié du traducteur. Celui-ci y cherche les solutions aux problèmes qu’il rencontre au moment de transposer en langue cible l’idée exprimée par un texte source. Parmi les éléments de la microstructure, les exemples et leur traduction sont des sources d’informations particulièrement précieuses puisqu'ils fournissent des renseignements d’ordre aussi bien syntaxique que morphologique, lexical ou encore stylistique. Dans ce travail de fin d’études, nous nous sommes intéressée à la manière dont les dictionnaires bilingues traitent les exemples. Quelle place occupent les exemples au sein d’un dictionnaire ? Comment les exemples sont-ils traduits? Quelles fonctions remplissent ces traductions? Pour clôturer notre cursus de traduction, nous avons adopté la perspective du traducteur professionnel, qui cherche à traduire vers sa langue maternelle un texte rédigé en langue étrangère. Nous avons réalisé une analyse comparative des exemples présents dans trois dictionnaires bilingues allemand–français afin de déterminer lequel de ces ouvrages correspond le mieux aux attentes du traducteur. La première partie de ce travail de fin d’études, théorique, est consacrée, d’une part, à la relation qui unit le traducteur au dictionnaire bilingue et, d’autre part, aux principales questions soulevées dans la littérature scientifique à propos de l’exemple lexicographique : définition, sources, fonctions et traduction de l’exemple. La deuxième partie consiste en une analyse de corpus, constitué de près de mille exemples recueillis dans les trois dictionnaires envisagés. Partant de l’hypothèse que la relation entre l’exemple et sa traduction devrait permettre à l’utilisateur de déceler les différences existant entre deux langues, nous avons effectué une analyse comparative en deux volets, l’un quantitatif, l’autre qualitatif. Il s’agissait, dans un premier temps, de confronter des données chiffrées relatives au nombre d’exemples présents dans les différents ouvrages ou encore aux types de traduction auxquels les lexicographes ont recours. Nous avons ensuite cherché à évaluer l’influence de la linguistique contrastive dans la sélection et la traduction des exemples afin de confirmer ou d’infirmer notre hypothèse. Nous nous sommes finalement penchée sur certaines traductions discutables afin de suggérer des pistes d’amélioration pour un dictionnaire à destination des traducteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Participation in Science and Technology and its Normative Context. The Participatory Turn’s Legacy and the European ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ Emerging Framework
Macq, Hadrien ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Over the last two decades in Europe, science and technology’s unforeseen impacts led many STS scholars to plead for a ‘participatory turn’ in order to make our democracies more able to handle ... [more ▼]

Over the last two decades in Europe, science and technology’s unforeseen impacts led many STS scholars to plead for a ‘participatory turn’ in order to make our democracies more able to handle sociotechnical controversies. However, since the outset of this participatory turn, critiques sharing the common emphasize on the importance of taking into account the context in which public participation takes place have pointed to the risk of participation being either romanticized or instrumentalized. This thesis contributes to the critical scrutinizing of public participation in science and technology. By drawing on a set of qualitative data collection strategies and on a discourse analysis of collected materials, it investigates the normative context in which public participation is currently conceived and promoted at the European level and links it to historical perspectives in order to grasp the way in which the participatory turn’s legacy has been impacted. At it shows, far from being left opened-up, public participation is strongly closed-down by normative forces that lies in the context is which its promotion is currently taking place. As argued, public participation appears as instrumentalized in Horizon 2020 due to the increasing economization of policies and the steering of science and innovation toward tackling societal challenges. However, while acknowledging that these trends are characteristic of current developments, some longer ones are highlighted. Indeed, as this research suggests, the instrumentalization of public participation goes largely beyond the mere Horizon 2020. From the Sixth Framework Programme already, it appears that the normative context in which public participation in science and technology has been conceived and promoted has always tended to instrumentalized and to close down the deliberative governance of science. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of precursor powders for preparation of YBa2Cu3O7 coatings by electrophoretic deposition on silver substrates
Caubergh, Stéphane ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Over the last years, our research group has been investigating the electrophoretic deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 (Y-123) on silver substrates with the aim to improve the magnetic shielding properties. For ... [more ▼]

Over the last years, our research group has been investigating the electrophoretic deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 (Y-123) on silver substrates with the aim to improve the magnetic shielding properties. For synthesis purposes, a key characteristic of Y-123 is its peritectic decomposition into solid Y-211 and a Y-035 liquid phase. In this work, we aimed to synthesize the two precursor powders and proceed to electrophoretic deposition on silver substrates. The final Y-123 superconductor should be formed via peritectic recombination. The starting point of this master thesis was to adapt a synthetic procedure of the Y-123 phase to the stoichiometries of Y-211 and Y-035. In this procedure, Y-123 was obtained by self-combustion of sol-gel precursors followed by a final treatment. In this master thesis, the procedure was successfully adapted to the stoichiometry of Y-211. Stable aqueous solutions containing the metal-citrate complexes could be prepared. Dried residues containing these metal-citrate complexes were obtained via the spray-drying technique with a 95.4% yield. After combustion and complete optimization of the heat treatment, it was found that 880 °C for 6h with a heating rate of 300 °C/h was sufficient to form the desired Y-211 phase. A 250-gram batch of pure Y2BaCuO5 with a median particle size of 1.4 micron could be synthesized via a scaled-up production with a global yield of 86.9 %. Concerning the synthesis of the liquid phase Y-035, the preparation of the aqueous solutions of metal-citrate complexes was more challenging and did not permit to obtain dried residues via the spray-drying method. Since spray-drying of the EDTA-based solution did not succeed, the spray-drying route was abandoned in favor of the original sol-gel route. Homogeneous gels could be prepared and the stability issue encountered with metal-citrate complexes was solved. Moreover, the amount of organic additives used in the preparation of these gels could be reduced by 23%. Finally, a 125-gram batch of Y-035 could be synthesized in a scaled-up process but high purity could not be reached due to the high content of carbon residues still present after two heat treatments. Stable butanol-based suspensions could be prepared with each powder. Here, addition of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as the dispersing agent permitted to reach optimal conditions of stability in terms of zeta potential. Electrophoretic deposition for 60 s at 50 V allowed to deposit 5.5 g/cm² of Y-211 on Ag substrates. These conditions are optimal to avoid the formation of macro-cracks during the heat treatment. Intermediate heat treatment had to be conducted between each deposition in order to avoid the coating to peel-off. Finally, peritectic recombination was tested on a mixture of Y-211 and Y-035 powders. By XRD, SEM and EDX analysis, we could prove the presence of Y-123 accompanied by Y-211 inclusions, CuO, BaCuO2 and Ag. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion et inclusion de la diversité : la notion du “handicap architectural”. Le cas des usagers atteints du syndrome de Down.
Schelings, Clémentine ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Mon intention, à travers ce travail, est d’analyser en quoi l’architecture peut être handicapante pour les usagers, qu’ils soient eux-mêmes porteurs d’un handicap ou non. Autrement dit, le handicap n’est ... [more ▼]

Mon intention, à travers ce travail, est d’analyser en quoi l’architecture peut être handicapante pour les usagers, qu’ils soient eux-mêmes porteurs d’un handicap ou non. Autrement dit, le handicap n’est plus considéré ici comme une caractéristique individuelle, mais comme la conséquence d’un espace inadapté. Plus précisément, je m’intéresse à la manière dont les personnes atteintes de trisomie 21 réagissent à différents espaces. Etant donné leur hypersensibilité, leur comportement face à l’architecture nous donne des indications quant aux impacts de l’environnement architectural sur l’ensemble des usagers. Dès lors, ma réflexion porte sur les bénéfices possibles de l’inclusion des personnes atteintes du syndrome de Down dans le processus de conception, de manière à limiter ce phénomène de handicap architectural et de façon à intégrer de nouvelles perceptions. En pratique, la méthodologie mise en place consiste en deux phases d’observation in situ. Premièrement, je me suis rendue chez l’habitant afin de rencontrer des personnes atteintes du syndrome de Down dans leurs logements respectifs. Le but était d’observer la manière dont elles appréhendent et s’approprient leur espace personnel dans leur vie quotidienne. Deuxièmement, j’ai visité un bâtiment public en compagnie des personnes handicapées rencontrées auparavant, afin d’observer leur réaction face à un espace qu’elles ne connaissent pas. Mon objectif était de comparer leur manière d’appréhender des espaces familiers et des endroits inconnus. Les résultats obtenus mettent en lumière des traits caractéristiques de la trisomie 21 qui peuvent influencer leur perception de l’espace. Ce travail a également permis de comprendre comment les personnes porteuses du syndrome de Down appréhendent l’espace et en quoi l’architecture peut devenir un facteur aggravant leur handicap. Par ailleurs, la méthodologie proposée fournit des pistes de réflexion quant à la manière d’accéder à l’expérience des personnes trisomiques par rapport à l’espace. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse et mise en forme de LiMn2O4 comme materiau pour cathode flexible
Jungers, Thomas ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Le sujet de ce mémoire porte sur la synthèse d'un composé pour cathode d'accumulateurs au lithium, le LiMn2O4, dopé adéquatement, et sa mise en forme de film flexible. Un grand nombre de dopants déjà ... [more ▼]

Le sujet de ce mémoire porte sur la synthèse d'un composé pour cathode d'accumulateurs au lithium, le LiMn2O4, dopé adéquatement, et sa mise en forme de film flexible. Un grand nombre de dopants déjà utilisés sont comparés afin d'étudier leur influence sur la capacité et la stabilité du composé, en fonction de leur valence et de la force des liaisons qu'ils forment avec l'oxygène. Un dopant potentiellement prometteur est donc choisi sur cette base. Des poudres de précurseurs sont préparées par atomisation et calcinées afin d'obtenir le composé LiMn2O4 dopé. Ces poudres sont ensuite broyées afin d'en faire des suspensions stables, auxquelles sont ajoutés une matrice polymère, du noir de carbone, pour rendre le film conducteur, et un plastifiant afin d'assurer la flexibilité des films. Ces suspensions sont déposées par coulage en bande et permettent après séchage de récupérer un film flexible. Des mesures électrochimiques sur ces poudres dopées et ces films montrent que le dopant choisi apporte en effet une amélioration de la tenue au cyclage du composé et que les films se comportent bien, même après de hautes vitesses de cyclage ; ils peuvent donc être utilisées comme cathodes flexibles pour accumulateurs au lithium. [less ▲]

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See detailLimit of detection of biomarkers dispersed in geological matrices evaluated by Raman spectroscopy in preparation for future exploration missions to Mars
Demaret, Lucas ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

ExoMars (ESA-ROSCOSMOS) et Mars 2020 (NASA) sont deux missions d’exploration spatiale dont le lancement est prévu en 2020. Ces deux missions ont pour objectif de rechercher des traces de vie présentes ou ... [more ▼]

ExoMars (ESA-ROSCOSMOS) et Mars 2020 (NASA) sont deux missions d’exploration spatiale dont le lancement est prévu en 2020. Ces deux missions ont pour objectif de rechercher des traces de vie présentes ou passées (détection de biomarqueurs) sur Mars et d’étudier l’habitabilité de la surface et de la sous-surface Martienne, d’un point de vue géochimique (géomarqueurs). Pour réaliser cette étude in situ sur la surface de Mars, les rovers auront à leur bord une série d’instruments, en particulier des spectromètres Raman (un instrument opérant avec un laser à 532 nm à bord d’ExoMars, deux instruments opérants avec des lasers à 532 et 249 nm à bord de Mars 2020). Ceux-ci ont la capacité d’analyser à la fois les géomarqueurs et les biomarqueurs, et ce de manière non-destructives. En préparation de ces missions, il est crucial de comprendre la nature des matières organiques présentes et/ou préservées dans des échantillons analogues, en particulier en relation avec la minéralogie du substrat. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous avons déterminé la limite de détectabilité de biomarqueurs identifiés comme pertinents dans le cadre de la recherche d’organismes extrêmophiles dans des matrices géologiques d'intérêt pour l'exploration de Mars. [less ▲]

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See detailMobilité physique et chimique du 10Be, 137Cs et 210Pb (xs) dans les sols : rôle des caractéristiques pédologiques.
de Tombeur, Félix ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Les processus de transferts de matières verticaux dans les sols (bioturbation et lessivage) sont jusqu’à présent mal contraints bien qu’ils soient responsables de l’évolution temporelle des services ... [more ▼]

Les processus de transferts de matières verticaux dans les sols (bioturbation et lessivage) sont jusqu’à présent mal contraints bien qu’ils soient responsables de l’évolution temporelle des services écosystémiques rendus par les sols. Afin de mieux contraindre ces processus, une méthode de quantification cinétique basée sur les profils verticaux de 210Pb (xs), 10Be et 137Cs a été développée pour les Luvisols, dans lesquels les transferts solubles peuvent être négligés. Les limites d’applicabilité de ce type d’approche n’ont cependant pas été testées. Dans ce travail, nous avons analysé le 210Pb (xs), 10Be et 137Cs dans des sols présentant des gradients de carbone organique, de pH et de teneurs en < 2 μm (Podzol, Andosol, Ferralsol, Leptosol). Des sols acides et des teneurs en matières organiques importantes ont été considérés. La distribution verticale des isotopes étudiés a été interprétée en fonction de la teneur en matière organique, du pH et de la fraction < 2 μm. Nous démontrons que des pertes de 10Be et de 137Cs sous forme solubles sont présentes dans les Podzols, spécialement sous forêt, plus acide, pour le dernier. Des transferts solubles de 10Be ont également été identifiés dans l’Andosol mais considérés comme négligeables dans le Leptosol. Pour le 210Pb (xs), les transferts solubles sont également probables pour les sols au pH inférieurs à 5.5 (Andosol et Ferralsol) et une forte affinité pour la matière organique a été démontrée. Ainsi, en conditions acides et teneur en particules < 2 μm faible, les transferts solubles ne peuvent plus être négligés. [less ▲]

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See detail« Analyse de l’implantation d’un protocole d’entraînement de la vitesse dans une équipe de football »
Lombard, Gilles ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

L’organisation défensive des équipes de football et la densité des joueurs ont significativement augmenté depuis 40 ans (Wallace et Norton, 2014). Ceci influence les qualités physiques des joueurs qui se ... [more ▼]

L’organisation défensive des équipes de football et la densité des joueurs ont significativement augmenté depuis 40 ans (Wallace et Norton, 2014). Ceci influence les qualités physiques des joueurs qui se doivent d’être plus rapides pour faire la différence. Aujourd’hui, la filière anaérobie alactique, bien que minoritaire au niveau quantitatif (Mohr et al., 2003), est la déterminante principale de la performance sur le plan physique (Cometti et al., 2001). Etant donné l’importance de cette qualité physique, nous avons voulu examiner si l’introduction d’un travail spécifique de la vitesse durant 8 semaines aurait un impact significatif sur la performance fonctionnelle du joueur de football. Méthodologie L’échantillon de 18 joueurs est réparti dans des groupes contrôle et expérimental. Trois tests de terrain sont utilisés pour mesurer l’évolution du paramètre anaérobique avant et après le protocole de 8 semaines : un test de vitesse sur 10 mètres (Wilson et al., 1993), un test de zigzags sur 20 mètres (Little et Williams, 2005) et un counter movement jump avec les bras (Slinde et al., 2008). Durant 8 semaines, le groupe expérimental bénéficie, en plus de l’entraînement normal, de deux séances hebdomadaire de 30 minutes visant le développement de la vitesse. A la fin de l'étude, aucun résultat significatif n'a été trouvé que ce soit au niveau de la vitesse sur courte distance, en course brisée ou de la détente en squat jump et counter movement jump. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'un prototype de prédiction de la précision d'un réseau géodésique
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

This master thesis presents a framework for the elaboration and the implementation of a new tool in topography: an intuitive and predictive prototype for technical precision. Furthermore, it develops the ... [more ▼]

This master thesis presents a framework for the elaboration and the implementation of a new tool in topography: an intuitive and predictive prototype for technical precision. Furthermore, it develops the state of art of the validation methodology of surveys in land surveying. [less ▲]

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See detailScénariser les futurs de la gestion des déchets hautement radioactifs. Creative Problem Solving appliqué et méthode de scénarios
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

L’échelle temps inédite qui s’impose aux décideurs politiques, aux techniciens et au public quand il s'agit de réfléchir au devenir des déchets hautement radioactifs est une formidable opportunité de ... [more ▼]

L’échelle temps inédite qui s’impose aux décideurs politiques, aux techniciens et au public quand il s'agit de réfléchir au devenir des déchets hautement radioactifs est une formidable opportunité de réfléchir à des techniques de facilitation innovantes. De fait, ce travail a pour objectif de se placer du point de vue du facilitateur en charge d’animer plusieurs exercices participatifs sur le sujet. D’une part, ce travail vise à ajuster, critiquer, compléter (ou abandonner ?) la méthode des scénarios du futur, très souvent usitée par notre Centre de recherches Spiral et nombreux chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales dans le cadre de la problématique qui nous intéresse. D’autre part, il vise à réfléchir à un exercice participatif qui soit capable d’identifier des possibles impossibles, des pensables impensables sur des milliers d’années concernant la gestion de ces déchets. Il s’agit de réfléchir à un exercice type prospectif selon la méthode du creative problem solving qui soit capable de mobiliser des techniques créatives pour sortir des scénarios classiques du futur : comment penser les futurs des déchets hautement radioactifs à longue durée de vie ? [less ▲]

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See detailConcours et conception en architecture : le concours, outil de création de notre société ?
Calixte, Xaviera ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Le travail porte une réflexion sur la place de l’architecture dans notre société, tout particulièrement dans le domaine du concours. Projets forts médiatisés et souvent exemples de création ... [more ▼]

Le travail porte une réflexion sur la place de l’architecture dans notre société, tout particulièrement dans le domaine du concours. Projets forts médiatisés et souvent exemples de création architecturale, ils sont pourtant dictés par des directives et des réglementations qui semblent contraindre l’architecture à une série de critères. Dans le domaine des marchés publics, les exigences sont de plus en plus nombreuses et contraignent la maîtrise d’ouvrage à s’assurer des performances du bâtiment ainsi que de la viabilité du projet. Dans un concours, l’architecture est évaluée par un jury sur base de critères. Dans ce cas, le concours peut–il être considéré comme un moyen d’expression à la créativité architecturale ? Sur quels critères évaluer la conception d’avant-projet ? Une série de réflexions à ce propos, notamment sur la place du concours en architecture dans notre culture, mais aussi sur ses objectifs seront illustrés sur base d’un exemple concret, le concours du collège Voltaire à Remoulins. Une analyse des divers documents, règlements, programmes et prestations permettra de mettre à jour les divers enjeux culturels en lien avec le concours. L’Union Européenne dicte et régule les différents modes de passations dans le domaine des marchés publics. Le concours permet ainsi de mettre en avant d’autres aspects que le critère économique, laissant ainsi la maîtrise d’ouvrage établir une série de critères pour mettre en évidence les enjeux de chaque commande publique. Cependant, si la commande tente de généraliser la demande, c’est un projet unique, possédant ses propres caractéristiques, qui sera choisi comme lauréat. Ainsi une réflexion sera menée sur la conception en architecture et sa place dans le concours. La conception permet de trouver une cohérence entre le concept architectural et les exigences fonctionnelles de l’ouvrage. Le geste architectural ne peut être gratuit. Néanmoins, l’aspect conceptuel du projet ne peut pour autant être nié. Le concours se doit donc de sélectionner un projet cohérent dans sa conception. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic préalable à un contrat d'axe sur la ligne SNCB 40 Liège-Guillemins - Visé. Etude du potentiel de l'outil contrat d'axe en Wallonie et de la densification des gares de la ligne 40
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Le travail vise à alimenter la réflexion menée par le consortium Pluris - Trame - B. Bianchet à propos de l'élaboration d'un Schéma de Développement Territorial (SDT) pour l'arrondissement de Liège : d ... [more ▼]

Le travail vise à alimenter la réflexion menée par le consortium Pluris - Trame - B. Bianchet à propos de l'élaboration d'un Schéma de Développement Territorial (SDT) pour l'arrondissement de Liège : d'une part, étudier le potentiel des quartiers de gare en région liégeoise et, d'autre part, à voir si l'outil des "Contrats d'axe", développés en France, pourrait être pertinent dans le cadre wallon. La recherche a été appliquée à un axe ferroviaire de la région de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a Multiplex HPLC MS/MS assay for the measurement of steroid hormones
Rademaker, Gilles ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Facing an improvement of the quality assurance in all the laboratory, the validation of methods has become a step that cannot be got round. The objective of this work is the validation of a Protein ... [more ▼]

Facing an improvement of the quality assurance in all the laboratory, the validation of methods has become a step that cannot be got round. The objective of this work is the validation of a Protein-Precipitation HPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of steroid hormones (Aldosterone, Androstenedione, Cortisol, 17-OH Progesterone, DHEAS and Testosterone). To achieve this purpose, a precision, recovery, linearity, carry over assay and a limit of quantification are performed. After collection of the data, results are calculated and statistically analysed. They allow to set boundaries to the method and to understand more easily how we could improve it. The results show that the method is effective for all hormones except the aldosterone, for which the method still has to be improved. Moreover, a comparison of the analysis of the testosterone between Cobas and HPLC MS/MS is made. In the lab, this hormone is analysed with Cobas but a transition to the HPLC MS/MS can be done because the results are satisfactory. [less ▲]

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See detailL'identité sourde : entre handicap, culture et stigmate
Darcis, Coralie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

De tout temps la surdité a été appréhendée d’un point de vue médical par les sciences, avec comme objectif de rendre l’ouïe à ceux ne l’ayant pas. Cependant, depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, certains ... [more ▼]

De tout temps la surdité a été appréhendée d’un point de vue médical par les sciences, avec comme objectif de rendre l’ouïe à ceux ne l’ayant pas. Cependant, depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, certains auteurs des sciences sociales s’intéressent à cet objet d’un point de vue culturel : la surdité en tant que culture. Des auteurs se penchent également sur la notion d’ « identité sourde », supposée recouvrir une réalité homogène. Cependant, plusieurs auteurs écrivent sur le sujet, tout en montrant la complexité de la réalité couverte par cette expression. Dès lors, si l’expression « identité sourde » ne correspond pas un bloc monolithique, que recouvre-t-elle actuellement en Belgique francophone ? Pour répondre à cette première question, il est tout d’abord nécessaire de s’en poser une seconde : comment et autour de quelles dynamiques l’identité de la personne sourde se construit-elle ? Dans ce mémoire, nous chercherons donc à apporter des réponses à ces deux questions à travers, d’une part, la construction d’une revue de la littérature scientifique traitant du sujet et, d’autre part, l’analyse d’un matériau empirique récolté auprès de différents informateurs sourds et entendants. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une logique du grotesque dans les dessins animés de Tex Avery à la MGM (1942-1955)
Moreau, Timothée ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

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See detailTranscendentalism and Sublime (Post)Nature in American Literature: From Self-Discovery to Self-Destruction
Lombard, David ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Using the philosophy of Transcendentalism and the aesthetics of the sublime as comparative elements, this master thesis provides a diachronical analysis of a delimited corpus of (Native) American ... [more ▼]

Using the philosophy of Transcendentalism and the aesthetics of the sublime as comparative elements, this master thesis provides a diachronical analysis of a delimited corpus of (Native) American literature, which discusses representations of the (post)natural world and the self, aimed at drawing ecocritical conclusions. The author considers literary works from various genres—travelogues, essays, memoirs, novels, poems and non-fiction works—that were written by authors coming from significantly different periods. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical design, control and optimization of a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa
Altés Buch, Queralt ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

This thesis aims at developing, optimizing and controling a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa. The considered system includes PV, Parabolic Trough ... [more ▼]

This thesis aims at developing, optimizing and controling a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa. The considered system includes PV, Parabolic Trough Collectors, Organic Rankine Cycle and LPG generator, as well as chemical battery storage and thermal energy storage. The work focuses on multiple aspects of the ongoing development of solar hybrid microgrids for the rural electrification of remote areas in Lesotho. These aspects range from very specific improvements (the mechanical design of a high expansion ratio expander) to the more global evaluation of their impact once included into a complex micro-grid system. Special attention has also been paid to the links between thermal and electrical demands. The main contributions of this thesis are: – The mechanical design of a high expansion ratio scroll expander, involving drawing, machining and assembly of the parts. – The detailed model of an organic Rankine cycle with the purpose of evaluating the improvement brought by the high expansion ratio scroll expander and mapping the ORC performance. – A building model developed to predict the thermal loads of a health clinic in rural communities of Lesotho. The developed lumped-parameter model can be used for various building typologies and communities. The model is designed to be as generic and simple as possible, and contrasts with the data-intensive models generally proposed in the literature. – The gathering of monitoring and weather data relative to a health clinic in Lesotho, and their use for the calibration of the building model. – A microgrid model built by interconnecting all of its subcomponent models. A rule- based control strategy is developed, accounting for interactions between thermal and electrical loads, and dispatching heat and power flows of each component in order to cover the demand while minimizing the fuel consumption. – A particle-swarm optimization model used to optimize the microgrid under different cost assumptions and control strategies. The above models prove that the system performs better with the developed high expansion ratio expander. The maximum output power of the ORC is increased by 33%, and the fuel consumption of the microgrid is reduced by 25%. For the studied community of Ha Nkau in Lesotho, the determined optimal system infrastructure is composed of PV (65 kW) and batteries (259 kWh) only, and the optimum control strategy achieves a levelized cost of electricity of 0.202 USD/kWh. Fuel consumption is mainly due to the burner, which supplies all the thermal load because no other heating system is selected by the optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailRéseau de copies artistiques autour de la tombe de Pahéry d'Elkab
Devillers, Alisée ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Il s'agissait, à travers ce mémoire de fin de master, de s'intéresser à la question de l’artiste en Égypte antique en abordant le cas de Pahéry d'Elkab, qui s’est représenté en tant que peintre (« sS-qd » ... [more ▼]

Il s'agissait, à travers ce mémoire de fin de master, de s'intéresser à la question de l’artiste en Égypte antique en abordant le cas de Pahéry d'Elkab, qui s’est représenté en tant que peintre (« sS-qd ») et chef des travaux dans la tombe de son grand-père, le héros de guerre Ahmose fils d’Abana (EK - pour Elkab - 5), et qui, par la suite, est devenu gouverneur d’Elkab et d’Esna, soit une carrière peu banale pour un artiste. Grâce à son statut de nomarque, Pahéry a pu faire réaliser sa propre tombe, qui porte de multiples traces de son ancienne activité professionnelle de peintre. Cette chapelle funéraire, la EK 3, se trouve au centre d’un réseau de copies artistiques suffisamment bien documenté que pour permettre de retracer avec précision la transmission de motifs iconographiques et textuels d’une tombe à l’autre. Cette thématique des copies, qui a servi de base documentaire pour aborder une véritable individualité artistique fut par ailleurs l’occasion de proposer une brève comparaison transculturelle entre l’ère pharaonique et la Renaissance italienne. La tombe de Pahéry d’Elkab a, dans un premier temps, été décrite et analysée, en cherchant à déterminer la situation chronologique, la carrière et la généalogie de son propriétaire. Différents termes et concepts relatifs au processus de « copie » ont ensuite été définis, avec une attention particulière à la « copie d’invention » – ou emprunt créatif, – un procédé essentiel pour comprendre la conception égyptienne de la notion de « créativité ». Ensuite, ont été envisagées tour à tour les tombes d’Ahmose, fils d’Abana (EK 5) et d’Ounsou (TT A4), toutes deux vraisemblablement réalisées par Pahéry lui-même. La tombe TT A4, située dans la nécropole thébaine mais dont on a aujourd’hui perdu la localisation précise, bien que certains fragments en soient aujourd’hui conservés au Musée du Louvre, s’est avérée particulièrement intéressante dans la mesure où son analyse permet de suggérer que Pahéry a réutilisé pour son propre monument funéraire des éléments iconographiques et textuels qu’il avait précédemment mis au point dans l’exercice de son ancienne profession de « sS-qd », dans la tombe d’Ounsou. Dans un troisième temps, ce sont les tombes voisines de Sétaou, chef des prêtres de Nekhbet qui a commandité une version du programme iconographique de la EK 3 remise au goût du jour de l’époque ramesside, et de Réneny, ancien gouverneur d’Elkab, qui ont été abordées. En reprenant l’organisation générale et le concept des scènes agricoles de cette dernière chapelle et en utilisant la forme monocamérale traditionnelle des tombes de l’antique Nekheb (actuelle Elkab), Pahéry s’est volontairement intégré dans le paysage monumental et historique de la nécropole d’Elkab. En guise de conclusion, l’analyse comparée des différentes modalités de copies observées, ainsi que de leurs motivations, a été replacée dans le cadre conceptuel de l’« intericonicité », récemment introduit en Égyptologie, afin de dépasser les limites et les connotations – souvent négatives et restrictives – de la notion habituelle de « copie ». La personnalité singulière de Pahéry d’Elkab a en outre été comparée à celle de Giorgio Vasari, un autre artiste – certes nettement plus récent – qui eut également à cœur de mettre en scène son individualité dans un monument destiné à sa postérité et à sa commémoration. A cet égard, la comparaison avec la Renaissance, une époque qui vit tout à la fois un recours très important au processus de la copie et le développement – ou à tout le moins le renouvellement – d’un véritable statut de l’artiste, s’est déjà révélée très stimulante et éclairante pour étudier un cas issu de l’Égypte antique. [less ▲]

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See detailÉcritures du passé dans les libelles de la Ligue parisienne (1585-1594)
Goderniaux, Alexandre ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

À la fin des Guerres de religion, la Ligue catholique française, vaste mouvement de contestation politique, religieuse et sociale, fait entendre sa voix par des centaines de libelles. À Paris, ce sont ... [more ▼]

À la fin des Guerres de religion, la Ligue catholique française, vaste mouvement de contestation politique, religieuse et sociale, fait entendre sa voix par des centaines de libelles. À Paris, ce sont près de 870 pièces qui sont imprimées de 1585 à 1594. Leurs auteurs ne sont pas des histo- riens ; pourtant, le passé surgit au détour de chaque page. C’est sous un angle résolument pratique que ce mémoire souhaite démontrer combien ces écritures du passé sont riches d’enseignements à propos de la culture politique des Guerres de religion, à propos de la Ligue et, enfin, à propos des pratiques historiennes actuelles. À cet effet, trois premiers chapitres effectueront une approche archéologique de ces écritures du passé, envi- sageant successivement les usages rhétoriques, les représentations du temps et les transferts des connaissances historiques. Deux études de cas éclaireront ensuite des écritures du passé plus significatives – les ques- tions généalogiques et le passé proche. À travers ces cinq chapitres, de nombreux concepts forgés durant les trente dernières années par les spé- cialistes de l’historiographie constitueront une grille de lecture destinée à démontrer combien les écritures du passé dans les libelles sont cohé- rentes avec leur contexte culturel mais font de la Ligue un lieu de savoir unique et insoupçonné. [less ▲]

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See detailBonding properties of innovative CAD-CAM composite biomaterials for dental prostheses
Ebroin, Marie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2016)

Nowadays the tendency in dentistry is to use less invasive techniques to restore damaged dental tissues in a minimally invasive way using partial bonded ceramic and composite prostheses. Recently the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays the tendency in dentistry is to use less invasive techniques to restore damaged dental tissues in a minimally invasive way using partial bonded ceramic and composite prostheses. Recently the industry has developed various innovative composites materials to perform customized Computer-Aided Designed and Manufactured (CAD-CAM) dental prostheses. Two sub-classes of CAD-CAM composites can be distinguished in function of their microstructure: the dispersed filler and the polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials. Currently there is a lack of data regarding the bonding properties of those recent biomaterials to resin cement and consequently to tooth tissues. The objectives of this study are to evaluate interfacial toughness of the different classes of CAD-CAM composites (Dispersed filler and PICNs) with resin cement after different surface pretreatments and aging, and to correlate the results with material surface parameters, particularly micro- and nanostructure. In this study, two dispersed filler (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE and Cerasmart, GC America), two PICNs (Vita Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik and experimental PICN, MaJEB Sprl) and one glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) materials were tested. Composite prisms (6X6X6X12mm) were manufactured from CAD-CAM blocks. Samples (n total=270, n per group=30) were split into two parts and surfaces to be bonded were pretreated either with hydrofluoric acid etching or with alumina particles sandblasting followed by silanization (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent). All specimens were bonded using Variolink DC (Ivoclar Vivadent) resin cement and submitted to thermocycling aging (10000 cycles). The interfacial toughness was measured using the Notchless Triangular Prism (NTP) test. Surface characterization was performed using optical profilometry to measure the developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that PICNs exhibit higher bonding ability to resin cement than dispersed filler materials. Moreover, due to their specific microstructure PICNs were shown to perform better with an etching surface pretreatment while dispersed filler materials gave better results with sandblasting. Experimental PICN gave the best results, higher than the glass-ceramic material, which is currently considered as the gold standard. Those results were explained by the micro- and nanostructure of the etched material, which was characterized by the highest Sdr measurements. This work introduces interesting perspectives regarding the indications of PICN materials in minimally invasive treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative positioning with Galileo E5 AltBOC code measurements
Deprez, Cécile ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de la technologie, les horloges atomiques embarquées à bord de ses satellites ainsi que les signaux transmis par ces derniers sont extrêmement prometteurs dans beaucoup de domaines. Bien que toujours en phase de test à l’heure actuelle, ce système a déjà conduit à de premières mesures, notamment en matière de positionnement. Parmi ces nouvelles technologies, un signal en particulier semble très prometteur : Galileo E5, aussi appelé Galileo E5a+b ou encore Galileo E5 AltBOC. Ce signal permet d’effectuer des mesures de code et de phase plus précises. Il est également moins sensible au multi-trajet. Grâce à ses caractéristiques innovantes, Galileo E5 devrait permettre d’estimer des positions avec une précision supérieure à tous les autres signaux utilisés aujourd’hui. Une étude comparative des positions estimées avec les systèmes GPS (américain) et Galileo (européen) sur leurs différentes fréquences émises (GPS L1, GPS L2, GPS L5 pour GPS et Galileo E1, Galileo E5a, Galileo E5b et Galileo E5 AltBOC pour Galileo) a été menée dans ce mémoire. Pour ce faire, une combinaison d’observations appelée double différence (DD) est utilisée sous différentes configurations (ligne de base nulle (ZB), courte (SB) et moyenne (MB)) de récepteurs GNSS. Les récepteurs utilisés appartiennent à l’Université de Liège (2 récepteurs Trimble NetR9, 1 récepteur Septentrio XS et un récepteur Septentrio X4). Il ressort de cette étude que Galileo E5 AltBOC présente les observations les plus précises (en ZB, toutes sources d’erreurs éliminées). L’analyse démontre également qu’une précision de l’ordre de quelques décimètres sur la position à déterminer peut être atteinte avec les codes transmis par le signal Galileo E5, et ce jusqu’à 25 kilomètres de distance. [less ▲]

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See detailUnité de recherche universitaire CHU-ULg : Pour une expertise des implants dentaires et des biomatériaux de régénération tissulaire. Une étude de marché et un positionnement de produit
ROBERT, Marine ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

« Science to make you smile »: this very catchy slogan best describes the corporate strategy of the Dental Biomaterials Research Unit (d-BRU) of the University of Liège that focus on industrial company ... [more ▼]

« Science to make you smile »: this very catchy slogan best describes the corporate strategy of the Dental Biomaterials Research Unit (d-BRU) of the University of Liège that focus on industrial company satisfaction by offering a wide range of expertise in dental biomaterials from the bench to the clinic. The current business plan thesis about the research unit’s strategy and its strategy for industry-cooperation development aims to identify the opportunities and threats in the biomaterial market for regenerative and implantable devices. The growing perspectives for implantable device companies are due to the fast-growing old age population and the evolution of technologies. Consequently, the industry demand for characterization, development and improvement of dental biomaterials is high and provides opportunities for company-university collaborative research project through clinical trials project initiation. We conducted a market demand analysis to measure the attractiveness and the dynamics of the dental biomaterials industry market. Among the 15 interviews with representatives of the dental industry, more than a half companies showed a positive reaction to our expertise presentation, which confirmed the demand trends. Few european acadmic centers behave like US universities in terms of industry-oriented marketing ; although the dental industry experienced favourable supply conditions for leading European clinical trials, d-BRU seized the opportunity to positioning as a modern research unit and taking advantage of a competitive edge. The market we aim is divided into 3 distinctive segment. We defined and implemented a distinctive strategic and marketing direction to reach the target market. The d-BRU differenciates itself by providing a Premium all-in-one service from in vitro/in silico tests to clinical performance for the dental industry in the field of biomaterials and implants. Articles published in top-tier scientific journals reflect the well-established scientific expertise of the d-BRU. The research team fulfils its academic goals with strength, conviction and dynamism and devotes the necessary technological and human resources to create the optimum conditions for collaborative research. The financial sustainability of d-BRU is guaranteed by recent existing agreement which assure regular revenue for the next 3 years. Moreover, our revenue forecast show a positive increase from 2016 to 2020. The high-added value of this project stems from a differentiated market positioning and innovative customized service process supported by skilled and highly motivated team of searchers. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Circuit de l'ipséité sartrien. Conception, histoire, enjeux
Recchia, Fabio ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Ce mémoire interroge la thématique de la personnalisation chez Sartre. L'objectif est d'y faire le point sur un angle mort des études sartriennes : le concept de circuit de l’ipséité mis au point par ... [more ▼]

Ce mémoire interroge la thématique de la personnalisation chez Sartre. L'objectif est d'y faire le point sur un angle mort des études sartriennes : le concept de circuit de l’ipséité mis au point par Sartre dans L’être et le néant. Cette recherche est construite en trois parties. La première partie vise à inscrire le circuit de l’ipséité dans la théorie de l’intentionnalité du premier Sartre. L'on montre ainsi la manière dont L’être et le néant approfondit l’impersonnalité de la conscience de La Transcendance de l’Ego dans la direction d’une théorie de la personnalisation du pour-soi, indexée à la méthode de psychanalyse existentielle. La deuxième partie consiste à retracer la généalogie du concept de circuit de l’ipséité. Par un travail d’histoire de la philosophie, on reconstruit l’anthropologie sartrienne, qui s’articule aux concepts de personnalité et de socialité, au croisement de Heidegger, Bergson et Mauss. Cette reprise débouche sur un enjeu majeur : la nécessité d’élargir l’horizon ouvert par la compréhension phénoménologique de l’ipséité par une exploration méthodique des sciences humaines. S’inscrivant dans cette thématique de recherches, la troisième partie de ce mémoire consiste à souligner la persistance du thème de la personnalisation dans la philosophie du second Sartre. Partant, l'on interroge le rapport que celle-ci entretient avec les sciences humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailLes carrières en fin d'activités: un potentiel paysager?
Joris, Alicia ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

The present study focuses on the landscape concept and evaluations and is based on some issues related to the impact, restoration and ecological potential of the abandoned quarries. It proposes a ... [more ▼]

The present study focuses on the landscape concept and evaluations and is based on some issues related to the impact, restoration and ecological potential of the abandoned quarries. It proposes a landscape character assessment for non active limestone quarries resulting from the spontaneous succession. Taking into account the guidelines of the European Landscape Convention (Conseil de l'Europe, 2000) , this work has for objectives (1) to describe these landscape areas and (2) to assess the landscape aesthetic quality. To achieve these goals, two methods inspired by the Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) were tested. The first one is a field sheet and the second one a landscape perception survey with stakeholders. The results have emphasized the natural, harmonious and unique character of these landscapes. The key characteristics are the visual importance of cliffs, water bodies, vegetation forms and the landform in bleachers. Furthermore, color contrast and textures from vegetation, rock and water were also relevant. An apparent aesthetic landscape quality was perceived and the study showed that respondents are feeling good in the site surveyed. The quarryscape can be characterized of challenging, attractive, wild with an important degree of naturality but not really safe. Cultural, historic, symbolic and ecological values were also highlighted as a potential. These later observations take part in a landscape dynamic and allow to open the debate concerning the need for landscape interventions within these sites and the profit we could benefit from if security issues were well-managed. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between social tension and demographic density of commensal long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali (Indonesia)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope ... [more ▼]

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope with high-density conditions. We tested the validity of these models for free-ranging M. fascicularis, considered as less despotic than M. mulatta on which the models have been originally tested by comparing free-ranging and captive populations. Allowing the increasing ecological validity of our research’s conclusions, the free-ranging macaques we studied had a time window of life in high density condition long enough to set up an efficient and well-established social coping strategies. The study sites of Ubud and Uluwatu consisted of respectively six and five groups of M. fascicularis. We collected demographic data using a procession counting method, and behavioural data using focal and all-occurrence sampling methods. We assessed home range size using the daily group’s GPS location. Although Ubud is a crowded space while Uluwatu is not, we recorded less home range overlap between groups in Ubud in comparison to Uluwatu. Although global aggression did not differ between both populations, aggressive and submissive time increased whereas affiliative time decreased when density increased. According to the activity budget, while time spent in affiliative contacts was shorter in higher density condition, time spent in distant affiliative behaviours was longer. Females of both populations spent longer aggressive time than males but, although they increased more submissive time and decreased more affiliative time, their increase of aggressive time was lower than this of males when density increased. A plateau in aggressions occurred when density increased. In the study conditions, macaques seem to become more hierarchically structured that known for the species. However, some evidences seem to indicate they could become less despotic as well, supporting the coping model originally tested on M. mulatta. Macaca fascicularis could be expected to combine two different coping strategies to cope with high densities. [less ▲]

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See detailWhose English Does the New Headway Upper-Intermediate Global Coursebook Spread?
Gerday, Laura ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

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See detailModeling of aerodynamic forces in flapping flight with the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method
Lambert, Thomas ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

This thesis concerns the extensive study and comparison of two approaches commonly used to compute the aerodynamic forces with the unsteady vortex lattice method. The first approach was introduced by Katz ... [more ▼]

This thesis concerns the extensive study and comparison of two approaches commonly used to compute the aerodynamic forces with the unsteady vortex lattice method. The first approach was introduced by Katz and Plotkin and is based on Bernoulli's equations, the second approach was based Joukowski's equations for the computation of forces. This report is divided in two main sections: the study of one wing undergoing simple movements (steady, pure harmonic pitching and pure harmonic plunging) and the study of two separate wings undergoing a combination of flapping and pitching such as seen in avian flight. For the simple test cases, the results obtained with both methods of computation were first compared to an analytical solution for a (quasi) 2D case. Then the comparison of both methods was made for finite wings. For the 3D problem a convergence study was done with respect to the chordwise discretisation of the airfoils. This section showed that for all the cases, the two methods give almost the same answer and therefore they could be considered as equivalent. The convergence study realised for finite wings showed however that Joukowski's method converges quicker than Katz's for symmetric airfoils, but it is the other way around when it comes to cambered airfoils. The study of the flapping and pitching motion is based on the work of N. Abdul Razak. The influence of pitch leading was extensively studied as this phenomenon presents a flow attached at all time, so these kinematics are well suited for the vortex lattice method. Both pure flapping and pitch lagging were also discussed but more briefly. For pitch leading, the study showed that in general both methods give the same results for the drag and the lift. Moreover, the UVLM solutions were very close to the experimental ones, especially for the drag. The convergence showed a small advantage for the Katz method for the coarser meshes, but in the end both methods appear to reach convergence for the same discretisation. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the recent disappearance of a tropical glacier in the Bolivian Andes with the help of the high resolution regional climate model MAR
Scholzen, Chloé ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

This study provides a first evaluation of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) model over the Bolivian tropical Andes. MAR is currently developed at the ULg and allows dynamical downscaling up to 5 km ... [more ▼]

This study provides a first evaluation of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) model over the Bolivian tropical Andes. MAR is currently developed at the ULg and allows dynamical downscaling up to 5 km of horizontal resolution. The purpose of this work is to model the recent changes in the climatic parameters which are thought to control the mass and energy balance of mountain glaciers in the outer tropics. We focus on the recently vanished Chacaltaya Glacier (16°S), which by virtue of its location and its environmental context is representative of many small-sized glaciers of the Bolivian Andes. To evaluate our model, we first examine simulated precipitation and near-surface temperature against in situ observations from ground weather stations. Since observational data is very scarce in this part of the world, we also refer to qualitative information provided by the scientific literature. We compare the performance of the model forced with two different reanalyses, and with several corrections applied to the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) impacting on temperature and humidity. MAR forced with the ERA-Interim reanalysis yields better results than with the NCEP/NCAR-v2 reanalysis. We then use the best ERA-driven simulation to assess the long-term climate change over 1960-2014 in the region of the Chacaltaya Mountain. The regional atmospheric circulation is adequately simulated by MAR, which reproduces the prevailing seasonal features of the lower, middle and upper troposphere. The climatic anomalies associated to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are also properly recreated. Remaining model biases include an overall year-round dry bias over the Altiplano region, due to the strong corrections applied to the LBCs (-15% for humidity). Over the highest elevations of the Andes, both precipitation and cloud cover are probably overestimated by MAR. The sporadic spatial distribution of convective rainfall also suggests numerical instability in the convective parameterization scheme. Modeled temperatures match very well the observations, but the reliability of the observed time series is highly questionable. Between 1960 and 2014, the most significant trends concern precipitation and cloud cover which both decreased of about 35%. The surface radiation budget also changed as a result of the reduced cloudiness. Near-surface temperature increased by about 1.5°C. Those trends are believed to have been enhanced by the more frequent and more intense El Niño events during the warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase between 1977 and 1999. The combination of the repeated droughts and the enhanced incoming short-wave radiation due to reduced low-level cloudiness are probably the main factors responsible for the acceleration of the Chacaltaya Glacier recession. Nevertheless, the ENSO signal is not always clear in the Bolivian Andes, because of the interference with strong local climatic processes. Moreover, additional forcings of non climatic nature may also be responsible for the rapid demise of the Chacaltaya Glacier. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction de sons chez le baliste Picasso Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnæus, 1758)
Raick, Xavier ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Although the sound production of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is known since 1889, its mechanism and the associated behavioural context have never been studied. The goals of this study are (1 ... [more ▼]

Although the sound production of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is known since 1889, its mechanism and the associated behavioural context have never been studied. The goals of this study are (1) to describe the sound(s) produced by R. aculeatus; (2) to examine the possible link between the fish length and the characteristics of the sound(s) produced; (3) to describe the mechanism(s) involved in the sound production and (4) to study the behavioural context of the sound production. The fish have been recorded holding in hand underwater with a hydrophone HTI-96-MIN and a recorder TASCAM DR-07. Two different sounds have been recorded. The first one was 83 ± 22 ms long with a dominant frequency of 191 ± 42 Hz. The second one was 59 ± 31 ms long with a dominant frequency of 1616 ± 531 Hz. The effect of the fish length on the frequency has been demonstrated for both sounds. The morphological examinations and the use of a high speed video camera have shown that the first sound was produced during the friction of the pectoral spine against modified scales called scutes. The role of the pectoral fin is to push sharply the scutes whose configuration change would be the cause of the sound production. It is the alternation of movements of the left and the right fins that would allow the production of an extended sound. The second sound would be a stridulation sound produced by the pharyngeal teeth. Finally, the behavioural examination in the natural environment has shown that the first sound was heard in a stress situation and probably when the female defends its nest, while the second one was mainly heard during the alimentation. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'évolution des conditions climatiques dans la région du Kilimandjaro, à l'aide du modèle MAR, sur la période 1951-2014
Flachat, Alexia ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Kilimanjaro glaciers appear among the most famous tropical glaciers. Even if they represent only 5% of the moutain glaciers, tropical glaciers are very interesting witnesses of the global warming. Indeed ... [more ▼]

Kilimanjaro glaciers appear among the most famous tropical glaciers. Even if they represent only 5% of the moutain glaciers, tropical glaciers are very interesting witnesses of the global warming. Indeed, their time of answer and their sensibility to climatic variations are more important than those of higher latitudes glaciers. Moreover, tropical climate is a very stable climate, which doesn’t present strong annual amplitudes of temperature. Thereby, the temperature is constantly negative at the top of the Kilimanjaro, what induces that the melting is essentially made by sublimation : ice passes from the solid state to the gaseous one, without passing by the liquid state. If we refer to the studies led since the half of the 19th, the climate change had for consequences to intensify the melting of Kibo ice cap, making spend its surface from 12,06 km² in 1912, to 2,36 km² in 2011. Hence, we decided to study by using the Regional Atmospheric Model (MAR), the evolution of climatic conditions in the region of the Kilimanjaro, over the period 1951-2014. We were thus able to put forward, firstly, that the decrease in cloudiness and precipitation, as well as the increased solar radiation, have played an important role in the melting of these glaciers. On the other hand, we also demonstrated that the NCEP and ERA-Interim reanalyses on Africa are not reliable, and consequently, the model presents difficulties to represent in a correct way the climate in our zone. To finish, we analyzed if we found the El Niño and La Niña events, of which the impact on the East African climate has been shown, in the model outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailMiliter pour et sur Internet. L'adhésion au Parti Pirate belge
Macq, Hadrien ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Suède, le 7 juin 2009. Aux élections européennes, un parti politique vient de créer la surprise. Il s’agit du Piratpartiet, fondé à peine trois ans plus tôt et qui vient de récolter sept pourcents des ... [more ▼]

Suède, le 7 juin 2009. Aux élections européennes, un parti politique vient de créer la surprise. Il s’agit du Piratpartiet, fondé à peine trois ans plus tôt et qui vient de récolter sept pourcents des suffrages, obtenant de la sorte un élu au Parlement. Ce parti, créé avant tout pour défendre une autre idée de la propriété intellectuelle, fait rapidement plusieurs dizaines d’émules à travers le monde, y compris en Belgique. La base de leurs revendications est invariable : réforme du droit d’auteur, abolition du brevet sur le vivant et le logiciel, meilleure défense des données privées. Les partis pirates se distinguent également par une utilisation intensive des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication, tant dans leur communication vers l’extérieur que dans leur gestion interne. L’apparition de tels partis sur la scène politique peut être mise en perspective avec deux tendances plus larges au sein des sociétés occidentales. D’une part, Internet s’est petit à petit constitué en tant qu’enjeu politique à part entière, questionnant le système politique sur son mode de gouvernance et son degré de régulation. D’autre part, les pratiques d’engagement se sont progressivement transformées jusqu’à inciter les organisations politiques traditionnelles à s’adapter aux volontés des supposés néo-militants. Dans ce cadre, les partis politiques ont notamment pu s’appuyer sur Internet pour offrir un mode de participation plus souple et plus à même d’attirer de nouveaux adhérents. Cette tendance serait d’ailleurs arrivée à son zénith avec l’émergence de « cyber-partis », basant une grande partie de leur structure sur l’usage des réseaux télématiques. C’est dans cette optique que s’inscrit cette étude, avec pour objectif plus particulier d’interroger les impacts d’Internet sur la dynamique d’adhésion partisane. La question posée est la suivante : quel rôle Internet joue-t-il dans l’adhésion au Parti Pirate belge ? A partir de ce cas, ce sont les perspectives plus larges de l’adhésion aux cyber-partis et des pratiques contemporaines d’engagement qui peuvent être envisagées. De cette manière, il est possible d’apporter certaines réponses au renouvellement des questionnements en science politique engendré par le Web, concernant notamment la participation politique et l’organisation des partis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'estétrol et le développement tumoral
Gallez, Anne ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

A l’heure actuelle, le risque augmenté de troubles thromboemboliques et de cancer du sein chez les femmes sous hormonothérapie est un problème majeur de santé publique. La découverte de nouvelles ... [more ▼]

A l’heure actuelle, le risque augmenté de troubles thromboemboliques et de cancer du sein chez les femmes sous hormonothérapie est un problème majeur de santé publique. La découverte de nouvelles molécules procurant une sécurité sanitaire accrue aux utilisatrices est donc nécessaire. L’estétrol (E4) est proposé comme candidat potentiel. L’E4 est une hormone stéroïdienne, de type « œstrogène », retrouvée naturellement chez l’humain et synthétisée uniquement par le foie fœtal durant la grossesse. Sa grande biodisponibilité orale et son temps de demi-vie de 28 heures chez l’humain le rendent intéressant en tant qu’hormonothérapie de substitution (ERT/HRT). L’E4 est capable de traiter efficacement les symptômes principaux de la ménopause (les bouffées de chaleur, l’atrophie vaginale et l’ostéoporose) et ce, dès une concentration de 0,3 mg/kg/jour. L’étude de son impact sur le cancer du sein est au centre de ce mémoire, puisque c’est l’une des conséquences majeures de l’utilisation prolongée d’œstrogènes et que les données de la littérature restent controversées Des résultats préliminaires obtenus au laboratoire ont montré que l’E4 (3 mg/kg/jour) augmentait le poids des tumeurs dans le modèle murin de carcinogenèse mammaire MMTV-PyMT, contrairement à l’ovariectomie et au traitement au Tamoxifène. Au terme de ce mémoire, nos recherches démontrent que l’E4 utilisé aux doses 0,3 et 7 mg/kg/jour n’influence pas significativement la croissance tumorale. Par contre, l’E4 à 3 mg/kg/jour majore le poids tumoral et la dissémination métastatique chez des animaux ovariectomisés et intacts. De plus, l’E4 délivré à 3 mg/kg/jour est capable d’augmenter l’angiogenèse et de diminuer la nécrose et l’hypoxie intra-tumorale, de manière similaire à l’oestradiol (E2) alors que la dose de 0,3mg/kg/jour n’est pas suffisante pour observer cet effet. En conclusion, les travaux menés pendant mon mémoire de Master ont permis de caractériser les effets de l’E4 sur la carcinogenèse mammaire hormonodépendante, la dissémination métastatique et l'angiogenèse tumorale. Au vu de nos résultats, nous ne pensons pas qu'il soit judicieux d'utiliser l'E4 comme traitement anti-tumoral, comme cela a été suggéré par certains auteurs. Au contraire, nos données suggèrent que pour éviter un effet de l’E4 sur la croissance tumorale et l’angiogenèse, il est nécessaire de privilégier le développement d’un traitement clinique de la ménopause avec de faibles concentrations d’E4. [less ▲]

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See detailStructures and Mechanisms for Sustainable Participation in the Workplace: the Case Study of Cecosesola
Soetens, Aurélie ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Cecosesola is a worthy example of a broad-scale, long-lasting, self-managed cooperative. Created in 1967 and operating totally without any hierarchy since 1983, this Venezuelan umbrella organization ... [more ▼]

Cecosesola is a worthy example of a broad-scale, long-lasting, self-managed cooperative. Created in 1967 and operating totally without any hierarchy since 1983, this Venezuelan umbrella organization integrates today around 50 communitarian organizations, 1,300 worker-members, 20,000 members, and 300,000 direct beneficiaries. In a context where cooperatives, as enterprises based on social equality and self-management, have suddenly become of growing interest and where their democratic specificities make them the most quoted example of alternative form of organization, the in-depth study of an organization like Cecosesola is of significant relevance. Participatory processes can only be successful if implemented from the bottom, by organizations and individuals knowledgeable of their specificities, difficulties and uncertainties. Therefore, apprehending how Cecosesola sustains this high level of participation, after so many years of operation, with that many worker-members, and while running very different business units, provides valuable insights for better understanding the process of workplace participation and how it may be sustained over time. First, the analysis shows that the structures and mechanisms necessary to sustain participation are interdependent and require one another in order to be effective. Then, it highlights that sustainable workplace participation does not only rely on the establishment of a set of structures and concrete elements (e.g. meetings, work standards...) but also on the implementation at the heart of the organization of several self-sufficient mechanisms (e.g. educative process, climate of reflexivity...). Next, this research shows that establishing a participative process does not only take time but also entirely relies on a delicate balance between values and practices, autonomy and coordination, personal initiatives and collective actions, capital creation and social mission alignment... Finally, the findings lead to a model for sustainable workplace participation relying on the double concept of Management by Collective Creativity and Collective Discipline. [less ▲]

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See detailEcologie de reproduction du doussié, Afzelia bipindensis Harms, en forêt dense humide tropicale gabonaise.
Evrard, Quentin ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

The species Afzelia bipindensis is a precious woody tree known for its wood quality and considered vulnerable by the IUCN. In order to improve the current knowledge gaps about its reproductive ecology ... [more ▼]

The species Afzelia bipindensis is a precious woody tree known for its wood quality and considered vulnerable by the IUCN. In order to improve the current knowledge gaps about its reproductive ecology, the goals of this study are: (1) identify animal dispersers/predators of the seeds with direct and indirect observation methods, (2) quantify the dispersion/predation, (3) test the germination dynamics of those seeds under some circumstances that are likely to influence it, (4) model the growth of juveniles depending upon the access to light. This study was carried out in the forest concession attributed to the Precious Woods society and situated in evergreen forests in East Gabon. After more than 100 hours of direct observation and 3.000 hours of image capture by camera-trap, only four species (Cricetomys emini, Epixerus wilsoni, Protoxerus stangeri and some undetermined Muridae) would be the main animal species to get interested to Afzelia seeds. Those would take more than 90 % of the seeds and would be essentially predators. The results of the germination test revealed a significant influence of the aril on the germination rate. The conservation time and the volume of the seed had also a significant influence over its fitness. Finally, the modeling of growth showed a very low average growth value over time compared to equivalent data collected in Cameroon and a very high mortality rate, probably due to a high predation rate by duikers. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution au monitoring de populations d'hippopotame commun (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) par l'utilisation de la technologie drone (Parc National de la Garamba, République Démocratique du Congo)
Lhoest, Simon ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

In an era of indisputable decline in populations of large wildlife species, setting up regular and efficient monitoring methods is essential. Because of the difficulties associated with conventional ... [more ▼]

In an era of indisputable decline in populations of large wildlife species, setting up regular and efficient monitoring methods is essential. Because of the difficulties associated with conventional pedestrian and aerial survey procedures, the development of UAV technology turns out to be a potentially interesting alternative. This work focuses on monitoring common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) with the use of this innovative tool. The search for flight parameters optimization to maximize detection and visibility of animals showed a very small decrease in detection rate and certainty of counts with an increasing flying height and a high variability linked to operators realizing observations. It is recommended to fly at a height of 140 meters above ground level, between 6:30 and 8:45 am at the end of the dry season, with cloud cover and wind as low as possible. Three counts correction methods are proposed to estimate the total population from the only emerged observed animals. The average overall correction factor is 1.252. An attempt to describe the demography of a group by individuals length measurements was also implemented. It allowed to obtain a mean distribution of hippos in three age classes, even if results are not extremely accurate. Finally, an algorithm for the semi-automatic count of hippos on thermal infrared imagery was developed, and brought to a mean error of +3.9%. Taking into account the recommendations proposed in this study for the development of inventories protocols would help dealing with the practical constraints of conventional monitoring methods. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en place d’un système de mesure par covariance de turbulence des flux de N2O sur une parcelle agricole
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source ... [more ▼]

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas responsible for 8% of anthropogenic radiative forcing. It is also a major contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Agricultural soils represent its main source. N2O is produced by microorganisms through nitrification and denitrification processes. Both depend on oxygenation conditions and nitrogen and labile carbon availability, which are driven by soil and climate conditions and by farming practices. Yet there remain science gaps concerning the understanding of emission mechanisms and dynamics. The eddy covariance technique allows studying a whole ecosystem with a half-hourly temporal resolution, opening up for long-term monitoring and precise greenhouse gas budget calculation. However, this technique requires a specific expertise. In order to install such a system to measure N2O exchanges by a production crop at the Terrestrial Observatory of Lonzée (Belgium), we set the following goals : (1) establishing the state of knowledge concerning N2O fluxes exchanged by crops and identifying gaps, (2) setting up a N2O analyzer at the experimental site and providing operating procedures, and (3) building and adjusting the first data processing and calculation procedures. As a result of this work, scientific gaps were identified and avenues for further research are suggested. Monitoring and data acquisition routines as well as first data processing procedures were implemented. Numerous questions still remain regarding the adaptation of classical methods (created to study CO2) to N2O, and they constitute the investigation prospects of this work. [less ▲]

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See detailDÉTECTION ET QUANTIFICATION DES RACINES ET DES RÉSIDUS DE CULTURE DE FROMENT D’HIVER (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PAR IMAGERIE HYPERSPECTRALE PROCHE INFRAROUGE
Fraipont, Guillaume ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

On the basis of 384 soil samples collected at 4 different dates during the 2011-2012 crop season in the 0-30 cm soil horizon, this master thesis allowed the study of crop residues evolution and the ... [more ▼]

On the basis of 384 soil samples collected at 4 different dates during the 2011-2012 crop season in the 0-30 cm soil horizon, this master thesis allowed the study of crop residues evolution and the development of winter wheat root system throughout the crop season by the means of NIR-HSI technology and chemometric tools. [less ▲]

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See detailCHARACTERIZATION OF STONY SOILS’ HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES AND REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTARY VOLUME USING FIELD, LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS
Pichault, Mathieu ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study such as soil physics, hydrology, ecology and agronomy. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies ... [more ▼]

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study such as soil physics, hydrology, ecology and agronomy. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils so that the literature describing the impact of stones on a soil’s hydraulic characteristics is still rather scarce. The aim of this study is to assess, through a case study of a clayey soil in Thailand, the effect of rock fragments on the main hydraulic characteristics, i.e. hydraulic conductivity and retention curves, and on related physical properties of the soil. This was done by means of field, laboratory and numerical experiments involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. Results were compared with those predicted by several models assuming that stones are non-porous and only reduce the cross-sectional area available for water flow. These models further consider that the shape parameters of the retention and hydraulic conductivity curves are not dependent on the stoniness. We tested the validity of such assumptions. We did not find evidence against the assumption stating that stones might be considered as non-porous. However, our results suggest that the shape parameters of the retention curve vary according to the stone content. Furthermore, considering that stones only reduce the cross-sectional area available for water flow might also be ill-founded. We pointed out several significant drivers of the saturated hydraulic conductivity which are not considered by these models. First of all, the effect due to the creation of voids at the fine earth-stone interface combined with an increased difficulty to repack the fine earth can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced cross-sectional area in some cases. Moreover, the shape and the size of inclusions may also affect substantially hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we developed a code destined to quantify the representative elementary volume of soils containing different amounts of stones of various diameters. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation et étude du potentiel de valorisation des polyphénols de miels monofloraux
Istasse, Thibaut ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Honey is a natural sweet substance mainly produced by Apis mellifera L. from flowers nectar or honeydew. It is consumed by humans and used as sweetening agent since ancient times. Nowadays, its main ... [more ▼]

Honey is a natural sweet substance mainly produced by Apis mellifera L. from flowers nectar or honeydew. It is consumed by humans and used as sweetening agent since ancient times. Nowadays, its main valorization is in the food sector. Besides its sweetness, honey also has other interesting properties like an antibacterial action. The origins of this antibacterial action are manifold because although honey contains mainly sugars, it is nonetheless a very complex mixture comprising more than one hundred different components. Factors usually involved in honey antibacterial effect are hydrogen peroxide, the high concentration in sugars, the acidic pH, antimicrobial peptides secreted by bees and polyphenols which are secondary metabolites from plants visited by the bees. Among these factors, polyphenols are of particular interest because they represent a market of hundreds of millions of dollars in the world and exhibit different biological activities: antioxidants, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, etc… These observations lead to a question: could honey polyphenols be extracted for high value-added applications? The purpose of this work is to give a beginning of answer. That’s why an extraction method for honey polyphenols was developed. These compounds were sought in six different honey samples: acacia, chestnut, eucalyptus, thyme, sunflower and wild carrot honeys. After the extraction, samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry. Several polyphenols were identified and quantified in honeys. If the extraction method isn’t recommended at industrial level at this stage of the project, it can, however, be used for analytical purposes. Further development of the method could allow to link honeys to their floral sources. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous produits de la filière vinicole pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Nowadays, there is no longer any doubt about the future fossil fuels rarefaction. It is necessary to find more sustainable ways to produce everyday consumer products faced to an increasing population. Bio ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, there is no longer any doubt about the future fossil fuels rarefaction. It is necessary to find more sustainable ways to produce everyday consumer products faced to an increasing population. Bio-based chemistry and bio-refining are alternative solutions deserving a particular attention. The large amount of green waste produced all around the world represents energy and chemical resources with an under-exploited potential. Wine-making byproducts come from grape growing which is one of the largest crop around world. It seems to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on the high value added valorization possibilities of the wine-making byproducts. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, parapharmaceutical or food industry. This study is built around three main objectives: a characterization of the raw material and the development of a method to extract polyphenols. The results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorization potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of interesting compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols as well as high concentrations of other molecules of which the valorization potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailValorisation des géoressources argileuses de la région de Kinshasa pour améliorer la qualité et la durabilité des matériaux de construction utilisés dans l’habitat périurbain
Mango-Itulamya, Lavie Arsène ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

The Kinshasa region contains an abundance of clay raw material in many of its localities. These clay materials show their ability in the clay building. This work is to develop these resources in another ... [more ▼]

The Kinshasa region contains an abundance of clay raw material in many of its localities. These clay materials show their ability in the clay building. This work is to develop these resources in another clay construction sector : the raw earth. The obdjective is to find a sustainable alternative which consumes less energy Three localities containing important clay resources were sampled : Kasangulu, Lutendele and Ndjili Cecomaf. These materials are characterized in order to see if they are suitable for earthen construction techniques according to current standards : The clay materials of Kasangulu possess mineralogical characteristics (mineralogical composition), physical (density, natural water content, particle size, plasticity index) and geotechnical (compressive strength and flexural strength) that make them more conducive to compressed earth construction (adobe and BTC). Materials of Lutendele and Ndjili Cecomaf are characterized by mineralogical, physical and geotechnical parameters that make them more conducive to the construction of molded earth (adobe, mortar, bauge). [less ▲]

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See detailDétection des sauts de cycles en mode multi-fréquence pour le système Galileo
Van de Vyvere, Laura ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

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See detailLearning Artificial Intelligence in Large-Scale Video Games: A First Case Study with Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft
Taralla, David ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Over the past twenty years, video games have become more and more complex thanks to the emergence of new computing technologies. The challenges players face now involve the simultaneous consideration of ... [more ▼]

Over the past twenty years, video games have become more and more complex thanks to the emergence of new computing technologies. The challenges players face now involve the simultaneous consideration of many game environment variables — they usually wander in rich 3D environments and have the choice to take numerous actions at any time, and taking an action has combinatorial consequences. However, the artificial intelligence (AI) featured in those games is often not complex enough to feel natural (human). Today's AI is still most of the time hard-coded, but as the game environments become increasingly complex, this task becomes exponentially difficult. To circumvent this issue and come with rich autonomous agents in large-scale video games, many research works already tried and succeeded in making video game AI learn instead of being taught. This thesis does its bit towards this goal. In this work, supervised learning classification based on extremely randomized trees is attempted as a solution to the problem of selecting an action amongst the set of available ones in a given state. In particular, we place ourselves in the context where no assumptions are made on the kind of actions available and where action simulations are not possible to find out what consequences these have on the game. This approach is tested on the collectible card game Hearthstone: HoW, for which an easily-extensible simulator was built. Encouraging results were obtained when facing Nora, the resulting Mage agent, against random and scripted (medium-level) Mage players. Furthermore, besides quantitative results, a qualitative experiment showed that the agent successfully learned to exhibit a board control behavior without having been explicitly taught to do so. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete Element Method Modeling of Ball Mills - Liner Wear Evolution
Boemer, Dominik ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Ball mills, i.e. rotating cylindrical drums filled with a feed material and metal balls, also known as the charge, are a major category of grinding devices in mineral processing and cement production ... [more ▼]

Ball mills, i.e. rotating cylindrical drums filled with a feed material and metal balls, also known as the charge, are a major category of grinding devices in mineral processing and cement production. Since the grinding process is excessively energy-intensive and aggressive in terms of wear, a profiled and wear-resistant liner is installed in the mill to transfer energy to the grinding charge more efficiently and to protect the mill shell. Because of the harsh environment inside of the mill and the relatively long lifespan of its liner, the optimization of the liner by the classical way, i.e. experimental testing, is a difficult and slow process. In this thesis, a procedure for predicting the charge motion and the power draw of a ball mill based on the discrete element method (DEM) is calibrated and validated by means of photographs of the charge, and power draw measurements of a 1:5-scale laboratory mill, which were kindly provided by the company Magotteaux International S.A. . This computational method essentially renders future experimental testing unnecessary with respect to these characteristics. Based on this first method, a generic process for predicting the wear distribution and the progressive shape evolution of liner surfaces is developed and validated by the wear profiles of the shell liner in the first chamber of a 5.8 m diameter cement mill monitored during a decade by Magotteaux International S.A. . The energy dissipated by tangential damping defined by the linear spring-slider-damper DEM contact law was found to be the best fitting wear model with respect to the real wear data. The progressive update of the liner geometry by a multi-step procedure delivers relatively accurate results for liners without axial height variation while further investigations are still required for almost fully variable geometries. Nevertheless, detailed phenomena, like the creation of grooves in the liner, were for the first time numerically modeled in this thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation multiphysique de l'écoulement des glaciers : analyse et résolution numérique d'un problème couplé non linéaire
Bulthuis, Kevin ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Multiphysics modelling is concerned with systems that couple multiple physical phenomena (mechanics, heat transfer, electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, . . . ) as well as with the interaction between ... [more ▼]

Multiphysics modelling is concerned with systems that couple multiple physical phenomena (mechanics, heat transfer, electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, . . . ) as well as with the interaction between multiple individual components. Multiphysics modelling is interested in finding efficient numerical methods to deal with the coupling between the different components of a complex system. Interest in multiphysics simulations is steadily increasing as numerous current scientific problems involve multiple physical components. Among current issues, icesheet and glacier numerical models have become essential to predict the evolution of ice sheets as a result of global warming. Ice flow is usually described as a gravity-driven creep flow of a nonlinearly viscous fluid. Detailed glacier models need to account for temperature dependence of ice viscosity, which leads to a thermomechanical coupled model for ice flows. This final-year project addresses the analysis of a stationary thermomechanical glacier model as an example of a multiphysics problem. The goal will be to provide a physical, mathematical and numerical framework for future development in glaciology and in multiphysics simulations more generally. Thus this thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part addresses the physical description and modelling of glaciers. The second part is devoted to the theoretical study of numerical methods for the mechanical and thermal problems. Classical finite element methods will be presented as well as new research perspectives. The third part is concerned with the application of these multiphysics methods to an alpine glacier model. This third part highlights the importance of tightly coupled methods as new opportunities for multiphysics simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of the response of a slender structure to vortex shedding in the atmospheric boundary layer
Wertz, Freddy ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

This work is about modelling vortex induced vibrations on a 100 m height generic reinforced concrete pylon with a square cross-section and a 20 height/width ratio, vibrating in its first across-wind ... [more ▼]

This work is about modelling vortex induced vibrations on a 100 m height generic reinforced concrete pylon with a square cross-section and a 20 height/width ratio, vibrating in its first across-wind bending mode at a frequency of 0.35 Hz for a critical wind speed of 14.6 m/s. An equivalent aeroelastic model made of a copper spline modelling the dynamic behaviour and a foam blocks skin modelling the external geometry and adjusting the mass is realized. Similitude laws are discussed based on their relevance in the simulation. The model is validated through experimental modal analysis and is tested in wind tunnel uniform and boundary layer winds. 3 turbulence levels and 4 incidence angles are tested. Measured amplitudes are small (around 5 cm in full scale). The influence of turbulence is qualitatively visible in experimental results. Analytical and numerical estimation procedures are also implemented and discussed: The Eurocode norm, a harmonic load model and the spectral model of Vickery and Clark. The Eurocode approach gives the most conservative estimations and is followed by estimations from the harmonic load model having the correlation length as parameter. The spectral model gives estimations of the order of magnitude of experimental measurements in the wind tunnel for a spectral bandwidth of 0.2 and a correlation length comprised between 1 and 3 times the width of the cross-section. [less ▲]

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See detailLES ANOMALIES CONGENITALES DANS L’ESPECE BOVINE EN WALLONIE
Djebala, Salem ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Les anomalies congénitales sont devenues un sujet d’actualité en médecine vétérinaire notamment chez les ruminants. Et ce depuis l’émergence des infections virales tératogènes. Les étiologies de ces ... [more ▼]

Les anomalies congénitales sont devenues un sujet d’actualité en médecine vétérinaire notamment chez les ruminants. Et ce depuis l’émergence des infections virales tératogènes. Les étiologies de ces anomalies sont nombreuses. Elles sont d’origines infectieuses, toxiques, alimentaires, traumatiques, génétiques et plusieurs autres étiologies inconnues. Les anomalies musculo-squelettiques et de l’appareil reproducteur sont les plus fréquentes, elles représentent respectivement 51 % et 30 % des cas. Dans les tares congénitales du Blanc-bleu Belge, le nanisme est l’anomalie la plus fréquente (21 %) suivie par le syndrome de la queue tordue, la gestation prolongée et l’hamartome avec 11 %, 10 % et 8 % respectivement. Le syndrome d’arthrogrypose et palathoschisis et la dystonie musculaire congénitale sont de plus en plus rare, leurs fréquences respectives sont 5 % et 3 %. Plusieurs cas de maladie de la génisse blanche et de parésie spastique des membres postérieurs ont été observés. L’autopsie et l’échographie sont les meilleurs moyens pour le diagnostic des anomalies cardiaques congénitales. Dans la race BBB la persistance du trou de Botal est l’anomalie le plus fréquente (22 %). Le segment du coeur le plus touché par les anomalies congénitales est le ventricule droit (34 %). [less ▲]

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See detailChemin de foudre: Présences d'Arthur Rimbaud dans l'oeuvre de Julien Gracq
Fanouillère, Jean-Baptiste ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Ce mémoire se propose d'étudier l'influence de l'œuvre et du personnage d'Arthur Rimbaud sur les écrits de Julien Gracq.

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See detailAnalyse de la répartition spatiale des restes fauniques du site éémien de Caours (Somme). Apport des systèmes d'information géographique.
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a ... [more ▼]

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a large area and a recurrence Human occupation. That gave us a large amount of data about this period of Neanderthal history. We now questioning about the choice of this locality and the spatial organisation of Neanderthal. Then, spatial analysis using the Geographic Information System (GIS) appear to being a useful tool to answer it. We show the consequent availability of water, prey and tool raw material. Neanderthalians was opportunistic hunters of cervidae. There has also eat a heavier prey as aurochs and rhino by trapping or scavenging. Then Neanderthal of Caours butchering with tool made in-situ eating the meat and the marrow. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion participative en contexte de fusion/acquisition dans les PME à finalité sociale
Souply-Pierard, Fernand ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

The goal of this study is to answer the following research question: “Is participative management a determining factor in the success of the process of "mergers and acquisitions", particularly in the ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study is to answer the following research question: “Is participative management a determining factor in the success of the process of "mergers and acquisitions", particularly in the specific context of study which is that of a socially oriented SMEs? ". It will indeed matter to verify whether the participatory management can be described as such, and that through a study of the literature and a case study in a particular context - that of an Adapted Work Enterprise (ETA): the Ateliers Jean Del'Cour. It recently experienced a merger and acquisition process with another ETA, the ETA Jacqueline Orts. To do so, the case study was conducted in two parts. One of these, the qualitative part, was made with the "top" and "middle" management of the company, while the second, more quantitative, was conducted among workers from one of the absorbed sites which was most affected by this merger and acquisition process. It has been probing the question of indicators (welfare, engagement, recognition, values, participation and communication, essentially) to establish a positive link between participation and merger and acquisition. It was then discovered that such a link exists clearly and that participative management is indeed one of the determining factors in the success of a merger and acquisition process. But the discoveries of this study go further. It was highlighted that communication is the essential element of participatory management, as well as a tool than as a backdrop behind the implementation of other tools and participatory means. The communication must be implemented as soon as possible during the merger and acquisition process, it must be adapted and must be as formal as informal (informal side being very important). This is also valid for the other tools and participatory means. These findings are a real contribution for the managerial level in the specific context studied but also for all merger and acquisition processes, and an invitation to pursue more specific researches on this issue in order to provide accurate and specific answers to problems encountered by companies who experience this major change. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic model reduction of a thermocline storage integrated in a micro-scale solar power plant
Wéber, Noé ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are one of the growing technologies that will help increase the share of renewable energy in the world’s electricity production. Coupling them with a storage tank ... [more ▼]

Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are one of the growing technologies that will help increase the share of renewable energy in the world’s electricity production. Coupling them with a storage tank allows for the storage of excess energy during sunny periods to be reused during the day, hence improving the plant’s capacity factor and reducing the cost of electricity. Thermocline storage tanks are a very good compromise between cost and efficiency constraints, compared with other storage technologies. Nevertheless, powerful dynamic simulation tools are needed to model efficiently the transients linked to the intermittency of the solar source. The aim of the proposed thesis is to contribute to the development of such tools. This paper first compares existing physical deterministic models of a thermocline storage tank and a parabolic trough solar field to reduced models over four reference days. The deterministic models give accurate results with high simulation times, whereas the reduces models are fast, but loose some precision in the results. Some flaws of the simplified tank model are detected, and a third model of storage system is designed. Based on the study of numerous charging and discharging processes, the law that characterizes the evolution of the thermocline is computed and integrated in the new model. This model is then validated over the same four reference days; the dynamic update of the height of the thermocline allows this new model to fit very well any weather condition. The model developed has fixed dimensions and parameters, which limits its generality. As such, a fourth model of tank is developed, based on dimensionless numbers. This last model is validated in various conditions, and is therefore suitable to any situation, with no constraint regarding weather conditions, geometry of the tank or working fluid. The simulation time required by this model is between 75 and 180 times less than that of the first complex model, and the robustness of the model is flawless, which makes it a very powerful tool. Finally, a new control strategy for the solar power plant is assessed : it allows validation of the new model of tank in yet another set of working conditions, as well as investigation of advantages and drawbacks of one strategy over an other. An unexpected observation is that the thermocline height at the end of the day does not depend on the strategy used, even though the evolution is different in both cases. Some numerical issues that have been tackled to bring the model to a perfect robustness are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCardio-pulmonary mechanics and minimal modelling in critical care
de Bournonville, Sébastien ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

Positive pressure ventilation is a widely used support for patients in intensive care units.Their weak respiratory condition is often accompanied by a weak cardiac status and haemodya-mical instability ... [more ▼]

Positive pressure ventilation is a widely used support for patients in intensive care units.Their weak respiratory condition is often accompanied by a weak cardiac status and haemodya-mical instability. This ventilation support has significant impacts on the cardiovascular systemthat are known but not predicted nor taken into account when varying the respiratory para-meters such as the positive end-expiratory pressure. The fact is that positive end-expiratorypressure increases the intrathoracic pressure. Ultimately, this will lead to decreases in cardiacoutput and stroke volume of the left ventricle. The good parametrization of such ventilator istherefore of primary importance for the critically ill patient cares.This master’s thesis seeks to develop a new minimal model of the cardiovascular and therespiratory system that is new in terms of its cardiovascular lumped model representationand the fact that it takes into account the cardiopulmonary interactions. This new model isaimed to be implemented at bedside for real time monitoring of the patients’ cardiac status asfunction of the respiratory inputs. Its ultimate use will be prediction and active control of thisstatus to improve the work of clinicians.The physiological knowledge in terms of cardiopulmonary interactions was investigated toselect the specific behaviour that will be modelled. The mathematical representation of themodel was precisely described and was designed as a function of physiological relevancy, com-putational weight and data availability. These factors lead to the design of a three chambermodel of the cardiovascular system, focused on the left ventricle, the aorta and the vena cavawhich represent the common available data in ICUs. This three chamber model was coupledto a single compartment model of the lung to compute the intrathoracic pressure that actson intrathoracic structures. Porcine measurements performed with the chest closed were usedto build patient specific models by fitting the model outputs to these measurements. Theconstruction of patient specific models was performed by identifying the patient-specific pa-rameter values of the model. For this purpose, the data were first processed to compute andidentify many parameters. Then an iterative optimization process was implemented to fit themodel to the specific datasets.This model was validated against the aforementioned porcine datasets. It showed physiolo-gical behaviours and reactions in a cardiovascular point of view as well as in a cardiopulmonaryinteractions point of view. By analysing the several identified parameters on the PEEP levelof each pigs, correlations between haemodynamical parameters and the PEEP level applied tothe patients were identified. It also allowed the confirmation that linear ESPVR models arenot appropriated for relatively high levels of PEEPs. The model showed the expected beha-viour of decreasing cardiac output for an increasing PEEP although not in the expected ranges.Eventually, this work opens many research hypotheses and questions in this field. Thequestion of implementing the model at bedside for real-time monitoring should be investigated.A modelling of the correlation between haemodynamic parameters and PEEP based on theresult of this work should also be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLa critique cinématographique : Analyse des contrats de lecture proposés dans la presse traditionnelle d’aujourd’hui
Krywicki, Boris ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

De nos jours, l’on constate l’existence de nombreuses alternatives à la critique cinématographique que l’on peut trouver dans la presse traditionnelle. La critique a beaucoup été chahutée au fil du temps ... [more ▼]

De nos jours, l’on constate l’existence de nombreuses alternatives à la critique cinématographique que l’on peut trouver dans la presse traditionnelle. La critique a beaucoup été chahutée au fil du temps : remise en question de la légitimité des journalistes spécialisés, soupçons d’un dénigrement du cinéma populaire, accusation d’être réservée à une élite culturelle… Le genre a changé significativement, tentant de s’adapter à une industrie en constante évolution. Aujourd’hui, l’on peut voir de nouvelles formes émerger sur Internet, de la critique en vidéo sur Youtube à l’avis succinct laissé sur un réseau social. Malgré tout, la critique traditionnelle semble s’en tenir à certains réflexes et aux fondamentaux de la fonction critique. Face à l’opposition entre ces évolutions et ce conservatisme, l’on pourrait s’interroger sur le changement des attentes des lecteurs de critiques. Sont-elles restées les mêmes que dans les années 50, aux débuts des Cahiers du cinéma ? Les réflexes des journalistes spécialisés restent-ils adaptés ? Si nouvelle forme de critique il y a, ne correspond-elle pas à de nouveaux contrats de lecture ? Il nous a semblé intéressant de scruter la critique sous le point de vue de la relation qu’elle propose à son lecteur. [less ▲]

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